30Knowledge Taxonomy Awareness Level Comprehension Level Recall specific informationlist, arrange, underline, identifyList the four basic math functionsComprehension LevelUnderstand / interpret informationdefine, explain, calculate, rewordSelect the correct math function to solve a word problem.
31Knowledge Taxonomy Application level Applying knowledge and understanding to a new situationsolve, operate, use, handle, applyUsing a ruler, determine the square footage of the floor in this room.Analysis LevelSeparate a complex idea into its componentscategorize, simplify, examine, surveyWhich Microsoft Office program was used to create this presentation?
32Knowledge Taxonomy Synthesis Level Evaluation Level Combining knowledge to form a new idea.create, build, generate, reorganizeWrite a manual for using a new power tool.Evaluation LevelChoosing an alternative in making a decision.decide, classify, judge, prioritizeWhich salesperson provided the best customer service? Why?
35Application Model 1 Knowledge of one discipline 2 Application within discipline3 Application across disciplines4 Application to real-world predictable situations5 Application to real-world unpredictable situations
36Relevance of learning to life and work Action ContinuumAcquisitionof knowledgeApplicationof knowledgeRelevance of learning to life and work
37Application Model Knowledge within a Course Learning Knowledge, Attitude, or SkillsLearning how to use a calculatorApply Knowledge within DisciplineUsing the knowledge, attitude, or skills within the course curriculumUsing the calculator to determine the material costs of a storage shed
38Application Model Apply Across Disciplines Using the knowledge, attitude, or skills in all discipline curriculumsUsing the rules of spelling, grammar, punctuation learned in English in all classesApply to Predictable SituationsUse information to analyze and solve real world problems with predictable solutionsRead a recipe and calculate the ingredients needed to triple the recipe
39Application Model Apply to Unpredictable Situations Using information to analyze and solve real problems with unknown solutionsPlan the transportation and lodging for your family’s vacation to Disney WorldPlan a luncheon for students being inducted into the National Honor Society and their parents
40Selection of Strategies Based on Rigor/Relevance Framework40
41Rigorous Follow-up Question Examples Increasing Critical and Rigorous ThinkingRigorous Follow-up Question ExamplesWhy?Defend your answer?Can you explain further?Do you agree?Why not?How do you know?Please give an example.Please tell us one use for…How could you represent this information in another way?Who would disagree and why?What does this remind you of?If you could ask a question, what would it be?What’s still confusing you?What do you understand so well, you could teach it to someone else?41Copyright, Kuzmich 2008
42Adding Relevancy for Quadrant D Moments Comparing Learning to…Use the Real WorldYour lifeYour family’s lifeYour community and friendsOur world, nation, stateWorld of WorkWorld of ServiceWorld of Business and Commerce that we interact withMoral, ethical, political, cultural points of view and dilemmasReal world materialsInternet resourcesVideo and other mediaScenarios, real life storiesNews
44Quick Lesson Planning Guide To What Degree of Thinking?Integration, Creativity,Analysis, Synthesis, EvaluationDTo what complexity and in what relevant context?Student demonstration of learning in a real world context – What Performance?AWhat?State Standards,Content, Vocabulary, Skills, ProcessBWhy or What for?Hook the interest…What is the relevance?44
45Gradual Release of Responsibility 1. ModeledI Do2. SharedWe Do3. Guided4. IndependentYou DoTSDescribeAnalyzeEvaluateAssessmentEngagementLesson Design for Scaffolding, Gradual Release of Responsibility and Increasing Creative ThinkingExplain, Model, and Student Checks for UnderstandingShared Practice with teacher step by step guidanceGuided Practice with teacher help for clarityIndependent Work and Informal AssessmentAdapted from Fisher and Frey, with additions from Kuzmich, 200945
52NESS Study Subgroup Rankings ELA Skill: Write clear and concise directions or procedures.GroupRankOverall9Business/Industry2Other Non-educators10English Language Arts TeachersOther Educators8
53NESS Study Subgroup Rankings ELA Skill: Write clear and concise directions or procedures.GroupRankOverall9Business/Industry2Other Non-educators10English Language Arts Teachers25Other Educators8
54NESS Study Subgroup Rankings ELA Skill: Give clear and concise oral directions.GroupRankOverall7Business/Industry3Other Non-educators9English Language Arts TeachersOther Educators
55NESS Study Subgroup Rankings ELA Skill: Give clear and concise oral directions.GroupRankOverall7Business/Industry3Other Non-educators9English Language Arts Teachers28Other Educators
56NESS Study Subgroup Rankings Math Skill: Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to right triangles.GroupRankOverall20Business/Industry29Other Non-educators31Mathematics TeachersOther Educators24
57NESS Study Subgroup Rankings Math Skill: Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to right triangles.GroupRankOverall20Business/Industry29Other Non-educators31Mathematics Teachers4Other Educators24
58NESS Study Subgroup Rankings Math Skill: Understand accuracy and precision of measurement, round off numbers according to the correct number of significant figures, and determine percent error.GroupRankOverall12Business/Industry3Other Non-educators10Mathematics Teachers30Other Educators8
59NESS Study Subgroup Rankings Social Studies Skill (Economics): Investigate how a cost/benefit analysis can influence decisions based on profits and losses.GroupRankOverall22Business/Industry3Other Non-educators15Social Studies Teachers57Other Educators18
76Why is it so hard to change? The more successful a system is, the more difficult it is to recognize when it must change. By example, market leaders are the last ones to transform.The American Education System, “The market leader during the industrial era!”
77Market Leader Thinking Dominant logic: “That’s the way we do things here.”
78It is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.(the most adaptable)
79We need to stop looking at threats and opportunities that we face through our dominant logic!
80Mental LocksWe don’t need to be creative for most of what we do (driving, shopping, business of living). So staying on routine thought paths enables us to do many things without having to think about it.Our training in school life has taught us that there is one right answer.
92Best practices allow you to do what you are currently doing a little better, while next practices increase your organization’s capability to do things that it has never done before.
93College and Career Readiness Defined Cognitive strategies: Intellectual openness; inquisitiveness; analysis; interpretation; precision and accuracy; problem solving; and reasoning, argumentation, and proof.Content knowledge: Understanding the structures and large organizing concepts of the academic disciplines, resting upon strong research and writing abilities.Academic behaviors: Self-management, time management, strategic study skills, accurate perceptions of one’s true performance, persistence, ability to utilize study groups, self-awareness, self-control, and intentionality.Contextual skills and knowledge: Facility with application and financial-aid processes and the ability to acculturate to college.Key cognitive strategies: Intellectual openness; inquisitiveness; analysis; interpretation; precision and accuracy; problem solving; and reasoning, argumentation, and proof. Student facility with these strategies has been consistently and emphatically identified by those who teach entry-level college courses as being centrally important to college success.Key content knowledge: Understanding the structures and large organizing concepts of the academic disciplines, resting upon strong research and writing abilities.Academic behaviors: Self-management, time management, strategic study skills, accurate perceptions of one’s true performance, persistence, ability to utilize study groups, self-awareness, self-control, and intentionality.Contextual skills and knowledge: Facility with application and financial-aid processes and the ability to acculturate to college.[all points taken directly from David Conley—he’s a biggie in the field. In fact, he might BE the field for CCR research.]Conley, D.T. (2008). Rethinking college readiness. The New England Journal of Higher Education, 22(5), 24 – 26.David Conley
94A B C D FIDELITY OF IMPLEMENTATION Learning Criteria to Support 21st Century LearnersComponents of SchoolExcellenceRigor/Relevance Framework Supported by RelationshipsFoundation LearningStretch LearningLearner EngagementPersonal Skill DevelopmentEmbrace a Common Vision and GoalsInform Decisions Through Data SystemsEmpower Leadership Teams to Take Action and InnovateClarify Student Learning ExpectationsAdopt Effective Instructional PracticesAddress Organizational StructuresMonitor Progress/Improve Support SystemsRefine Process on an Ongoing Basis654321ABCDFIDELITY OF IMPLEMENTATION
96Success Beyond the Test Foundation LearningStretch LearningLearner EngagementPersonal Skill Development
97Personal Skill Development FoundationStretchLearner EngagementPersonal Skill Development
98Dimensions of the Learning Criteria FoundationStretchLearner EngagementPersonal Skill Development
99Learning Criteria to Support 21st Century Learners Every school has its own DNA.School success is measurable beyond the tests.Data must drive school improvement initiatives.
100Success Beyond the Test Foundation LearningStretch LearningLearner EngagementPersonal Skill Development
101DimensionsFoundation Learning (Achievement in the core subjects of English language arts, math and science and others identified by the school)
1029-12 Foundation Learning Sample Data Indicators Percentage of students meeting proficiency level on state tests (required)Average scores on ACT/SAT/PSATAchievement levels on standardized tests other than state assessmentsPercentage of students requiring English/math remediation in collegePercentage of students graduating high school in four years
103DimensionsFoundation Learning (Achievement in the core subjects of English language arts, math and science and others identified by the school)Stretch Learning (Demonstration of rigorous and relevant learning beyond the minimum requirements)
1049-12 Stretch Learning Sample Data Indicators Interdisciplinary work and projects (e.g., senior exhibition)Participation/test scores in International Baccalaureate coursesAverage number of college credits earned by graduation (dual enrollment)Enrollment in AP courses/scores on AP exams/percentage achieving >2 (online)Percent of students completing career majors or career/technical education programsFour or more credits in a career area (online)Four or more credits in arts (online)Earning of specialized certificates (e.g., Microsoft, Cisco Academy) (online)
105CriteriaFoundation Learning (Achievement in the core subjects of English language arts, math and science and others identified by the school)Stretch Learning (Demonstration of rigorous and relevant learning beyond the minimum requirements)Learner Engagement (The extent to which students are motivated and committed to learning; have a sense of belonging and accomplishment; and have relationships with adults, peers, and parents that support learning)
1069-12 Learner Engagement Sample Data Indicators Student satisfaction surveysStudent risk behaviors (asset survey)Attendance rateParticipation rate in extracurricular activities% of students taking ACT/SATTardiness rate% of students going to two and four year colleges
107CriteriaFoundation Learning (Achievement in the core subjects of English language arts, math and science and others identified by the school)Stretch Learning (Demonstration of rigorous and relevant learning beyond the minimum requirements)Learner Engagement (The extent to which students are motivated and committed to learning; have a sense of belonging and accomplishment; and have relationships with adults, peers, and parents that support learning)Personal Skill Development (Measures of personal, social, service, and leadership skills; and demonstrations of positive behaviors and attitudes)
1089-12 Personal Skill Development Sample Data Indicators Participation or hours in service learningStudents holding leadership positions in clubs or sportsAssessment of personal skills: time management, ability to plan and organize work,Leadership/followership, etc.Respect for diversityWork as a member of a teamTrustworthiness, perseverance, other character traitsFollow-up survey of graduates on development of personal skills
109Expertise can sometimes be a road block to problem solving and the development of Next Practices. Experts see their points as critical to resolution, without sometimes valuing the thinking of others.
110“In the beginner’s mind there are many possibilities; in the expert’s mind there are few.” -Shurnyu Suzuki