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Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter Presentation TransparenciesStandardized Test Prep Visual.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter Presentation TransparenciesStandardized Test Prep Visual."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter Presentation TransparenciesStandardized Test Prep Visual Concepts Resources

3 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Introduction to Ecology Chapter 18 Table of Contents Section 1 Introduction to Ecology Section 2 Ecology of Organisms Section 3 Energy Transfer Section 4 Ecosystem Recycling

4 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Introduction to Ecology Chapter 18 Objectives Identify a key theme in ecology. Describe an example showing the effects of interdependence upon organisms in their environment. Identify the importance of models to ecology. State the five different levels of organization at which ecology can be studied.

5 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Introduction to Ecology Chapter 18 Interdependence: A Key Theme in Ecology Organisms and Their Environments –Species interact with both other species and their nonliving environment. –Interdependence is a theme in ecologyone change can affect all species in an ecosystem.

6 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Introduction to Ecology Chapter 18 Ecological Models Ecological models help to explain the environment.

7 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 18 Making an Ecosystem Model Section 1 Introduction to Ecology

8 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Introduction to Ecology Chapter 18 Levels of Organization Ecologists recognize a hierarchy of organization in the environment: biosphere, ecosystem, community, population, and organism.

9 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 18 Levels of Organization Section 1 Introduction to Ecology

10 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Introduction to Ecology Chapter 18 Levels of Organization, continued The Biosphere –The broadest, most inclusive level of organization is the biosphere, the volume of Earth and its atmosphere that supports life.

11 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Introduction to Ecology Chapter 18 Levels of Organization, continued Ecosystems –The biosphere is composed of smaller units called ecosystems. –An ecosystem includes all of the organisms and the nonliving environment found in a particular place.

12 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 18 Ecosystem Section 1 Introduction to Ecology

13 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Introduction to Ecology Chapter 18 Levels of Organization, continued Communities, Populations, and Organisms –A community is all the interacting organisms living in an area. –Below the community level of organization is the population level, where the focus is on the individual organisms of a single species.

14 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 18 Community Section 1 Introduction to Ecology

15 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Ecology of Organisms Chapter 18 Objectives Compare abiotic factors with biotic factors, and list two examples of each. Describe two mechanisms that allow organisms to survive in a changing environment. Explain the concept of the niche.

16 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Ecology of Organisms Chapter 18 Ecosystem Components Biotic and Abiotic Factors –Both biotic, or living, factors and abiotic, or nonliving, factors influence organisms. Examples of abiotic factors are climate, sunlight, and pH.

17 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 18 Comparing Biotic and Abiotic Factors Section 2 Ecology of Organisms

18 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Ecology of Organisms Chapter 18 Organisms in a Changing Environment Acclimation –Some organisms can adjust their tolerance to abiotic factors through the process of acclimation.

19 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Ecology of Organisms Chapter 18 Organisms in a Changing Environment, continued Control of Internal Conditions –Conformers are organisms that do not regulate their internal conditions; they change as their external environment changes. –Regulators use energy to control some of their internal conditions.

20 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Ecology of Organisms Chapter 18 Organisms in a Changing Environment, continued Escape from Unsuitable Conditions –Some species survive unfavorable environmental conditions by becoming dormant or by migrating.

21 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Ecology of Organisms Chapter 18 The Niche A niche is a way of life, or a role in an ecosystem.

22 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 18 Earthworm Niche Section 2 Ecology Of Organisms

23 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 18 Niche Section 2 Ecology of Organisms

24 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Energy Transfer Chapter 18 Objectives Summarize the role of producers in an ecosystem. Identify several kinds of consumers in an ecosystem. Explain the important role of decomposers in an ecosystem. Compare the concept of a food chain with that of a food web. Explain why ecosystems usually contain only a few trophic levels.

25 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Energy Transfer Chapter 18 Producers Most producers are photosynthetic and make carbohydrates by using energy from the sun.

26 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Energy Transfer Chapter 18 Producers, continued Measuring Productivity –Gross primary productivity is the rate at which producers in an ecosystem capture the energy of sunlight by producing organic compounds. –The rate at which biomass accumulates is called net primary productivity.

27 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Energy Transfer Chapter 18 Consumers Consumers obtain energy by eating other organisms and include herbivores, omnivores, carnivores, detritivores, and decomposers.

28 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 18 Comparing Consumers and Producers Section 3 Energy Transfer

29 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Energy Transfer Chapter 18 Energy Flow Food Chains and Food Webs –A single pathway of energy transfer is a food chain. –A network showing all paths of energy transfer is a food web.

30 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 18 Food Chains and Food Webs Section 3 Energy Transfer

31 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 18 Food Chain in an Antarctic Ecosystem Section 3 Energy Transfer

32 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 18 Food Web in an Antarctic Ecosystem Section 3 Energy Transfer

33 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Energy Transfer Chapter 18 Energy Flow, continued Energy Transfer –Ecosystems contain only a few trophic levels because there is a low rate of energy transfer between each level.

34 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 18 Energy Transfer Through Trophic Levels Section 3 Energy Transfer

35 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 18 Energy Pyramid Section 3 Energy Transfer

36 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 4 Ecosystem Recycling Chapter 18 Objectives List four major biogeochemical cycles. Summarize three important processes in the water cycle. Outline the major steps in the carbon cycle. Describe the role of decomposers in the nitrogen cycle. Summarize the major steps of the phosphorus cycle.

37 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 4 Ecosystem Recycling Chapter 18 The Water/Hydrological Cycle Key processes in the water cycle are evaporation, transpiration, and precipitation.

38 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 18 Water or Hydrological Cycle Section 4 Ecosystem Recycling

39 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 18 Water/Hydrological Cycle Section 4 Ecosystem Recycling

40 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 4 Ecosystem Recycling Chapter 18 The Carbon Cycle Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are the two main steps in the carbon cycle.

41 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 18 Carbon Cycle Section 4 Ecosystem Recycling

42 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 18 Carbon Cycle Section 4 Ecosystem Recycling

43 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 4 Ecosystem Recycling Chapter 18 Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen-fixing bacteria are important in the nitrogen cycle because they change nitrogen gas into a usable form of nitrogen for plants.

44 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 18 Nitrogen Cycle Section 4 Ecosystem Recycling

45 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter 18 Nitrogen Cycle Section 4 Ecosystem Recycling

46 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 4 Ecosystem Recycling Chapter 18 Phosphorus Cycle In the phosphorus cycle, phosphorus moves from phosphate deposited in rock, to the soil, to living organisms, and finally to the ocean.

47 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice 1. What are the levels of organization in ecology? A. cell, tissue, organ, organ system, body B. organ, organism, population, community C. organism, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere D. population, habitat, ecosystem, biogeochemical system, planet Standardized Test Prep Chapter 18

48 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 1. What are the levels of organization in ecology? A. cell, tissue, organ, organ system, body B. organ, organism, population, community C. organism, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere D. population, habitat, ecosystem, biogeochemical system, planet Standardized Test Prep Chapter 18

49 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 2. What makes up an ecosystem? F. all the habitat types on Earth G. all parts of Earth where life exists H. all members of a species in the same area J. all the living and nonliving factors in an environment Standardized Test Prep Chapter 18

50 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 2. What makes up an ecosystem? F. all the habitat types on Earth G. all parts of Earth where life exists H. all members of a species in the same area J. all the living and nonliving factors in an environment Standardized Test Prep Chapter 18

51 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 3. Which of the following are abiotic factors? A. plants B. animals C. sunlight D. microorganisms Standardized Test Prep Chapter 18

52 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 3. Which of the following are abiotic factors? A. plants B. animals C. sunlight D. microorganisms Standardized Test Prep Chapter 18

53 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 4. How do decomposers benefit an ecosystem? F. by returning nutrients to the soil G. by manufacturing energy from sunlight H. by removing excess nutrients from the soil J. by removing predators from the ecosystem Standardized Test Prep Chapter 18

54 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 4. How do decomposers benefit an ecosystem? F. by returning nutrients to the soil G. by manufacturing energy from sunlight H. by removing excess nutrients from the soil J. by removing predators from the ecosystem Standardized Test Prep Chapter 18

55 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 5. Which organisms are most critical in the nitrogen cycle? A. plants B. nitrates C. animals D. bacteria Standardized Test Prep Chapter 18

56 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 5. Which organisms are most critical in the nitrogen cycle? A. plants B. nitrates C. animals D. bacteria Standardized Test Prep Chapter 18

57 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued Use the illustration below to answer question 6. The illustration represents a trophic pyramid. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 18

58 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 6. What is the term for the kinds of organisms that make up the trophic level labeled C? F. producers G. consumers H. detritivores J. decomposers Standardized Test Prep Chapter 18

59 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 6. What is the term for the kinds of organisms that make up the trophic level labeled C? F. producers G. consumers H. detritivores J. decomposers Standardized Test Prep Chapter 18

60 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued Complete the following analogy: 7. bear : omnivore :: vulture : A. producer B. herbivore C. detritivore D. decomposer Standardized Test Prep Chapter 18

61 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued Complete the following analogy: 7. bear : omnivore :: vulture : A. producer B. herbivore C. detritivore D. decomposer Standardized Test Prep Chapter 18

62 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued Use the illustration to answer question 8. The illustration represents a food chain. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 18

63 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 8. What role do the krill have in this food chain? F. They are producers. G. They are consumers. H. They are detritivores. J. They are decomposers. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 18

64 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 8. What role do the krill have in this food chain? F. They are producers. G. They are consumers. H. They are detritivores. J. They are decomposers. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 18

65 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Short Response Give two reasons why the destruction of tropical rain forests can contribute to an increase in carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 18

66 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Short Response, continued Give two reasons why the destruction of tropical rain forests can contribute to an increase in carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Answer: The burning of vegetation releases CO 2 into the atmosphere and removes plants that could have absorbed the CO 2 already in the atmosphere. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 18

67 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Standardized Test Prep Chapter 18 Extended Response Base your answers to parts A & B on the information below. Some species are generalized with regard to their niche, and other species are specialized. Part A Compare the niche of a generalist species with one of a specialist species. Part B Predict how two different herbivores can share the same plant resource.

68 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Standardized Test Prep Chapter 18 Extended Response, continued Answer: Part A Generalist species have a broad niche, as they can tolerate a wide range of conditions and use a wide variety of resources. Specialist species can only use specific resources and have more narrowly defined niches. Part B Two herbivores might eat different parts of the plant, or might eat the plant at different times of the year.


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