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Looking to the West (1860-1900). The Life of the Plains Indians Eastern settlers changed the lives of N. A. on the Great Plains Eastern settlers changed.

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Presentation on theme: "Looking to the West (1860-1900). The Life of the Plains Indians Eastern settlers changed the lives of N. A. on the Great Plains Eastern settlers changed."— Presentation transcript:

1 Looking to the West ( )

2 The Life of the Plains Indians Eastern settlers changed the lives of N. A. on the Great Plains Eastern settlers changed the lives of N. A. on the Great Plains Indians & French traded buffalo hides for guns, making hunting easier Indians & French traded buffalo hides for guns, making hunting easier Horses made N. A. warfare much more intense and violent Horses made N. A. warfare much more intense and violent Many N. A. became nomads b/c of the horse. Became more mobile to follow food sources Many N. A. became nomads b/c of the horse. Became more mobile to follow food sources Warrior societies led to much more violence and instability Warrior societies led to much more violence and instability

3 Indian Wars and Government Policy N.A. lived on traditional lands W. of Mississippi N.A. lived on traditional lands W. of Mississippi N. A. viewed settlers as invaders, Settlers took land from N. A. N. A. viewed settlers as invaders, Settlers took land from N. A. (Settlers vs. N.A. = invaders vs. owners) (Settlers vs. N.A. = invaders vs. owners) Govt treaties forced N. A. onto reservations Govt treaties forced N. A. onto reservations Settlers ignored treaties Settlers ignored treaties Acts of violence led to cycles of revenge. Both sides guilty. Acts of violence led to cycles of revenge. Both sides guilty.

4 Brutality, Unfulfilled Promises, and Butchery Treaties: Treaties: Medicine Lodge Treaty of 1867 Medicine Lodge Treaty of 1867 Fort Laramie Treaty (1868) Fort Laramie Treaty (1868) Most Indians angered by the treaties Most Indians angered by the treaties By 1868, war parties were raiding cities in Kansas and Colorado By 1868, war parties were raiding cities in Kansas and Colorado In response, army troops killed any Indians who refused to stay on reservations In response, army troops killed any Indians who refused to stay on reservations

5 Medicine Lodge Treaty of 1867 The Medicine Lodge Treaty is the overall name for three treaties signed between the United States government and southern Plains Indian tribes in October 1867 The Medicine Lodge Treaty is the overall name for three treaties signed between the United States government and southern Plains Indian tribes in October 1867 Under the Medicine Lodge Treaty, the tribes were assigned reservations of diminished size compared to territories defined in an 1865 treaty Under the Medicine Lodge Treaty, the tribes were assigned reservations of diminished size compared to territories defined in an 1865 treaty the Congress effectively further reduced their reservation territory the Congress effectively further reduced their reservation territory

6 Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868) In the treaty, as part of the U.S. vendetta to "divide and conquer", the U.S. included all Ponca lands in the Great Sioux Reservation. In the treaty, as part of the U.S. vendetta to "divide and conquer", the U.S. included all Ponca lands in the Great Sioux Reservation. Conflict between the Ponca and the Sioux/Lakota, who now claimed the land as their own by U.S. law, forced the U.S. to remove the Ponca from their own ancestral lands in Nebraska to poor land in Oklahoma. Conflict between the Ponca and the Sioux/Lakota, who now claimed the land as their own by U.S. law, forced the U.S. to remove the Ponca from their own ancestral lands in Nebraska to poor land in Oklahoma. The treaty includes an article intended to "ensure the civilization… The treaty includes an article intended to "ensure the civilization… minors should be provided with an "English education" at a "mission building." minors should be provided with an "English education" at a "mission building."

7 Key Events in the Indian Wars, Native American Nations/Homelands Key Players Description/Outcome Apache and Navajo Wars ( ) Apache in Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado territories; Navajo in New Mexico, Colorado territories GeronimoGeronimo Col. Christopher Kit CarsonCol. Christopher Kit Carson Carson kills or relocates many Apache to reservations in Clashes drag on until Geronminos surrender in Navajo told to surrender in 1863, but before they can, Carson attacks, killing hundreds, destroying homelands. Navajos moved to New Mexico reservation in Sand Creek Massacre (1864) Southern Cheyeene, Arapaho, in central plains Black KettleBlack Kettle Col. John ChivingtonCol. John Chivington Cheyenne massacres prompt Chivington to kill up to 500 surrendered Cheyenne and Arapaho led by Black Kettle. Red River War ( ) Comanche and southern branches of Cheyenne, Kiowa, and Arapaho, in southern plains Comanche war partiesComanche war parties Gen. William T. ShermanGen. William T. Sherman Lt. Gen. Philip H. SheridanLt. Gen. Philip H. Sheridan Southern plains Indians relocated to Oklahoma Indian Territory under 1867 Treaty of Medicin Lodge. After buffalo hunters destroy the Indians food supply, Comanche warriors race to buffalo grazing areas in Texas panhandle to kill hunters. Sherman and Sheridan defeat warriors and open panhandle to cattle ranching. Wars/Battles

8 Key Events in the Indian Wars, Wars/Battles Native American Nations/Homelands Key Players Description/Outcome Battle of Little Bighorn (1876) Northern plains Sioux in Dakota, Wyoming, and Montana territorries Sitting BullSitting Bull Crazy HorseCrazy Horse Red CloudRed Cloud Lt. Col. GeorgeLt. Col. George A. Custer A. Custer U.S. tries to buy gold-rich Black Hills from Sioux. Talks fail. Custers 7th Cavalry is sent to round up Sioux, but meets huge enemy force. Custer and some 200 men perish in Custers Last Stand. Nez Perce War (1877) Largest branch of Nez Perce, in Wallowa Valley of Idaho and Washington territories and Oregon Chief JosephChief Joseph Gen. Oliver O. HowardGen. Oliver O. Howard Col. Nelson MilesCol. Nelson Miles Howard orders Nez Perce to Idaho reservation; violence erupts. Joseph leads some 700 men, women, and children on 1,400-mile flight. His 200 warriors hold off Miless 2,000 soldiers until halted 40 miles short of Canada. Sent to Indian Territory, many die of disease. In 1885, survivors moved to reservation in Washington Territory. Battle of Wounded Knee (1890) Sioux at Pine Ridge Reservation, South Dakota Sitting BullSitting Bull U.S. 7thU.S. 7th Cavalry Cavalry Ghost Dance raises fears of Sioux uprising; Sitting Bull killed in attempted arrest. His followers surrender and camp at Wounded Knee. Shots are fired; some 200 Sioux die.

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10 Warring Sioux Several Sioux tribes fought to stay on their land and protect their hunting grounds Several Sioux tribes fought to stay on their land and protect their hunting grounds Raided settlements and harassed miners Raided settlements and harassed miners Sitting Bull Sitting Bull Leader of non-treaty Sioux Leader of non-treaty Sioux Strong fighting expertise Strong fighting expertise

11 Rising Tensions in the West

12 Sand Creek (1864) US army massacred Cheyenne, Arapahoe Older men, women, And children. Eastern Colorado

13 General George Armstrong Custer General in the Civil War General in the Civil War Infamous Indian fighter during the Sioux Wars Infamous Indian fighter during the Sioux Wars Wanted to find gold in Black Hills Wanted to find gold in Black Hills Defeated in the Battle at Little Bighorn (1876) Defeated in the Battle at Little Bighorn (1876)

14 The Sioux Wars were a series of conflicts between the United States and various subgroups of the Sioux people that occurred in the later half of the 19th century. The Sioux Wars

15 Sitting Bull was a holy man who led his people as a tribal chief during years of resistance to United States government policies. was a holy man who led his people as a tribal chief during years of resistance to United States government policies. Sitting Bull's leadership motivated his people to a major victory. Sitting Bull's leadership motivated his people to a major victory. He was killed by Indian agency police on the Standing Rock Indian Reservation during an attempt to arrest him He was killed by Indian agency police on the Standing Rock Indian Reservation during an attempt to arrest him

16 Little Bighorn Army moved to assault roaming Sioux in 1876 Army moved to assault roaming Sioux in troops marched on Little Bighorn River 600 troops marched on Little Bighorn River Custer separated his men and sent half of his forces straight into battle Custer separated his men and sent half of his forces straight into battle This group and the rest were wiped out by Cheyenne and Sioux This group and the rest were wiped out by Cheyenne and Sioux Defeat angered the army who became even more ruthless Defeat angered the army who became even more ruthless

17 Battle of the Little Bighorn (Custers Last Stand)

18 The Little Bighorn today

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20 Wounded Knee Creek The Ghost Dance The Ghost Dance In honor of Wovoka In honor of Wovoka December 29, 1890 December 29, 1890 Seventh cavalry was sent to round up a group of Indians at Wounded Knee when an excited Indian fired a shot Seventh cavalry was sent to round up a group of Indians at Wounded Knee when an excited Indian fired a shot The soldiers then open fired The soldiers then open fired More than 300 Indians killed in minutes More than 300 Indians killed in minutes

21 Saving the Indians More and more Americans disagreed with Government Indian policies More and more Americans disagreed with Government Indian policies The Womens National Indian Rights Association The Womens National Indian Rights Association Century of Dishonor by Helen Hunt Jackson Century of Dishonor by Helen Hunt Jackson They thought breaking up the reservations and assimilating the Indians into society was the best thing They thought breaking up the reservations and assimilating the Indians into society was the best thing Dawes Severalty Act Dawes Severalty Act Gave individuals acreages Gave individuals acreages of land and made them of land and made them citizens of the U.S. citizens of the U.S.

22 Attempts to Change Native American Culture Many people believed that Native Americans needed to give up their traditions and culture, learn English, become Christians, adopt white dress and customs, and support themselves by farming and trades. Many people believed that Native Americans needed to give up their traditions and culture, learn English, become Christians, adopt white dress and customs, and support themselves by farming and trades. This policy is called assimilation, the process by which one society becomes a part of another, more dominant society by adopting its culture. This policy is called assimilation, the process by which one society becomes a part of another, more dominant society by adopting its culture. In 1887 the Dawes Act divided reservation land into individual plots. Each family headed by a man received 160 acres. In 1887 the Dawes Act divided reservation land into individual plots. Each family headed by a man received 160 acres. Many Native Americans did not believe in the concept of individual property, nor did they want to farm the land. For some, the practices of farming went against their notion of ecology. Some had no experience in agriculture. Many Native Americans did not believe in the concept of individual property, nor did they want to farm the land. For some, the practices of farming went against their notion of ecology. Some had no experience in agriculture. Between 1887 and 1932, some two thirds of this land became white owned. Between 1887 and 1932, some two thirds of this land became white owned.

23 Assimilation and the Indian Schools Carlisle, PA, other sites around the U.S. Carlisle, PA, other sites around the U.S. Genoa, Nebraska Genoa, Nebraska Attempted to save the Indian by making them assimilate into American culture, manners and customs Attempted to save the Indian by making them assimilate into American culture, manners and customs Formed by people who empathized with the plight of the Indians and wanted a humanitarian solution Formed by people who empathized with the plight of the Indians and wanted a humanitarian solution

24 Before and After

25 The Opening of Indian Territory Fifty five Indian nations were forced into Indian Territory, the largest unsettled farmland in the United States. Fifty five Indian nations were forced into Indian Territory, the largest unsettled farmland in the United States. During the 1880s, squatters overran the land, and Congress agreed to buy out the Indian claims to the region. During the 1880s, squatters overran the land, and Congress agreed to buy out the Indian claims to the region. On April 22, 1889, tens of thousands of homesteaders lined up at the territorys borders to stake claims on the land. On April 22, 1889, tens of thousands of homesteaders lined up at the territorys borders to stake claims on the land.

26 The Opening of Indian Territory By sundown, settlers called boomers had staked claims on almost 2 million acres. By sundown, settlers called boomers had staked claims on almost 2 million acres. Many boomers discovered that some of the best lands had been grabbed by sooners, people who had sneaked past the government officials earlier to mark their claims. Many boomers discovered that some of the best lands had been grabbed by sooners, people who had sneaked past the government officials earlier to mark their claims. Under continued pressure from settlers, Congress created Oklahoma Territory in In the following years, the remainder of Indian Territory was open to settlement. Under continued pressure from settlers, Congress created Oklahoma Territory in In the following years, the remainder of Indian Territory was open to settlement.

27 Oklahoma Land Rush (1889) Oklahoma was Indian Territory given to the five civilized tribes. Oklahoma was Indian Territory given to the five civilized tribes. They sided with the Confederacy, the government took land as punishment They sided with the Confederacy, the government took land as punishment 2 million acres free for settlement 2 million acres free for settlement Free land was considered instant prosperity, but droughts would make many farms fail Free land was considered instant prosperity, but droughts would make many farms fail

28 By 1900 Most Indians had been driven onto reservations Most Indians had been driven onto reservations Reduced from 1/4 million to 1 hundred thousand Reduced from 1/4 million to 1 hundred thousand The culture still survives The culture still survives

29 QUESTIONS?


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