2 The Life of the Plains Indians Eastern settlers changed the lives of N. A. on the Great PlainsIndians & French traded buffalo hides for guns, making hunting easierHorses made N. A. warfare much more intense and violentMany N. A. became nomads b/c of the horse. Became more mobile to follow food sourcesWarrior societies led to much more violence and instability
3 Indian Wars and Government Policy N.A. lived on traditional lands W. of MississippiN. A. viewed settlers as invaders, Settlers took land from N. A.(Settlers vs. N.A. = invaders vs. owners)Gov’t treaties forced N. A. onto reservationsSettlers ignored treatiesActs of violence led to cycles of revenge. Both sides guilty.
4 Brutality, Unfulfilled Promises, and Butchery Treaties:Medicine Lodge Treaty of 1867Fort Laramie Treaty (1868)Most Indians angered by the treatiesBy 1868, war parties were raiding cities in Kansas and ColoradoIn response, army troops killed any Indians who refused to stay on reservations
5 Medicine Lodge Treaty of 1867 The Medicine Lodge Treaty is the overall name for three treaties signed between the United States government and southern Plains Indian tribes in October 1867Under the Medicine Lodge Treaty, the tribes were assigned reservations of diminished size compared to territories defined in an 1865 treaty the Congress effectively further reduced their reservation territory
6 Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868) In the treaty, as part of the U.S. vendetta to "divide and conquer", the U.S. included all Ponca lands in the Great Sioux Reservation.Conflict between the Ponca and the Sioux/Lakota, who now claimed the land as their own by U.S. law, forced the U.S. to remove the Ponca from their own ancestral lands in Nebraska to poor land in Oklahoma.The treaty includes an article intended to "ensure the civilization“…minors should be provided with an "English education" at a "mission building."
7 Key Events in the Indian Wars, 1861-1890 Native AmericanNations/HomelandsKey PlayersDescription/OutcomeApache and Navajo Wars ( )Apache in Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado territories; Navajo in New Mexico, Colorado territoriesGeronimoCol. Christopher “Kit” CarsonCarson kills or relocates many Apache to reservations in Clashes drag on until Geronmino’s surrender in Navajo told to surrender in 1863, but before they can, Carson attacks, killing hundreds, destroying homelands. Navajos moved to New Mexico reservation in 1865.Sand Creek Massacre (1864)Southern Cheyeene, Arapaho, in central plainsBlack KettleCol. John ChivingtonCheyenne massacres prompt Chivington to kill up to 500 surrendered Cheyenne and Arapaho led by Black Kettle.Red River War ( )Comanche and southern branches of Cheyenne, Kiowa, and Arapaho, in southern plainsComanche war partiesGen. William T. ShermanLt. Gen. Philip H. SheridanSouthern plains Indians relocated to Oklahoma Indian Territory under 1867 Treaty of Medicin Lodge. After buffalo hunters destroy the Indians food supply, Comanche warriors race to buffalo grazing areas in Texas panhandle to kill hunters. Sherman and Sheridan defeat warriors and open panhandle to cattle ranching.Wars/Battles
8 Key Events in the Indian Wars, 1861-1890 Wars/BattlesNative AmericanNations/HomelandsKey PlayersDescription/OutcomeBattle of Little Bighorn (1876)Northern plains Sioux in Dakota, Wyoming, and Montana territorriesSitting BullCrazy HorseRed CloudLt. Col. GeorgeA. CusterU.S. tries to buy gold-rich Black Hills from Sioux. Talks fail. Custer’s 7th Cavalry is sent to round up Sioux, but meets huge enemy force. Custer and some 200 men perish in “Custer’s Last Stand.”Nez Perce War (1877)Largest branch of Nez Perce, in Wallowa Valley of Idaho and Washington territories and OregonChief JosephGen. Oliver O. HowardCol. Nelson MilesHoward orders Nez Perce to Idaho reservation; violence erupts. Joseph leads some 700 men, women, and children on 1,400-mile flight. His 200 warriors hold off Miles’s 2,000 soldiers until halted 40 miles short of Canada. Sent to Indian Territory, many die of disease. In 1885, survivors moved to reservation in Washington Territory.Battle of Wounded Knee (1890)Sioux at Pine Ridge Reservation, South DakotaU.S. 7thCavalryGhost Dance raises fears of Sioux uprising; Sitting Bull killed in attempted arrest. His followers surrender and camp at Wounded Knee. Shots are fired; some 200 Sioux die.
10 Warring SiouxSeveral Sioux tribes fought to stay on their land and protect their hunting groundsRaided settlements and harassed minersSitting BullLeader of non-treaty SiouxStrong fighting expertiseNon-treaty: had not signed any treaty with the u.s. gov to stay on reservations
12 Sand Creek (1864) •US army massacred Cheyenne, Arapahoe Older men, women,And children.•Eastern Colorado
13 General George Armstrong Custer General in the Civil WarInfamous Indian fighter during the Sioux WarsWanted to find gold in Black HillsDefeated in the Battle at Little Bighorn (1876)Black Hills expedition: pushed by the Northern Pacific Railroad
14 The Sioux WarsThe Sioux Wars were a series of conflicts between the United States and various subgroups of the Sioux people that occurred in the later half of the 19th century.
15 Sitting Bull was a holy man who led his people as a tribal chief during years of resistance to United States government policies.Sitting Bull's leadership motivated his people to a major victory.He was killed by Indian agency police on the Standing Rock Indian Reservation during an attempt to arrest him
16 Little Bighorn Army moved to assault roaming Sioux in 1876 600 troops marched on Little Bighorn RiverCuster separated his men and sent half of his forces straight into battleThis group and the rest were wiped out by Cheyenne and SiouxDefeat angered the army who became even more ruthlessArmy moved to assault roaming Sioux: after negotiations to buy the Black Hills broke down
17 Battle of the Little Bighorn (Custer’s Last Stand)
20 Wounded Knee Creek The Ghost Dance December 29, 1890 In honor of WovokaDecember 29, 1890Seventh cavalry was sent to round up a group of Indians at Wounded Knee when an ‘excited’ Indian fired a shotThe soldiers then open firedMore than 300 Indians killed in minutesShow movie clip
21 “Saving” the IndiansMore and more Americans disagreed with Government Indian policiesThe Women’s National Indian Rights AssociationCentury of Dishonor by Helen Hunt JacksonThey thought breaking up the reservations and assimilating the Indians into society was the best thingDawes Severalty ActGave individuals acreagesof land and made themcitizens of the U.S.Assimilating: they wanted to get rid of Indian culture to get rid of the “Indian Problem”Picture: the phoenix indian school
22 Attempts to Change Native American Culture Many people believed that Native Americans needed to give up their traditions and culture, learn English, become Christians, adopt white dress and customs, and support themselves by farming and trades.This policy is called assimilation, the process by which one society becomes a part of another, more dominant society by adopting its culture.In 1887 the Dawes Act divided reservation land into individual plots. Each family headed by a man received 160 acres.Many Native Americans did not believe in the concept of individual property, nor did they want to farm the land. For some, the practices of farming went against their notion of ecology. Some had no experience in agriculture.Between 1887 and 1932, some two thirds of this land became white owned.
23 Assimilation and the Indian Schools Carlisle, PA, other sites around the U.S.Genoa, NebraskaAttempted to ‘save the Indian’ by making them assimilate into American culture, manners and customsFormed by people who empathized with the plight of the Indians and wanted a “humanitarian” solution
25 The Opening of Indian Territory Fifty five Indian nations were forced into Indian Territory, the largest unsettled farmland in the United States.During the 1880s, squatters overran the land, and Congress agreed to buy out the Indian claims to the region.On April 22, 1889, tens of thousands of homesteaders lined up at the territory’s borders to stake claims on the land.
26 The Opening of Indian Territory By sundown, settlers called boomers had staked claims on almost 2 million acres.Many boomers discovered that some of the best lands had been grabbed by sooners, people who had sneaked past the government officials earlier to mark their claims.Under continued pressure from settlers, Congress created Oklahoma Territory in In the following years, the remainder of Indian Territory was open to settlement.
27 Oklahoma Land Rush (1889)Oklahoma was “Indian Territory” given to the five civilized tribes.They sided with the Confederacy, the government took land as punishment2 million acres free for settlementFree land was considered instant prosperity, but droughts would make many farms fail
28 By 1900 Most Indians had been driven onto reservations Reduced from 1/4 million to 1 hundred thousandThe culture still survives