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Early American Exploration. To understand the why early explorers headed west, lets examine the circumstances of the times.

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Presentation on theme: "Early American Exploration. To understand the why early explorers headed west, lets examine the circumstances of the times."— Presentation transcript:

1 Early American Exploration

2 To understand the why early explorers headed west, lets examine the circumstances of the times.

3 Administration of Thomas Jefferson

4 A Republican takes over As a Republican, Jefferson made changes As a Republican, Jefferson made changes 1. abolished internal taxes 2. reduced govt. spending 3. cut national debt in ½ 4. scaled down the army Appointed as many Republicans as possible! Appointed as many Republicans as possible!

5 Before Adams left office he secured the Judicial branch in the hands of the Federalists Before Adams left office he secured the Judicial branch in the hands of the Federalists Judiciary Act of 1801 Judiciary Act of Reduced Supreme Court from 6 to 5 Justices -Created more federal courts -Midnight appointments: last minute appointments to new courts (all Federalists) Judicial Branch

6 Father of the Supreme Court Father of the Supreme Court Midnight appointment Midnight appointment Chief Justice Chief Justice Revolutionized the Supreme Court Revolutionized the Supreme Court - established it as a legitimate branch of government = to others How? How? John Marshall

7 Marbury v. Madison 1803 William Marbury appointed as Justice of the Peace in the midnight appointments James Madison new secretary of state: refuses to deliver the appointment

8 Courts Decision Declared the Judiciary Act of 1789 (act of Congress) unconstitutional Declared the Judiciary Act of 1789 (act of Congress) unconstitutional - Constitution does not give leg. power to make executive officers perform these services Marshall and the SC had defined their power of Judicial Review : the power of the SC to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional Marshall and the SC had defined their power of Judicial Review : the power of the SC to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional Marshall is responsible for making the Judicial Branch equal to the other two branches Marshall is responsible for making the Judicial Branch equal to the other two branches

9 Louisiana Purchase Jefferson wanted the Land for his Republican dream of a Nation filled with Farmers!

10 The Facts Jefferson buys land from Napoleon Jefferson buys land from Napoleon - port of New Orleans was closed to us and we wanted access $15 million $15 million Mississippi River to Rocky Mountains Mississippi River to Rocky Mountains Doubles the size of the Country Doubles the size of the Country

11 Is This Constitutional? Jefferson believes in Strict Construction of Constitution Jefferson believes in Strict Construction of Constitution - does not give the authority to buy land The Constitution gives the Pres. the right to make treaties The Constitution gives the Pres. the right to make treaties - this can be the excuse to buy the land

12 Lewis and Clark Expedition

13 If therefore there is anything under those circumstances, in this enterprise, which would induce you to participate with me in its fatigues, its dangers and its honors, believe me there is no man on earth with whom I should feel equal pleasure in sharing them as with yourself. Lewis to Clark, June 16, 1803

14 [I] cheerfully join in in an official character as mentioned in your letter and partake of all the Dangers Difficulties & fatigues, and I anticipate the honors & rewards of the result of such an enterprise should we be successful in accomplishing it. Clark to Lewis, July 17, 1803

15 The Louisiana Purchase and the Lewis and Clark Expedition

16 Who went with Lewis and Clark?

17 Sacagawea and Jean Baptiste (Pomp)

18 Guide Guide Translator Translator Indicator of peace Indicator of peace Encounter her tribe, her brother is now chief: gives needed horses and supplies Encounter her tribe, her brother is now chief: gives needed horses and supplies

19 York Clarks slave Clarks slave Viewed as a novelty by the Natives Viewed as a novelty by the Natives - color - strength

20 They made treaties with the Indians and traded with them for supplies.

21 19 th Century Trade Items Glass beads (especially blue and white, red vermillion paint, awls, needles, fishhooks, cloth, guns, hatchets, metal knives, etc.

22 They kept detailed journals on new plants and animals

23 They saw land and experienced things that no other European had.

24

25 Significance Doubled US & US claims to Pacific NW Doubled US & US claims to Pacific NW Fur Trade Fur Trade Scientific Achievements Scientific Achievements – Plants – Animals Indian relations (civilization and/or removal) Indian relations (civilization and/or removal) Geography Geography – Mapps (with the help of) – Zebulon Pike, Stephen Long

26 Who is Zebulon Pike? an American brigadier general and explorer for whom Pikes Peak in Colorado is named. an American brigadier general and explorer for whom Pikes Peak in Colorado is named. led the Pike Expedition to explore and document the southern portion of the Louisiana territory led the Pike Expedition to explore and document the southern portion of the Louisiana territory

27 Zebulon Pike was charged with finding the sources of the Arkansas and Red Rivers, and brought back valuable descriptions of the Great Plains and the Río Grande River Valley. Zebulon Pike

28 What about John C. Freemont? Who? Another important Explorer!

29 Led multiple surveying expeditions through the western territory of the United States and beyond. In 1838 and 1839 he assisted Joseph Nicollet in exploring the lands between the Mississippi and Missouri rivers Led multiple surveying expeditions through the western territory of the United States and beyond. In 1838 and 1839 he assisted Joseph Nicollet in exploring the lands between the Mississippi and Missouri rivers John C. Freemont

30 Congress published Frémont's "Report and Map" it guided thousands of overland immigrants to Oregon and California from 1845 to 1849 Congress published Frémont's "Report and Map" it guided thousands of overland immigrants to Oregon and California from 1845 to 1849 John C. Freemont

31 In 1849 Joseph Ware published his Emigrants' Guide to California, which was largely drawn from Frémont's report, and was to guide the forty-niners through the California Gold Rush. In 1849 Joseph Ware published his Emigrants' Guide to California, which was largely drawn from Frémont's report, and was to guide the forty-niners through the California Gold Rush. John C. Freemont

32 QUESTIONS?


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