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©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing and Assurance Services 9/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley 15 - 1 BAB 15 Melengkapi Tes dalam Siklus Penjualan Dan.

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Presentation on theme: "©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing and Assurance Services 9/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley 15 - 1 BAB 15 Melengkapi Tes dalam Siklus Penjualan Dan."— Presentation transcript:

1 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing and Assurance Services 9/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley BAB 15 Melengkapi Tes dalam Siklus Penjualan Dan Pengaihan : Rekening Piutan

2 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing and Assurance Services 9/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley Menjelaskan Metodelogi Desain Rincian saldo menggunakan model audit resiko

3 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing and Assurance Services 9/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley Detail tie-in Completeness ClassificationExistence Accuracy Cutoff Realizable value Rights and obligations Presentation and disclosure Tujuan Audit rekening Piutang Yang berkaitan dengan Saldo Piutang

4 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing and Assurance Services 9/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley Metodelogi untuk desain Tes Rincian Saldo –Piutang Dagang Identify client business risks affecting accounts receivable. Set tolerable misstatement and assess inherent risk for accounts receivable. Assess control risk for sales and collection cycle.

5 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing and Assurance Services 9/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley Metodelogi untuk desain Tes Rincian Saldo –Piutang Dagang Design and perform tests of controls and substantive tests of transactions for sales and collection cycle. Design and perform analytical procedures for accounts receivable balance.

6 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing and Assurance Services 9/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley Metodelogi untuk desain Tes Rincian Saldo –Piutang Dagang Design tests of details of accounts receivable balance to satisfy balance-related audit objectives. Audit procedures Sample size Items to select Timing Design tests of details of accounts receivable balance to satisfy balance-related audit objectives. Sample size

7 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing and Assurance Services 9/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley Hubungan Antara Siklus Penjualan Dengan Rekening Piutang Existence Completeness Accuracy Classification Timing Presentation and disclosure × Detail tie-in ExistenceCompletenessAccuracyClassificationCutoff Realizable value Rights Posting/Summary Accounts Receivable Balance-Related Audit Objectives Translation-Related Audit Objectives Sales × × × × ×

8 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing and Assurance Services 9/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley Relationship Between Sales and Accounts Receivable Existence Completeness Accuracy Classification Timing Presentation and disclosure Detail tie-in ExistenceCompletenessAccuracyClassificationCutoff Realizable value Rights Posting/Summary Accounts Receivable Balance-Related Audit Objectives Translation-Related Audit Objectives Cash receipts × × × × × ×

9 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing and Assurance Services 9/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley Mendesain dan melaksanakan Prosedur Analitik Untuk Rekenig Siklus Penjualan Dan Penagihan

10 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing and Assurance Services 9/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley Analytical Procedures for the Sales and Collection Cycle Gross margin percentage with previous years Sales by month over time Sales returns and allowances as a percentage of gross sales with previous years

11 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing and Assurance Services 9/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley Analytical Procedures for the Sales and Collection Cycle Individual customer balances over a stated amount Bad debt expense as a percentage of gross sales Days that accounts receivable are outstanding

12 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing and Assurance Services 9/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley Analytical Procedures for the Sales and Collection Cycle Aging category as a percentage of receivables Allowance for uncollectible accounts as a percentage of accounts receivable Charge-off of uncollectible accounts as a percentage of total accounts receivable

13 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing and Assurance Services 9/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley Selected Comparative Information Percent 2002Change2001Change2000 (000) 02-01(000) 00-01(000) Sales Gross margin Accounts receivable Bad debt expense 3.3(2.9) Total assets 61.4(7.0) Net earnings Number of accounts receivable

14 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing and Assurance Services 9/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley Analytical Procedures Sales and Collection Cycle Gross margin/net sales27.8%27.7%27.5% Sales R&A/gross sales.9%.9%.8% Bad debt expense/net sales 2.3% 2.6% 2.4% Allowance for uncollectible accounts/accounts receivable 6.1% 8.2% 8.4% Number of days receivables outstanding Net accounts receivable/ current assets37.2%38.6%36.0%

15 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing and Assurance Services 9/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley Design and Perform Tests of Details of A/R Balance (Phase III) Planned detection risk for each objective is an auditor’s decision. Combining the factors that determine planned detection risk is complex.

16 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing and Assurance Services 9/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley Analytical Procedures for Gross Margin Gross Margin Percent Client Industry Client Industry Hardwood Softwood Plywood

17 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing and Assurance Services 9/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley Learning Objective 3 Design and perform tests of details of balances for accounts receivable for each balance- related audit objective.

18 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing and Assurance Services 9/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley Designing Tests of Detail of Balances Aged trial balance Recorded accounts receivable exist Existing accounts receivable are included Accounts receivable are accurate Accounts receivable are properly classified

19 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing and Assurance Services 9/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley Designing Tests of Detail of Balances Cutoff for accounts receivable is correct Accounts receivable is stated at realizable value The client has rights to accounts receivable Accounts receivable presentation and disclosures are proper

20 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing and Assurance Services 9/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley Learning Objective 4 Obtain and evaluate accounts receivable confirmations.

21 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing and Assurance Services 9/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley AICPA Requirements 1. Accounts receivable are immaterial. 2. The auditor considers confirmations ineffective evidence because response rates will likely be inadequate or unreliable. 3. The combined level of inherent risk and control risk is low and other substantive evidence can be accumulated to provide sufficient evidence.

22 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing and Assurance Services 9/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley Type of Confirmation Positive confirmation Blank confirmation form Invoice confirmation Negative confirmation

23 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing and Assurance Services 9/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley Timing The most reliable evidence from confirmations is obtained when they are sent as close to the balance sheet date as possible, as opposed to confirming the accounts several months before year-end.

24 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing and Assurance Services 9/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley Sample Size Tolerable misstatement Inherent risk Control risk Achieved detection risk from other substantive tests Type of confirmation

25 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing and Assurance Services 9/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley Selection of Items for Testing When selecting a sample of accounts receivable for confirmation, the auditor should be careful to avoid being influenced by the client.

26 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing and Assurance Services 9/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley Selection of Items for Testing If a client tries to discourage the auditor from sending confirmation to certain customers, the auditor should consider the possibility that the client is attempting to conceal fictitious or known misstatements of accounts receivable.

27 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing and Assurance Services 9/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley Subsequent Cash Receipts Evidence of the receipt of cash subsequent to the confirmation date includes examining remittance advices, entries in the cash receipts records, or perhaps even subsequent credits in the accounts receivable master files.

28 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing and Assurance Services 9/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley Duplicate Sales Invoices These are useful in verifying the actual issuance of a sales invoice and the actual date of the billing.

29 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing and Assurance Services 9/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley Shipping Documents These are important in establishing whether the shipment was actually made and as a test of cutoff.

30 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing and Assurance Services 9/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley Correspondence With the Client Usually, the auditor does not need to review correspondence as a part of alternative procedures, but correspondence can be used to disclose disputed and questionable receivables not uncovered by other means.

31 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing and Assurance Services 9/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley Analysis of Difference Payment has already been made Goods have not been received The goods have been returned Clerical errors and disputed accounts

32 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing and Assurance Services 9/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley Drawing Conclusions Reevaluate internal control. Evaluate the qualitative nature of misstatements. Determine whether sufficient evidence was obtained.

33 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing and Assurance Services 9/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley Learning Objective 5 Design audit procedures for the audit of accounts receivable, using an evidence planning worksheet as a guide.

34 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing and Assurance Services 9/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley Source of Each Row in the Evidence Planning Worksheet Tolerable misstatement Acceptable audit risk Inherent risk Control risk Substantive tests of transactions results Planned detection risk and planned audit evidence

35 ©2003 Prentice Hall Business Publishing, Auditing and Assurance Services 9/e, Arens/Elder/Beasley End of Chapter 15


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