Presentation on theme: ""To speak the name of the dead is to make him live again""— Presentation transcript:
"To speak the name of the dead is to make him live again"
The Pyramids are one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Decorating the Nile waterfront they loom over passing boats. They are the lasting reminders of the Pharaohs that once ruled Egypt and of the power that the nation had. There are more than eighty (80) pyramids were built around the Nile from 1600 - 2700 BC
PYRAMID OF GIZA: LOOK AT THE STATS! Total of 2.3 – 2.6 million blocks of limestone were cut out of the quarries, dressed and transported and fitted together Each block weighs average 2.5 tons – 15 tons Only error of less than 0.1% in construction of Great Pyramid Estimated Construction: 20- 80 years Original entrance of the Great Pyramid.
GREAT PYRAMIDS OF GIZA: SIZE STATS 920 meters around Nearly 10 football fields could fit within the base. The area of the base is also equal to about seven city blocks in New York City or about 13 acres.
Great Pyramid is a sundial. The shadow fell on pavements and the pavements were marked with the day of the year and the hour of the day. Great Pyramid is a giant calendar. The Egyptians could use it to measure the length of a year to three decimal places… 365.24
IN THE CHAMBER In the King’s Chamber of the Great Pyramid, laid a stone coffin that contained nothing! King Khufu had never been placed in his burial place!
POWER OF THE PYRAMID SHAPE Scientists experimented by making model pyramids and placing different types of food in them (usually food that goes bad quickly). The food stayed in good condition much longer than expected…. 1959, engineer Karel Drbal did a similar experiment with blunt razor blades. To his astonishment, Drbal found the blades actually became sharp again when stored in pyramid. He sold his idea to a company who successfully sold plastic models of pyramids.
WHY? Barriers against desert sands? Imitation of Noah’s Ark or Tower of Babel ? Filtering Reservoirs from the muddy Nile? To impress women? A gift from Queen of Sheba? Built to be converted into a granary? Keep workers busy? Standard of weights and measures? An Astronomical Observatory? A tomb for the King
EVOLUTION OF TOMBS MASTABAS: flat roofed tombs constructed out of mud bricks or stone (ca. 3100-2800bce)
MAIDUM PYRAMID Built by Pharaoh Snefru (c. 2600BC) 7 levels First pyramid with an aboveground burial chamber Today only the highest three steps are visible
BENT PYRAMID Pharoah Snefru (c. 2600BC) Gave up on Maidum pyramid when he moved his court to Dahshur First attempt at a smooth-sided pyramid Two burial chambers each with a separate enterance Snefru was never buried here
RED PYRAMID Pharoah Snefru (c. 2600 BC) 341 feet (104m) Single burial chamber accessed through two smaller ones First ‘True’ Pyramid
THE GREAT PYRAMID Pharoah Khufu (son of Snefru) c. 2550 BC. Largest pyramid ever built 2.3 million stone blocks Weigh an average of 2.5 to 15 tons each Air shafts allow Khufu Pyramid to travel to the stars?
PYRAMID OF KHAFRE Shorter than his father (Khufu) but more elaborate Home of the Sphinx What happened to the Sphinx’s nose?
Ancient Egypt civilization lasted over 3000 years. Egyptian monuments have been around so long that their monuments were ancient even in Greek and Roman times…. but one key question has always loomed: how and why were these monuments built?
WHO BUILT THE PYRAMIDS? THEORIES Limestone concrete was hauled in buckets and dumped into the pyramid mold?
WHO BUILT THE PYRAMIDS? THEORIES Most Commonly Accepted theory: When the Nile river flooded giant blocks of limestone were floated to the pyramids and levels were used to pull them up.
WHO BUILT THE PYRAMIDS? THEORIES A vortex levitated pyramid stones. This is actually supported by 10 th Century Historians. Apparently Egyptians were able to tap into a “world” grid and vibrate sound waves fast enough to allow the blocks to defy gravity
WHO BUILT THE PYRAMIDS? THEORIES The technologically superior (and extinct) people of Atlantis could of built them.
WHY DID PYRAMID BUILDING STOP? Possibly: too much time, money effort Failed in its objective to deter grave robbers. Later kings moved to the Valley of the Kings and Queens because of their natural shape.
VALLEY OF THE KINGS Hoped that the mountains would cave in allowing them to rest for eternity?
SMALL GROUP DISCUSSION Pyramids of Giza: how can one explain all the intricacies involved in the Pyramids of Giza? What is the purpose of the Sphinx? How were obelisks raised? Where are most of the obelisks from Ancient Egypt located today? Analyze: Why is there a great mystery behind many pieces of architecture from Ancient Egypt? What effect has Egyptian architecture had on the world?