Assimilation of knowledge Acquisition Thinking Continuum
Knowledge Taxonomy Awareness Level Recall specific information list, arrange, underline, identify List the four basic math functions Comprehension Level Understand / interpret information define, explain, calculate, reword Select the correct math function to solve a word problem.
Knowledge Taxonomy Application level Applying knowledge and understanding to a new situation solve, operate, use, handle, apply Using a ruler, determine the square footage of the floor in this room. Analysis Level Separate a complex idea into its components categorize, simplify, examine, survey Which Microsoft Office program was used to create this presentation?
Knowledge Taxonomy Synthesis Level Combining knowledge to form a new idea. create, build, generate, reorganize Write a manual for using a new power tool. Evaluation Level Choosing an alternative in making a decision. decide, classify, judge, prioritize Which salesperson provided the best customer service? Why?
1 Knowledge of one discipline 2 Application within discipline 3 Application across disciplines 4 Application to real-world predictable situations 5 Application to real-world unpredictable situations
Acquisition of knowledge Application of knowledge Action Continuum Relevance of learning to life and work
Application Model Knowledge within a Course Learning Knowledge, Attitude, or Skills Learning how to use a calculator Apply Knowledge within Discipline Using the knowledge, attitude, or skills within the course curriculum Using the calculator to determine the material costs of a storage shed
Application Model Apply Across Disciplines Using the knowledge, attitude, or skills in all discipline curriculums Using the rules of spelling, grammar, punctuation learned in English in all classes Apply to Predictable Situations Use information to analyze and solve real world problems with predictable solutions Read a recipe and calculate the ingredients needed to triple the recipe
Application Model Apply to Unpredictable Situations Using information to analyze and solve real problems with unknown solutions Plan the transportation and lodging for your familys vacation to Disney World Plan a luncheon for students being inducted into the National Honor Society and their parents
Selection of Strategies Based on Rigor/ Relevance Framework
Rigorous Follow-up Question Examples Why? Defend your answer? Can you explain further? Do you agree? Why not? How do you know? Please give an example. Please tell us one use for… How could you represent this information in another way? Who would disagree and why? What does this remind you of? If you could ask a question, what would it be? Whats still confusing you? What do you understand so well, you could teach it to someone else? 41
Adding Relevancy for Quadrant D Moments Comparing Learning to… Your life Your familys life Your community and friends Our world, nation, state World of Work World of Service World of Business and Commerce that we interact with Use the Real World Moral, ethical, political, cultural points of view and dilemmas Real world materials Internet resources Video and other media Scenarios, real life stories News
D Quadrant evaluate validate justify rate referee infer rank dramatize argue conclude evaluation newspaper estimation trial editorial radio program play collage machine adaptation poem debate new game invention VerbsProducts
Quick Lesson Planning Guide C To What Degree of Thinking? Integration, Creativity, Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation D To what complexity and in what relevant context? Student demonstration of learning in a real world context – What Performance? A What? State Standards, Content, Vocabulary, Skills, Process B Why or What for? Hook the interest… What is the relevance?
Gradual Release of Responsibility Adapted from Fisher and Frey, 2007 with additions from Kuzmich, 2009 1. Modeled I Do 2. Shared We Do 3. Guided We Do 4. Independent You Do T T T T SSSS Lesson Design for Scaffolding, Gradual Release of Responsibility and Increasing Creative Thinking 1.Explain, Model, and Student Checks for Understanding 2.Shared Practice with teacher step by step guidance 3.Guided Practice with teacher help for clarity 4.Independent Work and Informal Assessment Engagement Assessment DescribeDescribe AnalyzeAnalyze EvaluateEvaluate
1 2 3 4 5 4 5 6 3 2 1 Blooms Application C D A B 20 th Century 21 th Century
1 2 3 4 5 4 5 6 3 2 1 Blooms Application C D A B Old Assessment New Assessment
THEME From ---- To
Transition FROM Current State Standards and Assessments TO New Common Core Standards and Next Generation Assessment
National Essential Skills Study
NESS Study Subgroup Rankings ELA Skill: Write clear and concise directions or procedures. GroupRank Overall9 Business/Industry2 Other Non-educators10 English Language Arts Teachers Other Educators8
NESS Study Subgroup Rankings ELA Skill: Write clear and concise directions or procedures. GroupRank Overall9 Business/Industry2 Other Non-educators10 English Language Arts Teachers25 Other Educators8
NESS Study Subgroup Rankings ELA Skill: Give clear and concise oral directions. GroupRank Overall7 Business/Industry3 Other Non-educators9 English Language Arts Teachers Other Educators7
NESS Study Subgroup Rankings ELA Skill: Give clear and concise oral directions. GroupRank Overall7 Business/Industry3 Other Non-educators9 English Language Arts Teachers28 Other Educators7
NESS Study Subgroup Rankings Math Skill: Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to right triangles. GroupRank Overall20 Business/Industry29 Other Non-educators31 Mathematics Teachers Other Educators24
NESS Study Subgroup Rankings Math Skill: Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to right triangles. GroupRank Overall20 Business/Industry29 Other Non-educators31 Mathematics Teachers4 Other Educators24
NESS Study Subgroup Rankings Math Skill: Understand accuracy and precision of measurement, round off numbers according to the correct number of significant figures, and determine percent error. GroupRank Overall12 Business/Industry3 Other Non-educators10 Mathematics Teachers30 Other Educators8
NESS Study Subgroup Rankings Social Studies Skill (Economics): Investigate how a cost/benefit analysis can influence decisions based on profits and losses. GroupRank Overall22 Business/Industry3 Other Non-educators15 Social Studies Teachers57 Other Educators18
What got us to where we are today in education, will not get us to where we need to be!
Why is it so hard to change? The more successful a system is, the more difficult it is to recognize when it must change. By example, market leaders are the last ones to transform. The American Education System, The market leader during the industrial era!
Market Leader Thinking Dominant logic: Thats the way we do things here.
It is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change. (the most adaptable)
We need to stop looking at threats and opportunities that we face through our dominant logic!
Mental Locks We dont need to be creative for most of what we do (driving, shopping, business of living). So staying on routine thought paths enables us to do many things without having to think about it. Our training in school life has taught us that there is one right answer.
The Right Answer
The Second Right Answer What is the answer? What are the answers? What is the meaning of this? What are the meanings? What is the result? What are the results?
The Right Answer Thats not logical
Logic Metaphor Dream Reason Precision Humor Consistency Ambiguity Play Work Exact Approximate Direct Focused Fantasy Reality Paradox Diffuse Analysis Hunch Generalization Specifics Child Adult
SOFT Metaphor Dream Humor Ambiguity Play Approximate Fantasy Paradox Diffuse Hunch Generalization Child HARD Logic Reason Precision Consistency Work Exact Reality Direct Focused Analysis Specific Adult
SOFT Shades of gray Hard to pick up Many answers Flood light, diffused HARD Black and white Easy to pick up Right answer Focused like a spot light
Cat - Refrigerator
THEME Best Practices, Next Practices (Learning Criteria) and Innovation
Best Practices to Next Practices
Best practices allow you to do what you are currently doing a little better, while next practices increase your organizations capability to do things that it has never done before.
College and Career Readiness Defined Cognitive strategies: Intellectual openness; inquisitiveness; analysis; interpretation; precision and accuracy; problem solving; and reasoning, argumentation, and proof. Content knowledge: Understanding the structures and large organizing concepts of the academic disciplines, resting upon strong research and writing abilities. Academic behaviors: Self-management, time management, strategic study skills, accurate perceptions of ones true performance, persistence, ability to utilize study groups, self- awareness, self-control, and intentionality. Contextual skills and knowledge: Facility with application and financial-aid processes and the ability to acculturate to college. David Conley
Learning Criteria to Support 21st Century Learners Foundation Learning Stretch Learning Learner Engagement Personal Skill Development Components of School Excellence Embrace a Common Vision and Goals Inform Decisions Through Data Systems Empower Leadership Teams to Take Action and Innovate Clarify Student Learning Expectations Adopt Effective Instructional Practices Address Organizational Structures Monitor Progress/Improve Support Systems Refine Process on an Ongoing Basis 654321654321 1 2 3 4 5 Rigor/Relevance Framework Supported by Relationships FIDELITY OF IMPLEMENTATION
Success Beyond the Test Foundation Learning Stretch Learning Learner Engagement Personal Skill Development
Foundation Stretch Learner Engagement Personal Skill Development
Foundation Stretch Learner Engagement Personal Skill Development Dimensions of the Learning Criteria
Learning Criteria to Support 21 st Century Learners Every school has its own DNA. School success is measurable beyond the tests. Data must drive school improvement initiatives.
Success Beyond the Test Foundation Learning Stretch Learning Learner Engagement Personal Skill Development
Dimensions Foundation Learning (Achievement in the core subjects of English language arts, math and science and others identified by the school)
9-12 Foundation Learning Sample Data Indicators Percentage of students meeting proficiency level on state tests (required) Average scores on ACT/SAT/PSAT Achievement levels on standardized tests other than state assessments Percentage of students requiring English/math remediation in college Percentage of students graduating high school in four years
Foundation Learning (Achievement in the core subjects of English language arts, math and science and others identified by the school) Stretch Learning (Demonstration of rigorous and relevant learning beyond the minimum requirements) Dimensions
9-12 Stretch Learning Sample Data Indicators Interdisciplinary work and projects (e.g., senior exhibition) Participation/test scores in International Baccalaureate courses Average number of college credits earned by graduation (dual enrollment) Enrollment in AP courses/scores on AP exams/percentage achieving >2 (online) Percent of students completing career majors or career/technical education programs Four or more credits in a career area (online) Four or more credits in arts (online) Earning of specialized certificates (e.g., Microsoft, Cisco Academy) (online)
Criteria Foundation Learning (Achievement in the core subjects of English language arts, math and science and others identified by the school) Stretch Learning (Demonstration of rigorous and relevant learning beyond the minimum requirements) Learner Engagement (The extent to which students are motivated and committed to learning; have a sense of belonging and accomplishment; and have relationships with adults, peers, and parents that support learning)
9-12 Learner Engagement Sample Data Indicators Student satisfaction surveys Student risk behaviors (asset survey) Attendance rate Participation rate in extracurricular activities % of students taking ACT/SAT Tardiness rate % of students going to two and four year colleges
Criteria Foundation Learning (Achievement in the core subjects of English language arts, math and science and others identified by the school) Stretch Learning (Demonstration of rigorous and relevant learning beyond the minimum requirements) Learner Engagement (The extent to which students are motivated and committed to learning; have a sense of belonging and accomplishment; and have relationships with adults, peers, and parents that support learning) Personal Skill Development (Measures of personal, social, service, and leadership skills; and demonstrations of positive behaviors and attitudes)
9-12 Personal Skill Development Sample Data Indicators Participation or hours in service learning Students holding leadership positions in clubs or sports Assessment of personal skills: time management, ability to plan and organize work, Leadership/followership, etc. Respect for diversity Work as a member of a team Trustworthiness, perseverance, other character traits Follow-up survey of graduates on development of personal skills
Expertise can sometimes be a road block to problem solving and the development of Next Practices. Experts see their points as critical to resolution, without sometimes valuing the thinking of others.
-Shurnyu Suzuki In the beginners mind there are many possibilities; in the experts mind there are few.
Sustaining Innovation Next Practice
NEXT PRACTICE THINKING The Iterative Process Versions Create a disciplined, managed space for development of new ways to accomplish difficult tasks
THEME Closing Thoughts
THEMES Review of Relationships Relevance and Rigor From ---- To Best Practices, Next Practices (Learning Criteria) and Innovation Closing Thoughts
The system is not to blame, we are, for not adapting it to our ever changing world.
I cant imagine anything worse than looking back at the opportunity before us in education and thinking we blew it!
BEING EXTRAORDINARY Committed to the truth Be committed to delaying gratification Be someone who always has the chance of saying yes Live a life where you do not make others wrong
BEING EXTRAORDINARY Be committed to courage Be someone who produces results with absolutely no force Be a person who is peaceful in chaos
Connecting Successful Practices to Next Practices Raymond J. McNulty, President International Center for Leadership in Education Buckeye Union High School