Presentation on theme: "Or Controversial Argument Hotspots"— Presentation transcript:
1Or Controversial Argument Hotspots Fallacies of ArgumentOrControversial Argument Hotspots
2Why fallacies are important to recognize… They instantly raise questions about the ethics of argumentProvide information about whether the strategy is fair, accurate or principled.Help to determine if the argument is flawed by its very nature.Helps to raise questions about whether argument was organized improperly accidentally because the writer didn’t know any better.Or, was it done on purpose because the writer wanted to manipulate his audience?
3Emotional Fallacies Can be very powerful and convincing Most of the time they violate an audience's “good faith” on which an argument is basedAn audience can’t trust a writer who can’t make a point without frightening, provoking tears, or stirring up hatred.
4Scare Tactics Remarkably common Work because it’s easier to imagine something terrible happening than to appreciate its statistical rarityUsed to scare people and exaggerate possible dangersUsed to stampede legitimate fears into panic or prejudiceEffect – closes off thinking because people who are scared seldom think rationallyExample:“Either have safe sex or you will die.” – National Council on AIDS
5Either – Or Choices Reduces the options for action to only two choices Reduces a complicated argument to excessively simple termsDesigned to seduce those who don’t know much about the topicExample:“Events can turn in one of two ways: If we fail to act the people of Iran will live in submission; the regime will bully. If we meet our responsibilities the people of Iran can shake off their captivity.” – George Bush
6Slippery Slope Casts today’s misstep as tomorrow’s avalanche When an argument exaggerates the future consequences of an actionExample:In 1996, a school board requested that a young male student cut off his ponytail. This resulted in a law suit that claimed that they were trying to take away his freedom of expression and if they did this all freedoms would be taken away.
7SentimentalismArguments that use emotions excessively to distract readers from the facts.Makes the audience guilty if they challenge an idea or proposal.Seldom gives a complete opinion of the complex issue.Example:Using an image of a threatened species (panda, wolf…) to make you give money to a charity. You don’t know where the money is going…is it really helping that panda?
8BandwagonUsed to urge people to follow the same path that everyone else is taking.Americans are easily seduced by ideas endorsed by the mass media.This appeal is the most dangerous to a democratic society.Example:All Americans should feel patriotic towards their country, especially during wartime, even though they may not agree with the policies involved.
9Ethical Fallacies The idea is based on “Trust me” Most devices used to create trust have some sort of bias behind them.Be careful when you read “facts” from people who don’t represent both sides fairly so that the audience can actually choose a side.
10False AuthorityDraws on the authority of a person to create an expert.“Trust, but verify.” – Ronald ReganExample:Christianity is the most popular religion in the Western world according to many Americans.Usually it boils down to:X is true because (he, she, it) says it’s true, therefore it must be true.
11DogmatismAsserting that a particular position is the only one conceivable.When someone suggests that simply raising an issue is wrong (racist, sexist, unpatriotic, sacrilegious) be wary.Example:“It’s clear to any rational American that all foreigners are bad for the United States.”
12Moral EquivalenceSuggests that serious wrongdoings don’t differ in kind from minor offenses, or it’s opposite, that minor offenses are raised to serious crimes.Differs from Slippery Slope because it compares (equivalence) two arguments.Example:If smoking is almost criminal now, how can we not be concerned with those who abuse chocolate? It’s abuse is also responsible for a host of health problems.”
13Ad HominemAttacking the character of people rather than attacking the substance of their arguments.The theory is: destroy the credibility of your opponent and destroy his argument.Example:“You think Eminem is a homophobic racist? Well, you’re just a thumb-sucking, white-bread elitist.”
14Logical FallaciesWhen claims are invalid, insufficient or disconnected.They seem reasonable and full of information, but they carefully hide the insufficiencies.
15Hasty Generalization An inference drawn from insufficient evidence. Forms the basis for most stereotypesThere is not a large enough body of information on which the claim is made.Example:“Because my Honda broke down, all Hondas are junk.”
16Begging the questionAn argument made on grounds that cannot be accepted because those grounds are in doubt.Assuming as true the very claim that is disputedExamples:“You can’t give me a “C”! I’m an “A” student!”“You can’t find my client guilty of embezzlement! He’s an honest person!”
17Equivocation A half-truth An argument that gives a lie an honest appearance.A trick of languageExamples:A girl who copies a paper word for word claims, “I wrote that paper all by myself!” (You know she’s claiming to have physically written it, not intellectually.)
18Non-Sequitur An argument that doesn’t follow logic Occur when writers miss a step in the flow of evidenceExample:“The poor performance of American students on international math tests means the country should spend more on math education.” When in fact the students’ poor performance could be related to a variety of problems.
19Faulty Analogies Inaccurate comparisons between objects or concepts When comparisons are pushed too farExample:A mind is like a garden. When planted, fertilized, and cultivated properly it thrives. (But aren’t gardens fertilized with manure…?)
20Look at the following and identify the fallacy type and specific kind.
287. You can never give anyone a break. If you do, they'll walk all over you.8.The sign said "fine for parking here", and since itwas fine, I parked there.9.That parking attendant who gave me a ticket isas bad as Hitler.10. Interviewer: "Your resume looks impressive butI need another reference." Bill: "Jill can give me a good reference." Interviewer: "Good. But how do I know that Jillis trustworthy?" Bill: "I can vouch for her."11."Bill claims that tax breaks for corporationsincreases development. Of course, Bill is theCEO of a corporation."
29Emotional fallacy Ethical fallacy Logical fallacy Create an ORIGINAL example of anEmotional fallacyEthical fallacyLogical fallacy