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Looking to the West (1860-1900).

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Presentation on theme: "Looking to the West (1860-1900)."— Presentation transcript:

1 Looking to the West ( )

2 The Life of the Plains Indians
Eastern settlers changed the lives of N. A. on the Great Plains Indians & French traded buffalo hides for guns, making hunting easier Horses made N. A. warfare much more intense and violent Many N. A. became nomads b/c of the horse. Became more mobile to follow food sources Warrior societies led to much more violence and instability

3 Indian Wars and Government Policy
N.A. lived on traditional lands W. of Mississippi N. A. viewed settlers as invaders, Settlers took land from N. A. (Settlers vs. N.A. = invaders vs. owners) Gov’t treaties forced N. A. onto reservations Settlers ignored treaties Acts of violence led to cycles of revenge. Both sides guilty.

4 Brutality, Unfulfilled Promises, and Butchery
Treaties: Medicine Lodge Treaty of 1867 Fort Laramie Treaty (1868) Most Indians angered by the treaties By 1868, war parties were raiding cities in Kansas and Colorado In response, army troops killed any Indians who refused to stay on reservations

5 Medicine Lodge Treaty of 1867
The Medicine Lodge Treaty is the overall name for three treaties signed between the United States government and southern Plains Indian tribes in October 1867 Under the Medicine Lodge Treaty, the tribes were assigned reservations of diminished size compared to territories defined in an 1865 treaty  the Congress effectively further reduced their reservation territory

6 Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868)
In the treaty, as part of the U.S. vendetta to "divide and conquer", the U.S. included all Ponca lands in the Great Sioux Reservation. Conflict between the Ponca and the Sioux/Lakota, who now claimed the land as their own by U.S. law, forced the U.S. to remove the Ponca from their own ancestral lands in Nebraska to poor land in Oklahoma. The treaty includes an article intended to "ensure the civilization“… minors should be provided with an "English education" at a "mission building."

7 Key Events in the Indian Wars, 1861-1890
Native American Nations/Homelands Key Players Description/Outcome Apache and Navajo Wars ( ) Apache in Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado territories; Navajo in New Mexico, Colorado territories Geronimo Col. Christopher “Kit” Carson Carson kills or relocates many Apache to reservations in Clashes drag on until Geronmino’s surrender in Navajo told to surrender in 1863, but before they can, Carson attacks, killing hundreds, destroying homelands. Navajos moved to New Mexico reservation in 1865. Sand Creek Massacre (1864) Southern Cheyeene, Arapaho, in central plains Black Kettle Col. John Chivington Cheyenne massacres prompt Chivington to kill up to 500 surrendered Cheyenne and Arapaho led by Black Kettle. Red River War ( ) Comanche and southern branches of Cheyenne, Kiowa, and Arapaho, in southern plains Comanche war parties Gen. William T. Sherman Lt. Gen. Philip H. Sheridan Southern plains Indians relocated to Oklahoma Indian Territory under 1867 Treaty of Medicin Lodge. After buffalo hunters destroy the Indians food supply, Comanche warriors race to buffalo grazing areas in Texas panhandle to kill hunters. Sherman and Sheridan defeat warriors and open panhandle to cattle ranching. Wars/Battles

8 Key Events in the Indian Wars, 1861-1890
Wars/Battles Native American Nations/Homelands Key Players Description/Outcome Battle of Little Bighorn (1876) Northern plains Sioux in Dakota, Wyoming, and Montana territorries Sitting Bull Crazy Horse Red Cloud Lt. Col. George A. Custer U.S. tries to buy gold-rich Black Hills from Sioux. Talks fail. Custer’s 7th Cavalry is sent to round up Sioux, but meets huge enemy force. Custer and some 200 men perish in “Custer’s Last Stand.” Nez Perce War (1877) Largest branch of Nez Perce, in Wallowa Valley of Idaho and Washington territories and Oregon Chief Joseph Gen. Oliver O. Howard Col. Nelson Miles Howard orders Nez Perce to Idaho reservation; violence erupts. Joseph leads some 700 men, women, and children on 1,400-mile flight. His 200 warriors hold off Miles’s 2,000 soldiers until halted 40 miles short of Canada. Sent to Indian Territory, many die of disease. In 1885, survivors moved to reservation in Washington Territory. Battle of Wounded Knee (1890) Sioux at Pine Ridge Reservation, South Dakota U.S. 7th Cavalry Ghost Dance raises fears of Sioux uprising; Sitting Bull killed in attempted arrest. His followers surrender and camp at Wounded Knee. Shots are fired; some 200 Sioux die.

9 page787.jpg Map: Indian Wars,

10 Warring Sioux Several Sioux tribes fought to stay on their land and protect their hunting grounds Raided settlements and harassed miners Sitting Bull Leader of non-treaty Sioux Strong fighting expertise Non-treaty: had not signed any treaty with the u.s. gov to stay on reservations

11 Rising Tensions in the West

12 Sand Creek (1864) •US army massacred Cheyenne, Arapahoe
Older men, women, And children. •Eastern Colorado

13 General George Armstrong Custer
General in the Civil War Infamous Indian fighter during the Sioux Wars Wanted to find gold in Black Hills Defeated in the Battle at Little Bighorn (1876) Black Hills expedition: pushed by the Northern Pacific Railroad

14 The Sioux Wars The Sioux Wars were a series of conflicts between the United States and various subgroups of the Sioux people that occurred in the later half of the 19th century.

15 Sitting Bull  was a holy man who led his people as a tribal chief during years of resistance to United States government policies. Sitting Bull's leadership motivated his people to a major victory. He was killed by Indian agency police on the Standing Rock Indian Reservation during an attempt to arrest him

16 Little Bighorn Army moved to assault roaming Sioux in 1876
600 troops marched on Little Bighorn River Custer separated his men and sent half of his forces straight into battle This group and the rest were wiped out by Cheyenne and Sioux Defeat angered the army who became even more ruthless Army moved to assault roaming Sioux: after negotiations to buy the Black Hills broke down

17 Battle of the Little Bighorn (Custer’s Last Stand)

18 The Little Bighorn today

19 19_19.jpg Scene of Custer's last stand

20 Wounded Knee Creek The Ghost Dance December 29, 1890
In honor of Wovoka December 29, 1890 Seventh cavalry was sent to round up a group of Indians at Wounded Knee when an ‘excited’ Indian fired a shot The soldiers then open fired More than 300 Indians killed in minutes Show movie clip

21 “Saving” the Indians More and more Americans disagreed with Government Indian policies The Women’s National Indian Rights Association Century of Dishonor by Helen Hunt Jackson They thought breaking up the reservations and assimilating the Indians into society was the best thing Dawes Severalty Act Gave individuals acreages of land and made them citizens of the U.S. Assimilating: they wanted to get rid of Indian culture to get rid of the “Indian Problem” Picture: the phoenix indian school

22 Attempts to Change Native American Culture
Many people believed that Native Americans needed to give up their traditions and culture, learn English, become Christians, adopt white dress and customs, and support themselves by farming and trades. This policy is called assimilation, the process by which one society becomes a part of another, more dominant society by adopting its culture. In 1887 the Dawes Act divided reservation land into individual plots. Each family headed by a man received 160 acres. Many Native Americans did not believe in the concept of individual property, nor did they want to farm the land. For some, the practices of farming went against their notion of ecology. Some had no experience in agriculture. Between 1887 and 1932, some two thirds of this land became white owned.

23 Assimilation and the Indian Schools
Carlisle, PA, other sites around the U.S. Genoa, Nebraska Attempted to ‘save the Indian’ by making them assimilate into American culture, manners and customs Formed by people who empathized with the plight of the Indians and wanted a “humanitarian” solution

24 Before and After

25 The Opening of Indian Territory
Fifty five Indian nations were forced into Indian Territory, the largest unsettled farmland in the United States. During the 1880s, squatters overran the land, and Congress agreed to buy out the Indian claims to the region. On April 22, 1889, tens of thousands of homesteaders lined up at the territory’s borders to stake claims on the land.

26 The Opening of Indian Territory
By sundown, settlers called boomers had staked claims on almost 2 million acres. Many boomers discovered that some of the best lands had been grabbed by sooners, people who had sneaked past the government officials earlier to mark their claims. Under continued pressure from settlers, Congress created Oklahoma Territory in In the following years, the remainder of Indian Territory was open to settlement.

27 Oklahoma Land Rush (1889) Oklahoma was “Indian Territory” given to the five civilized tribes. They sided with the Confederacy, the government took land as punishment 2 million acres free for settlement Free land was considered instant prosperity, but droughts would make many farms fail

28 By 1900 Most Indians had been driven onto reservations
Reduced from 1/4 million to 1 hundred thousand The culture still survives

29 QUESTIONS?


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