Presentation on theme: "Doctoral Education: The Next Focus of Higher Education Reforms Dr. Sybille Reichert (Zürich) Fünfte schweizerische Bologna-Tagung Université de Lausanne,"— Presentation transcript:
Doctoral Education: The Next Focus of Higher Education Reforms Dr. Sybille Reichert (Zürich) Fünfte schweizerische Bologna-Tagung Université de Lausanne, 8 March 2006
Structure of Presentation 1.Why launch another reform debate when we haven‘t finished with Bologna yet? Doctoral training debate in the context of Bologna Doctoral training debate in the context of the Lisbon Agenda & European Research Area 2.Main problems of doctoral education and proposed solutions Quality enhancement in supervision and career development Integrating structures (graduate schools etc) Skills training to increase professional relevance 3.Opportunities and challenges for Swiss Doctoral Education
The most frequently mentioned aims of the doctoral reforms in Europe Enhancing quality (supervision, mentoring, support, financial and framework conditions, duration) Increasing relevance and career attention in view of diversified research-based career paths (UK, Ireland, Sweden) Linking doctoral training to centers of research excellence (with sufficient critical mass) (Finland, Netherlands) Increasing interdisciplinary and social integration (doctoral programmes and graduate schools) Enhancing international attractiveness
Definitions: Doctoral Educ. and Research The core component of doctoral training is the advancement of new knowledge through original research. It is essentially training by not training for research. (Eurodoc 2005) Frascati definition of researchers: „professionals engaged in the conception or creation of new knowledge, products, processes, methods and systems, and in the management of the projects concerned.“ (The European Charter for Researchers) UK definition for the purposes of Research Asessment : „includes work of direct relevance to the needs of commerce and industry, as well as to the public and voluntary sectors; scholarship*; the invention and generation of ideas, images, performances and artefacts including design, where these lead to new or substantially improved insights; and the use of existing knowledge in experimental development to produce new or substantially improved materials, devices, products and processes, including design and construction. Example of a local institutional definition in the UK of Graduate education: Application of skills and knowledge to generate new knowledge Use of skills and new knowledge to e ducate others, innovate for commerce or industry
Why launch another reform debate when we haven‘t even finished with BaMa yet? 1.Doctoral training was integrated into the context of Bologna with the Berlin Communiqué (2003): „Ministers emphasise the importance of research and research training“ and ask for The promotion of interdisciplinarity An increased role and relevance of research to technological, social and cultural evolution and to the needs of society. increased mobility at the doctoral and postdoctoral levels increased cooperation in doctoral studies among universities. 2.With the definition of Master level, the transition to the doctoral level and the interrelation of Master and Doctoral level research training had to be addressed.
The European Research Area Competitiveness of European research: level of investment in R&D, mobilising industry to invest in R&D training researchers with the right competences especially for industry, concentrating excellence creating a European labour market of researchers common minimum quality standards of research training: Commission Recommendation on the European Charter for Researchers and on a Code of Conduct for the Recruitment of Researchers (March 2005). fostering international and intersectoral mobility to create more opportunities in researchers‘ careers
The problem in Europe is not the number of PhDs… Doctoral S&E Degrees by World Region All U.S Europe Asia U.S. Citizen
… but the number of researchers and the academic bias, lacking career relevance and prospects of current research training.
Distribution of Researchers over Sectors
International Competition of Research Areas and Research Training Institutions Increasing mobility of knowledge capital and knowledge based companies Increasing competition of research universities, for qualified researchers and graduates in the world and within Europe (industry and academia) More mobile students from the Far East, but also increasing quality of Chinese and Indian Institutions: necessity to select and attract the graduates with the right qualifications and offer globally competitive doctoral positions/ programmes Increasing opportunities to attract international graduates who might have gone to the US to Europe instead.
Changes in International Graduate Student Applications to U.S. Graduate Schools
Changes in International Graduate Student Applications to U.S. Graduate Schools
Main problems of doctoral education and proposed solutions
Factors hindering attractiveness of doctorate studies length of doctorate studies: delayed entry into labour market and professional life delayed individual economic/social returns uncertainty regarding successful completion, attrition rate specialisation – little attention to career prospects and frequent labour market mismatch high degree of dependence on supervisor isolation lack of finance and social security personal/family dependencies and effects
Comparative Table of the professional profile of doctoral candidates in Europe
Proposed Solutions Improve supervision (clear expectations, additional institutional support and integration into team) and create support structures Create integrating structures Introduce or enhance the career relevance and attention to career development Include taught elements and skills training Improve financial situation of doctoral candidates
UK: Quality Standards Framework for Research Degrees
Supervision Supervisor supplemented by team, additional contact points, possibility of complaints Ensure appropriate research expertise: „At least one member of the supervisory team will be currently engaged in research in the relevant discipline(s), so as to ensure that the direction and monitoring of the student's progress is informed by up to date subject knowledge and research developments.“ (UK Code of Good Practice) Ensure appropirate advisory (pedagogic) ability: „All supervisors need appropriate expertise for their role. They will wish, and institutions will require them, to engage in development of various kinds to equip them to supervise students.[…] Institutions will expect existing supervisors to demonstrate their continuing professional development through participation in a range of activities designed to support their work as supervisors. Supervisors should take the initiative in updating their knowledge and skills, supported by institutional arrangements that define and enable sharing of good practice and provide advice on effective support for different types of student. Mentoring relationships are one example of how support can be provided for supervisors.“ UK Code of Good Practice Responsibilities and expectations of supervisors and doctoral candidates clearly communicated to both parties through written guidance/ contract and in the induction process
Structures: Graduate Schools, Doctoral Programmes Long debate in Germany, Nordic Countries (since early 90ies), with new structures being introduced through funding agencies Mixed aims: support and better integration of research perspectives and opportunities for exchange Higher degree of selection, transparent recruitment and admission criteria Link to research profil of institution, method of institutional positioning Very different models and intransparent nomenclature: Graduiertenkolleg, doctoral programmes vs. PhD programmes (with Master phase integrated), Doctoral and Graduate Schools Explicit recommendation by CRUS/ HRK/ ÖRK in their common position
Career Development and Skills Training „New instruments for the career development of researchers should be introduced and implemented, thus contributing to the improvement of career prospects for researchers in Europe. […] The Commission recommends that Member States endeavour to take, wherever necessary, the crucial steps to ensure that employers or funders of researchers improve the recruitment methods and career evaluation/appraisal systems in order to create a more transparent, open, equal and internationally accepted system of recruitment and career development as a prerequisite for a genuine European labour market for researchers.“ (Com Recomm. 2005) Skills training pushed strongly in the UK and Nordic Countries (Sweden) Joint Skills Statement of Research Councils in 2000 UK government -review by Sir Gareth Roberts 2003: „….PhD students’ training should include at least 2 weeks’ dedicated training a year, principally in transferable skills….“
Example: Personal development at Philips Leaderships Competences Shows Determination to Achieve Excellent Results Focuses on the Market Finds Better Ways Demands Top Performance Inspires Commitment Develops Self and Others Functional Competences Knowledge Management Creativity and Innovation Problem Solving Architecture Style Thinking Influence Business Direction Personal Effectiveness
UK Research Councils’ Joint Skills Statement (2000) Research skills and techniques Research environment Research management Personal effectiveness Communication skills Networking and team working Career management
Example: Imperial College London
Positions, Opportunities and Challenges for Swiss Doctoral Education
Swiss Research Environment Comparing economic and scientific wealth. national science citation intensity, measured as the ratio of the citations to all papers to the national GDP, shown as a function of the national wealth intensity, or GDP per person, for the 31 nations in the comparator group. GDP and wealth intensity are given in thousands of US dollars at 1995 purchasing-power parity. Sources: Thomson ISI, OECD and the World Bank.
Doctorates per capita (100)
What about research and research training in relation to innovation performance?
Opportunities & Challenges (1) High degree of international attractiveness but also high dependence on international attractiveness because of small talent pool: Doctoral education has to maintain and extend a high profile, i.e. Enhanced role of institutions, highlighting relation to international research strengths Doctoral programmes for common profile, quality control, selection and supervision supported by committee, some overarching research methodology and optional courses Controversial issues of critical mass for excellence / centers of excellence / common offer / common infrastructure Attactiveness to individuals, Framework conditions, integration into wider interdisciplinary horizons, opening a wide range of career possibilities
National research dependent industrial sectors already import more labour force than in other countries - Need for adjustment of skills base in terms of quantity and relevance of competences? Even career options on the academic markets may raise some questions about relevant research skills. The CRUS/HRK/ÖRK CP emphasise the diversity of labour market needs that institutions have to take into account in their doctoral offer. The skills debate is relevant for Switzerland too. But what kinds of skills training should be associated with doctoral research education, without undermining independent research time and focus? Opportunities & Challenges (2)
Outlook Rigourous attention to excellence to maintain and expand the international competitiveness of Swiss research training (top in Europe) and position Switzerland as the best research environment in Europe Flexibility, flexibility, flexibility, flexibility, flexibility, For the institutional to allow for diversity of profiles For the individual to allow for different aims and personalities and creative spaces for the unforeseen