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How linguistic knowledge can ease learning: Making sense of word order Robert Kluender Department of Linguistics, UCSD UCCLLT Workshop on Grammar and Language.

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Presentation on theme: "How linguistic knowledge can ease learning: Making sense of word order Robert Kluender Department of Linguistics, UCSD UCCLLT Workshop on Grammar and Language."— Presentation transcript:

1 How linguistic knowledge can ease learning: Making sense of word order Robert Kluender Department of Linguistics, UCSD UCCLLT Workshop on Grammar and Language Teaching June 19, 2004

2 What we mean by “grammar”  prescriptive attempts to freeze-frame language  descriptive takes language exactly as spoken  traditional description of surface-level behavior  linguistic explanation of how language works

3 What we mean by “grammar”  prescriptive attempts to freeze-frame language  descriptive takes language exactly as spoken  traditional description of surface-level behavior  linguistic explanation of how language works

4 But is linguistic grammar of any practical use?

5 Claims What I am going to present today:  based on real syntactic proposals  explains a wide array of clausal data  not easily captured by traditional grammar  easier than the many clause-specific rules that students usually learn

6 Disclaimers What I am going to present today:  not my analysis (it’s standard)  pertains only to explicit learning  not a classroom demonstration (would need to be didacticized first)  should not be tried at home (all in 60 minutes or less, that is)

7 Omissions What I am not going to present today:  phonology final devoicing: Tag [ta:k] vs. Tage  morphology decomposition: Widerstandsnester Wider + stand + s + nest + er against+ stance+ poss + nest +plural ‘pockets of resistance’

8 Syntax:

9 Syntax: German word order

10 Traditional grammar view:  V-2 nd, subject-verb-object word order is taken to be basic to German  All other word orders, e.g. – V-first order in yes/no-questions – V-final order in subordinate clauses  are taken to be permutations of basic subject-verb-object (SVO) word order

11 Syntax: German word order Linguistic grammar view:  V-final, subject-object-verb word order is taken to be basic to German  All other word orders, e.g. – V-first order in yes/no-questions – V-2 nd order in main clauses  are taken to be permutations of basic subject-object-verb (SOV) word order

12 Syntax: German word order What’s at stake:  The two approaches make almost exactly opposite predictions How to decide between them:  If a theory is based on special cases, it will be more complicated  If it is based on the general case, it will be more economical and elegant

13 The take-home message with regard to German word order  By relying on traditional grammar descriptions of surface behavior,  we may actually be complicating things conceptually, making the learning process more difficult for our students unnecessarily

14 German word order in main clauses  Deutsch aktiv (1983) “In German, the main clause shows normal word order…. The finite verb appears in second position.”  Neue Horizonte, 5 th edition (1999) “In German statements, only the verb has a fixed position. The verb is always the second element. This is an ironclad rule that must be learned well.”

15 German word order in main clauses  Kontakte, 4 th edition (2000) “In German statements, the verb is always in second position.”  Vorsprung, Updated version (2002) “Regardless of the position of the subject, the position of the conjugated verb remains constant. It is always the second element of the sentence.”

16 The verb stands in second position in the German main clause Das Verb steht the verb stands an zweiter Stelle at second position im deutschen Hauptsatz. in=the German main=clause

17 German word order in main clauses  Deutsch heute, 8 th edition (2005) “In a German statement, the finite verb is always in second position, even when an element other than the subject (for example, an adverb or a prepositional phrase) is in first position.”

18 Traditional grammar view of subject position  Neue Horizonte, 5 th edition (1999) “If an element other than the subject begins the sentence, the verb remains in second position and the subject then follows the verb.”  Kontakte, 4 th edition (2000) “In German statements, the verb is always in second position. If the sentence begins with an element other than the subject, the subject follows the verb.”

19 Traditional grammar view of subject position  Vorsprung, Updated edition (2002) “Whenever an element other than the subject begins a sentence, the subject follows as the third element of the sentence.”  Deutsch heute, 8 th edition (2005) “When an element other than the subject is in first position, the subject follows the verb.”

20 Legend first position second position third position (the subject, if it’s not 1 st ) final position

21 Legend first position second position third position (the subject, if it’s not 1 st ) a bunch of other constituents final position

22 The verb stands in second position in the German main clause Das Verb steht an zweiter Stelle the verb stands at second position im deutschen Hauptsatz. in=the German main=clause

23 The verb stands in second position in the German main clause Das Verb steht an zweiter Stelle the verb stands at second position im deutschen Hauptsatz. in=the German main=clause

24 The verb stands in second position in the German main clause Das Verb steht an zweiter Stelle the verb stands at second position im deutschen Hauptsatz. in=the German main=clause

25 The verb stands in second position in the German main clause Das Verb steht an zweiter Stelle the verb stands at second position im deutschen Hauptsatz. in=the German main=clause

26 The verb stands in second position in the German main clause Das Verb steht an zweiter Stelle im deutschen Hauptsatz.

27 The verb stands in second position in the German main clause Das Verb steht an zweiter Stelle im deutschen Hauptsatz.

28 The verb stands in second position in the German main clause Das Verb steht an zweiter Stelle im deutschen Hauptsatz.

29 The verb stands in second position in the German main clause Das Verb steht an zweiter Stelle im deutschen Hauptsatz. An zweiter Stelle at second position

30 The verb stands in second position in the German main clause Das Verb steht an zweiter Stelle im deutschen Hauptsatz. An zweiter Stelle steht at second position stands

31 The verb stands in second position in the German main clause Das Verb steht an zweiter Stelle im deutschen Hauptsatz. An zweiter Stelle steht das Verb at second position stands the verb

32 The verb stands in second position in the German main clause Das Verb steht an zweiter Stelle im deutschen Hauptsatz. An zweiter Stelle steht das Verb at second position stands the verb im deutschen Hauptsatz. in=the German main=clause

33 The verb stands in second position in the German main clause Das Verb steht an zweiter Stelle im deutschen Hauptsatz. An zweiter Stelle steht das Verb im deutschen Hauptsatz.

34 The verb stands in second position in the German main clause Das Verb steht an zweiter Stelle im deutschen Hauptsatz. An zweiter Stelle steht das Verb im deutschen Hauptsatz.

35 The verb stands in second position in the German main clause Das Verb steht an zweiter Stelle im deutschen Hauptsatz. An zweiter Stelle steht das Verb im deutschen Hauptsatz.

36 The verb stands in second position in the German main clause Das Verb steht an zweiter Stelle im deutschen Hauptsatz. An zweiter Stelle steht das Verb im deutschen Hauptsatz. Im deutschen Hauptsatz in=the German main=clause

37 The verb stands in second position in the German main clause Das Verb steht an zweiter Stelle im deutschen Hauptsatz. An zweiter Stelle steht das Verb im deutschen Hauptsatz. Im deutschen Hauptsatz steht in=the German main=clause stands

38 The verb stands in second position in the German main clause Das Verb steht an zweiter Stelle im deutschen Hauptsatz. An zweiter Stelle steht das Verb im deutschen Hauptsatz. Im deutschen Hauptsatz steht in=the German main=clause stands das Verb the verb

39 The verb stands in second position in the German main clause Das Verb steht an zweiter Stelle im deutschen Hauptsatz. An zweiter Stelle steht das Verb im deutschen Hauptsatz. Im deutschen Hauptsatz steht in=the German main=clause stands das Verb an zweiter Stelle. the verb at second position

40 The verb stands in second position in the German main clause Das Verb steht an zweiter Stelle im deutschen Hauptsatz. An zweiter Stelle steht das Verb im deutschen Hauptsatz. Im deutschen Hauptsatz steht das Verb an zweiter Stelle.

41 The verb stands in second position in the German main clause Das Verb steht an zweiter Stelle im deutschen Hauptsatz. An zweiter Stelle steht das Verb im deutschen Hauptsatz. Im deutschen Hauptsatz steht das Verb an zweiter Stelle.

42 The verb stands in second position in the German main clause Das Verb steht an zweiter Stelle im deutschen Hauptsatz. An zweiter Stelle steht das Verb im deutschen Hauptsatz. Im deutschen Hauptsatz steht das Verb an zweiter Stelle.

43 Legend first position second position third position (the subject, if it’s not 1 st ) final position

44 Legend first position second position third position (the subject, if it’s not 1 st ) a bunch of other constituents final position

45 Does the verb always stand in 2 nd position in a German main clause? Das Verb steht the verb stands immer an zweiter Stelle always at second position im deutschen Hauptsatz. in=the German main=clause

46 Does the verb always stand in 2 nd position in a German main clause? Das Verb steht immer an zweiter Stelle the verb stands always at second place im deutschen Hauptsatz. in=the German main=clause

47 Does the verb always stand in 2 nd position in a German main clause? Das Verb steht immer an zweiter Stelle the verb stands always at second place im deutschen Hauptsatz. in=the German main=clause

48 Does the verb always stand in 2 nd position in a German main clause? Das Verb steht immer an zweiter Stelle the verb stands always at second place im deutschen Hauptsatz. in=the German main=clause

49 Does the verb always stand in 2 nd position in a German main clause? Das Verb muss immer an zweiter Stelle the verb must always at second place im deutschen Hauptsatz………… in=the German main=clause

50 Does the verb always stand in 2 nd position in a German main clause? Das Verb muss immer an zweiter Stelle the verb must always at second place im deutschen Hauptsatz stehen. in=the German main=clause stand

51 The traditional grammar view

52 Does the verb always stand in 2 nd position in a German main clause? Das Verb muss immer an zweiter Stelle the verb must always at second place im deutschen Hauptsatz stehen. in=the German main=clause stand

53 Does the verb always stand in 2 nd position in a German main clause? Das Verb wird immer an zweiter Stelle the verb will always at second place im deutschen Hauptsatz stehen. in=the German main=clause stand

54 Does the verb always stand in 2 nd position in a German main clause? Das Verb muss immer an zweiter Stelle the verb must always at second place im deutschen Hauptsatz stehen. in=the German main=clause stand

55 Does the verb always stand in 2 nd position in a German main clause? Das Verb muss immer an zweiter Stelle the verb must always at second place  wird im deutschen Hauptsatz stehen. in=the German main=clause stand

56 Does the verb always stand in 2 nd position in a German main clause? Das Verb wird immer an zweiter Stelle the verb will always at second place im deutschen Hauptsatz stehen in=the German main=clause stand müssen. have to

57 Does the verb always stand in 2 nd position in a German main clause? Das Verb hat immer an zweiter Stelle the verb has always at second place im deutschen Hauptsatz stehen in=the German main=clause stand müssen. had to

58 Does the verb always stand in 2 nd position in a German main clause? Das Verb hat immer an zweiter Stelle im deutschen Hauptsatz stehen müssen.

59 Does the verb always stand in 2 nd position in a German main clause? Das Verb hat immer an zweiter Stelle im deutschen Hauptsatz stehen müssen.

60 Does the verb always stand in 2 nd position in a German main clause? Das Verb hat immer an zweiter Stelle im deutschen Hauptsatz stehen müssen.

61 Does the verb always stand in 2 nd position in a German main clause? Das Verb hat immer an zweiter Stelle im deutschen Hauptsatz stehen müssen.  When there’s more than one verb form in the main clause, most of them pile up at the end.

62 Observations (preliminary)  When there’s more than one verb form in the main clause, most of them pile up at the end

63 Word order in subordinate clauses  DLI German Basic Course (1979) “After subordinating conjunctions, the conjugated verb stands at the end of the clause.”  Deutsch aktiv (1983) “In the dependent clause, the finite verb moves to the end of the clause.”

64 “…the finite verb moves to the end of the clause”

65

66

67 Word order in subordinate clauses  Neue Horizonte, 5 th edition (1999) “…subordinating conjunctions move the inflected verb to the end of the subordinate clause.”  Vorsprung, Updated version (2002) “Subordinate clauses are always introduced by a subordinating conjunction, e.g., dass (that), and the conjugated verb always comes at the end of the subordinate clause.”

68 Word order in subordinate clauses  Deutsch heute, 8 th edition (2005) “Two signals distinguish a dependent clause from an independent clause: (1) it is introduced by a subordinating conjuntion (dass, wenn) and (2) the finite verb (fährt, sind) is at the end.”

69 The finite verb stands at the end of the German embedded clause Wir glauben, dass das finite Verb we believe that the finite verb ganz am Ende completely at=the end im deutschen Nebensatz steht. in=the German next=clause stands

70 Legend first position second position third position (the subject, if it’s not 1 st ) final position

71 Legend first position second position third position (the subject, if it’s not 1st) a bunch of other constituents final position

72 The finite verb stands at the end of the German embedded clause Wir glauben, dass das finite Verb we believe that the finite verb ganz am Ende completely at=the end im deutschen Nebensatz steht. in=the German next=clause stands

73 The finite verb stands at the end of the German embedded clause Wir glauben, dass das finite Verb we believe that the finite verb ganz am Ende completely at=the end im deutschen Nebensatz steht. in=the German next=clause stands

74 The finite verb stands at the end of the German embedded clause Wir glauben, dass das finite Verb we believe that the finite verb ganz am Ende completely at=the end im deutschen Nebensatz steht. in=the German next=clause stands

75 The finite verb stands at the end of the German embedded clause Wir glauben, dass das finite Verb ganz we believe that the finite verb wholly am Ende im deutschen at=the end in=the German Nebensatz steht. next=clause stands

76 The finite verb stands at the end of the German embedded clause Wir glauben, dass das finite Verb ganz we believe that the finite verb wholly am Ende im deutschen at=the end in=the German Nebensatz stehen muss. next=clause stand must

77 The finite verb stands at the end of the German embedded clause Wir glauben, dass das finite Verb ganz we believe that the finite verb wholly am Ende im deutschen at=the end in=the German Nebensatz stehen wird. next=clause stand will

78 The finite verb stands at the end of the German embedded clause Wir glauben, dass das finite Verb ganz we believe that the finite verb wholly am Ende im deutschen at=the end in=the German Nebensatz wird stehen müssen. next=clause will stand have to

79 The finite verb stands at the end of the German embedded clause Wir glauben, dass das finite Verb ganz we believe that the finite verb wholly am Ende im deutschen at=the end in=the German Nebensatz hat stehen müssen. next=clause has stand had to

80 The finite verb stands at the end of the German embedded clause Wir glauben, dass das finite Verb ganz am Ende im deutschen Nebensatz hat stehen müssen.

81 The finite verb stands at the end of the German embedded clause Wir glauben, dass das finite Verb ganz am Ende im deutschen Nebensatz hat stehen müssen.

82 The finite verb stands at the end of the German embedded clause Wir glauben, dass das finite Verb ganz am Ende im deutschen Nebensatz hat stehen müssen.

83 The finite verb stands at the end of the German embedded clause Wir glauben, dass das finite Verb ganz am Ende im deutschen Nebensatz hat stehen müssen.  The verbs are piling up at the end of the clause again….

84 Does the verb always stand in 2 nd position in a German main clause? Das Verb hat immer an zweiter Stelle im deutschen Hauptsatz stehen müssen.  When there’s more than one verb form in the main clause, most of them pile up at the end.

85 Does the verb always stand in 2 nd position in a German main clause? Das Verb hat immer an zweiter Stelle im deutschen Hauptsatz stehen müssen.  There’s a traffic jam of verbs at the end of the MAIN clause….

86 The finite verb stands at the end of the German embedded clause Wir glauben, dass das finite Verb ganz am Ende im deutschen Nebensatz hat stehen müssen.  The verbs are piling up at the end of the clause again….

87 The finite verb stands at the end of the German embedded clause Wir glauben, dass das finite Verb ganz am Ende im deutschen Nebensatz hat stehen müssen.  There’s a traffic jam of verbs at the end of the SUBORDINATE clause….

88 Observations (preliminary)  When there’s more than one verb form in the main clause, most of them pile up at the end

89 Observations (preliminary)  Verbs pile up at the ends of both main and subordinate clauses (excepting V-2 nd in main clauses)

90 Legend first position second position third position (the subject, if it’s not 1 st ) final position

91 Legend first position second position third position (the subject, if it’s not 1 st ) a bunch of other constituents final position

92 Does the finite verb always stand at the end of the embedded clause? Wir glauben, dass das finite Verb we believe that the finite verb ganz am Ende wholly at=the end im deutschen Nebensatz steht. in=the German next=clause stands

93 Does the finite verb always stand at the end of the embedded clause? Wir glauben,  das finite Verb we believe the finite verb ganz am Ende wholly at=the end im deutschen Nebensatz……… in=the German next=clause

94 Does the finite verb always stand at the end of the embedded clause? Wir glauben, das finite Verb steht we believe the finite verb stands ganz am Ende wholly at=the end im deutschen Nebensatz. in=the German next=clause

95 Does the finite verb always stand at the end of the embedded clause? Wir glauben, das finite Verb steht we believe the finite verb stands ganz am Ende wholly at=the end im deutschen Nebensatz. in=the German next=clause

96 Does the finite verb always stand at the end of the embedded clause? Wir glauben, ganz am Ende steht we believe wholly at=the end stands das finite Verb the finite verb im deutschen Nebensatz. in=the German next=clause

97 Does the finite verb always stand at the end of the embedded clause? Wir glauben, ganz am Ende we believe wholly at=the end steht das finite Verb stands the finite verb im deutschen Nebensatz. in=the German next=clause

98 Does the finite verb always stand at the end of the embedded clause? Wir glauben, ganz am Ende we believe wholly at=the end steht das finite Verb stands the finite verb im deutschen Nebensatz. in=the German next=clause

99 Does the finite verb always stand at the end of the embedded clause? Wir glauben, im deutschen Nebensatz we believe in=the German next=clause steht das finite Verb stands the finite verb ganz am Ende. wholly at=the end

100 Does the finite verb always stand at the end of the embedded clause? Wir glauben, im deutschen Nebensatz we believe in=the German next=clause steht das finite Verb stands the finite verb ganz am Ende. wholly at=the end

101 Does the finite verb always stand at the end of the embedded clause? Wir glauben, das finite Verb steht we believe the finite verb stands ganz am Ende wholly at=the end im deutschen Nebensatz. in=the German next=clause

102 Does the finite verb always stand at the end of the embedded clause? Wir glauben, das finite Verb steht we believe the finite verb stands ganz am Ende im deutschen wholly at=the end in=the German Nebensatz. next=clause

103 Does the finite verb always stand at the end of the embedded clause? Wir glauben, das finite Verb steht we believe the finite verb stands ganz am Ende im deutschen wholly at=the end in=the German Nebensatz. next=clause

104 Does the finite verb always stand at the end of the embedded clause? Wir glauben, das finite Verb steht we believe the finite verb stands ganz am Ende im deutschen wholly at=the end in=the German Nebensatz. next=clause

105 The finite verb stands at the end of the German embedded clause Wir glauben, dass das finite Verb we believe that the finite verb ganz am Ende im deutschen wholly at=the end in=the German Nebensatz steht. next=clause stands

106 The finite verb stands at the end of the German embedded clause Wir glauben, dass das finite Verb we believe that the finite verb ganz am Ende im deutschen wholly at=the end in=the German Nebensatz stehen muss. next=clause stand must

107 Does the finite verb always stand at the end of the embedded clause? Wir glauben,  das finite Verb we believe the finite verb ganz am Ende im deutschen wholly at=the end in=the German Nebensatz stehen muss. next=clause stand must

108 Does the finite verb always stand at the end of the embedded clause? Wir glauben, das finite Verb muss we believe the finite verb must ganz am Ende im deutschen wholly at=the end in=the German Nebensatz stehen. next=clause stand

109 Does the finite verb always stand at the end of the embedded clause? Wir glauben, das finite Verb muss we believe the finite verb must ganz am Ende im deutschen wholly at=the end in=the German Nebensatz stehen. next=clause stand

110 The finite verb stands at the end of the German embedded clause Wir glauben, dass das finite Verb we believe that the finite verb ganz am Ende im deutschen wholly at=the end in=the German Nebensatz wird stehen müssen. next=clause will stand have to

111 Does the finite verb always stand at the end of the embedded clause? Wir glauben,  das finite Verb we believe the finite verb ganz am Ende im deutschen wholly at=the end in=the German Nebensatz wird stehen müssen. next=clause will stand have to

112 Does the finite verb always stand at the end of the embedded clause? Wir glauben, das finite Verb wird we believe the finite verb will ganz am Ende im deutschen wholly at=the end in=the German Nebensatz stehen müssen. next=clause stand have to

113 Does the finite verb always stand at the end of the embedded clause? Wir glauben, das finite Verb wird we believe the finite verb will ganz am Ende im deutschen wholly at=the end in=the German Nebensatz stehen müssen. next=clause stand have to

114 Does the finite verb always stand at the end of the embedded clause? Wir glauben, das finite Verb hat we believe the finite verb has ganz am Ende im deutschen wholly at=the end in=the German Nebensatz stehen müssen. next=clause stand had to

115 Observations (preliminary)  Verbs pile up at the ends of both main and subordinate clauses (excepting V-2 nd in main clauses)

116 Observations (preliminary)  Verbs pile up at the ends of both main and subordinate clauses (excepting V-2 nd in both main and subordinate clauses)

117 Observations (preliminary)  Verbs pile up at the ends of both main and subordinate clauses  The finite (inflected) verb is in second position in both main and subordinate clauses when no dass is present

118 Observations (preliminary)  Verbs pile up at the ends of both main and subordinate clauses  The finite (inflected) verb is in second position in both main and subordinate clauses when no dass is present

119 Observations (preliminary)  Verbs pile up at the ends of both main and subordinate clauses  The finite (inflected) verb is in second position in both main and subordinate clauses when no dass is present  This looks suspiciously like an important generalization…

120 The beginnings of a prediction  If a dass or another word similar to it (a “complementizer”) is present in a German MAIN clause,  will the finite verb appear at the end?  Dass ich nicht lache! that I not laugh ‘Don’t make me laugh!’

121 The beginnings of a prediction  If a dass or another word similar to it (a “complementizer”) is present in a German MAIN clause,  will the finite verb appear at the end?  Dass ich nicht lache! that I not laugh ‘Don’t make me laugh!’

122 The beginnings of a prediction  If a dass or another word similar to it (a “complementizer”) is present in a German MAIN clause,  will the finite verb appear at the end?  … ich nicht lache I not laugh

123 The beginnings of a prediction  If a dass or another word similar to it (a “complementizer”) is present in a German MAIN clause,  will the finite verb appear at the end?  ich lache nicht I laugh not

124 The beginnings of a prediction  If a dass or another word similar to it (a “complementizer”) is present in a German MAIN clause,  will the finite verb appear at the end?  Ich lache nicht! I laugh not ‘I’m not laughing!’

125 The verb always stands in 2 nd position in the German main clause Das Verb steht immer an zweiter Stelle the verb stands always at second place im deutschen Hauptsatz. in=the German main=clause

126 Does the verb always stand in 2 nd position in a German main clause? Steht das Verb immer an zweiter Stelle stands the verb always at second place im deutschen Hauptsatz? in=the German main=clause  ordinary V-1 st “out-of-the-blue” yes/no- question in a neutral context

127 Does the verb always stand in 2 nd position in a German main clause? Ob das Verb immer an zweiter Stelle if the verb always at second place im deutschen Hauptsatz steht? in=the German main=clause stands  repetition seeking confirmation that the question is correctly understood

128 If only the verb would stay in 2 nd position in a German main clause! Wenn das Verb nur immer an zweiter if the verb only always at second Stelle im deutschen Hauptsatz place in=the German main=clause stünde! would=stand

129 How unreliably the verb stays in 2 nd position in a German main clause! Wie unzuverlässig das Verb an zweiter how unreliably the verb at second Stelle im deutschen Hauptsatz place in=the German main=clause steht! stands

130 Observations (preliminary)  Verbs pile up at the ends of both main and subordinate clauses  The finite (inflected) verb is in second position in both main and subordinate clauses when no dass is present

131 Observations  Verbs pile up at the ends of both main and subordinate clauses  The finite (inflected) verb is in second position in both main and subordinate clauses when no dass is present  The finite verb is in final position in both main and subordinate clauses when a complementizer is present

132 Observations  Verbs pile up at the ends of both main and subordinate clauses  The finite (inflected) verb is in second position in both main and subordinate clauses when no dass is present  The finite verb is in final position in both main and subordinate clauses when a complementizer is present

133 Generalizations  Verbs act pretty much the same in both main and subordinate clauses: – most verb forms occur clause-finally – verb-2 nd is in complementary distribution with complementizers complementizer present: (finite) V-final complementizer absent: (finite) V-2 nd

134 Generalizations (rearranged)  Most verb forms occur clause-finally in both main and subordinate clauses  Finite verbs also occur clause-finally in both main and subordinate clauses when a complementizer is present  Finite verbs occur in second position (V-2 nd ) only when there is no complementizer in the clause

135 Proposal  Since verbs most often occur at the end of clauses, why not make that the rule rather than the exception?  Instead of saying that verb-2 nd word order is “normal”, why not treat it as the exception to the rule instead?

136 Proposal (continued)  Instead of saying that German has two different word orders for main and subordinate clauses,  say that all verbs occur clause-finally except when there is no complementizer present in the clause,  in which case the finite verb occurs in second position (and only then).

137 Proposal (continued) This is tantamount to saying that  verb-final, subject-object-verb (SOV) word order is basic to German  verb-2 nd (SVO) word order is derived  this is diametrically opposed to the assumptions of traditional grammar

138 Questions  How do we account for verb-second if it’s an exception rather than the rule?  Complementizers and finite verbs are in complementary distribution – are they somehow jockeying for position?  Do complementizers block finite verbs in second position because they occupy a sentence position that the finite verb needs for V-2 nd ?

139 More basic questions  Where do complementizers occur?  Where exactly is second position in German clause structure?

140 Where do complementizers occur?  MAIN CLAUSES Ob das Verb immer an zweiter Stelle if the verb always at second place im deutschen Hauptsatz steht? in=the German main=clause stands

141 Where do complementizers occur?  SUBORDINATE CLAUSES Wir glauben, dass das finite Verb we believe that the finite verb ganz am Ende im deutschen wholly at=the end in=the German Nebensatz steht. next=clause stands

142 Where do complementizers occur?  Answer: Right before the subject of the clause

143 More basic questions  Where do complementizers occur? Right before the subject of the clause  Where exactly is second position in German clause structure?

144 Where exactly is second position? Das Verb steht an zweiter Stelle im deutschen Hauptsatz. An zweiter Stelle steht das Verb im deutschen Hauptsatz. Im deutschen Hauptsatz steht das Verb an zweiter Stelle.

145 Where exactly is second position? Das Verb steht an zweiter Stelle im deutschen Hauptsatz. An zweiter Stelle steht das Verb im deutschen Hauptsatz. Im deutschen Hauptsatz steht das Verb an zweiter Stelle.

146 More basic questions  Where do complementizers occur? Right before the subject of the clause  Where exactly is second position in German clause structure?

147 More basic questions  Where do complementizers occur? Right before the subject of the clause  Where exactly is second position in German clause structure? Right before the subject of the clause

148 More basic questions  Where do complementizers occur? Right before the subject of the clause  Where exactly is second position in German clause structure? Right before the subject of the clause  Where is verb-2 nd when the subject is in first position?

149 Where exactly is second position?  main clauses Das Verb steht an zweiter Stelle im deutschen Hauptsatz.  subordinate clauses Wir glauben, das finite Verb steht ganz am Ende im deutschen Nebensatz.

150 More basic questions  Where do complementizers occur? Right before the subject of the clause  Where exactly is second position in German clause structure? Right before the subject of the clause  Where is verb-2 nd when the subject is in first position?

151 More basic questions  Where do complementizers occur? Right before the subject of the clause  Where exactly is second position in German clause structure? Right before the subject of the clause  Where is verb-2 nd when the subject is in first position?

152 More basic questions  Where do complementizers occur? Right before the subject of the clause  Where exactly is second position in German clause structure? Right before the subject of the clause  Where is verb-2 nd when the subject is in first position?

153 More basic questions  Where do complementizers occur? Right before the subject of the clause  Where exactly is second position in German clause structure? Right before the subject of the clause  Where is verb-2 nd when the subject is in first position? Immediately after it

154 More basic questions  Where do complementizers occur? Right before the subject of the clause  Where exactly is second position in German clause structure? Right before the subject of the clause (but after subjects in first position)

155 (less basic) Questions  How do we account for verb-second if it’s an exception rather than the rule?

156 (less basic) Questions  Complementizers and finite verbs are in complementary distribution – are they somehow jockeying for position? Apparently yes: preceding the subject  Do complementizers block finite verbs in second position because they occupy a sentence position that the finite verb needs for V-2 nd ? Yes, right before the subject position

157 (less basic) Questions  How do we account for verb-second if it’s an exception rather than the rule?

158 More [less [basic [questions]]]  More generally, how do we account for the various German word orders? – verb-final when there is complementizer present – verb-initial in yes/no-questions – verb-second in declaratives (subject-first and/or subject-third) – verb-second in wh-questions

159 Basic sentence structure

160 Elaborated sentence structure (roughly after Chomsky 1985)

161 Verb-final word order

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163

164

165 Yes/no-question word order

166

167 Verb-2 nd, subject-3 rd order

168 Wh-question word order

169 Yes/no-question word order

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171 Subject-1 st, verb-2 nd order

172 Bonus: conditionals

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176

177 The problem of separable prefixes Wir wissen, dass die Verben sich we know that the verbs REFL am Ende des Satzes anhäufen. at=the end of=the sentence up=pile ‘We know that the verbs pile up at the end of the sentence.’

178 The problem of separable prefixes Wir wissen, die Verben häufen sich we know the verbs pile REFL am Ende des Satzes an. at=the end of=the sentence up ‘We know the verbs pile up at the end of the sentence.’

179 The mystery  If verb-2 nd is the “normal” word order for German clauses,  what is the prefix doing hanging around at the end of the clause?

180 The textbooks’ solution  Deutsch aktiv (1983) “When using a verb with separable prefix in German, the prefix is separated from the verb and moved to the end of the sentence.”  Neue Horizonte, 5 th edition (1999) “In the present tense and the imperative, the prefix is separated from the verb and placed at the end of the sentence or clause.”

181 The textbooks’ solution  Kontakte, 4 th edition (2000) “When you use a present-tense form of these verbs, put the conjugated form in second position and put the prefix at the end of the sentence. The two parts of the verb form a frame or bracket, called a Satzklammer, that encloses the rest of the sentence.”

182 Satzklammer

183 The problem of separable prefixes Wir wissen, die Verben häufen sich we know the verbs pile REFL am Ende des Satzes an. at=the end of=the sentence up ‘We know the verbs pile up at the end of the sentence.’

184 The problem of separable prefixes Wir wissen, dass die Verben sich we know that the verbs REFL am Ende des Satzes anhäufen. at=the end of=the sentence up=pile ‘We know that the verbs pile up at the end of the sentence.’

185 The problem of separable prefixes Wir wissen, die Verben häufen sich we know the verbs pile REFL am Ende des Satzes an. at=the end of=the sentence up ‘We know the verbs pile up at the end of the sentence.’

186 The problem of separable prefixes Wir wissen, die Verben werden sich we know the verbs will REFL am Ende des Satzes anhäufen. at=the end of=the sentence up=pile ‘We know the verbs will pile up at the end of the sentence.’

187 Bonus: separable prefixes

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189

190

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194

195 Summary of the analysis  German has verb-final word order  Complementizers and V-2 nd share the same syntactic position  Inflected verbs move into V-2 nd position when there is no complementizer present  Other constituents can move into the preceding topic/focus position at will

196 Advantages of the analysis Accounts for:  preponderance of clause-final verbs  verb position similarities between main and subordinate clauses  all clause types (declarative, interrogative, conditional, imperative) using one basic syntactic structure  idiosyncrasies of separable prefixes

197 Advantages of the analysis  simplifies the learning task: one structure and one rule for verb position in all clause types  covers all verb types (e.g. prefixes)  does not require much machinery: subject, verb phrase, complementizer, topic/focus, and two movement rules (for verbs and for other constituents)

198 But what will I tell my students?  There are 2 extra sentence positions outside the subject and verb phrase  One is for complementizers or finite (inflected, conjugated) verbs  The other is for any other sentence constituent  The interaction of these two positions accounts for all German word orders

199 But isn’t it too hard for students?  Is it really any harder than the endless array of rules that the traditional grammar description of German word order requires?  Since this analysis of word order is comprehensive, it would follow students throughout their careers, and not be presented only once

200 Advantages of the analysis  allows the language its own natural ordering principles and elegance  allows students to discover the structure of the language, reassuring them that there is a system to it  allows teachers to apply scientific method to language in the classroom (zero equipment or materials costs!)


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