Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 - Cell Respiration"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 6 - Cell Respiration Metabolism - the sum of all the chemical reactions that occur in the body. It is comprised of:anabolism – synthesis of molecules, requires input of energycatabolism – break down of molecules, releases energy..aerobic – occurs in the presence of oxygenanaerobic – occurs in the absence of oxygen..
2Energy Flow And Chemical Cycling In The Biosphere Fuel molecules in food represent solar energyEnergy stored in food can be traced back to the sunAnimals depend on plants to convert solar energy to chemical energyThis chemical energy is in the form of sugars and other organic molecules..
3Those organisms that consume the autotrophs are consumers. Those organisms that convert sun energy into food energy are producers.autotrophs - the most common carry out photosynthesisThose organisms that consume the autotrophs are consumers.heterotrophs..
4Chemical Cycling Between Photosynthesis And Cellular Respiration The ingredients for photosynthesis are CO2 and H2OCO2 is obtained from the air by a plant’s leavesH2O is obtained from the damp soil by a plant’s rootsChloroplasts rearrange the atoms of these ingredients to produce sugars (glucose) and other organic moleculesO2 is a by-product of photosynthesisBoth plants and animals perform cellular respirationCellular respiration is a chemical process that harvests energy from organic molecules and occurs in mitochondriaThe waste products of cellular respiration, CO2 and H2O, are used in photosynthesis..
5SunlightenergyEcosystemPhotosynthesis(in chloroplasts)GlucoseOxygenCarbon dioxideCellular respiration(in mitochondria)Waterfor cellular workHeat energy
6Oxygen is the final e- acceptor. We have been designed to liberate energy from food molecules by aerobic cellular respiration. This process is described as aerobic because oxygen is required. Why is oxygen required?During cellular respiration, hydrogen and its bonding electrons change partners from glucose to water.Oxygen is the final e- acceptor.GlucoseOxygenCarbondioxideWaterEnergy
7Chemical reactions that transfer electrons from one substance to another are called oxidation-reduction reactions.the loss of electrons (and hydrogens) is called oxidationthe gain of electrons (and hydrogens) is called reduction[Oxygen gains electrons (and hydrogens)]Oxidation[Glucose loses electrons (and hydrogens)]GlucoseOxygenCarbondioxideWaterReduction
8When NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) is reduced, a pair of hydrogen atoms donates a pair of e-, one of which then binds one proton and the other proton follows along = NADH + H+. We simplify this with NADH2..
9Aerobic cellular respiration occurs in four stages: glycolysis transition reaction Krebs cycle electron transport pathway..
10Glycolysis – glucose must be “activated” by the addition of two phosphate groups P . The addition of the P also traps glucose within the cell. This process occurs in the cytosol.2ADP + Pi ATPC6H12O C3H4O3glucose pyruvic acid2NAD + 4H NADH2
12In animals if oxygen is not present to take the e- from NADH2, then the e- will be donated to pyruvic acid = Lactic acid pathway (anaerobic respiration).The final product is lactic acid. This metabolic pathway only yields 2 ATP/molecule.2 ADP+ 2GlycolysisGlucose2 NAD2 Pyruvicacid+ 2 H2 Lactic
13Various types of microorganisms perform fermentation Yeast cells carry out a slightly different type of fermentation pathway = alcoholic fermentationThis pathway produces CO2 and ethyl alcohol2 ADP+ 22 ATPGlycolysisGlucose2 NAD2 Pyruvicacid2 CO2 released+ 2 H2 Ethylalcohol
14Transition reaction = pyruvic acid moves into the matrix of the mitochondrion. CO2 is cleaved off and at the same time Coenzyme A is added.Coenzyme A is derived from the vitamin pantotenic acid.NAD + 2H NADH22C3H4O3 + 2CoA C2H3O-CoA + 2CO2pyruvic acid coenzyme A acetyl-CoA carbondioxide
16Krebs CycleAcetic acid (2C) is added to oxaloacetic acid (4C) to form citric acid (6C). CO2 is enzymatically released. This occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria.3NAD+6H NADH22C2H3O-CoA CO2FAD+2H FADH2 2ADP+P 2ATP
17InputAcetic acidADP3 NADFADKrebsCycleOutput2 CO2
18Electron Transport System e- are passed along a chain of molecules to O2, which acts as the final e- acceptor.The chain functions as a chemical machine that uses energy released by the “fall” of electrons to pump hydrogen ions across the inner mito-chondrial membraneThese ions store potential energyWhen the hydrogen ions flow back through the membrane, they release energy34 ADP+Pi 34 ATP2 H+ + 2e- + ½ O H2O
19If the last member of the chain remained in a reduced state, it would be unable to accept more e-. E- transport would then progress only to the next-to-last molecule. This process would continue until all of the elements of the chain remained in the reduced state. At this point, the system would stop and no ATP could be produced in the mitochondrion. With the system incapacitated, NADH2 and FADH2 could not become oxidized by donating their electrons to the chain and, through inhibition of Krebs cycle enzymes, no more NADH2 and FADH2 could be produced in the mitochondrion. The Krebs cycle would stop and respiration would become anaerobic..
20Lipids and proteins can also be used in aerobic respiration. FoodPolysaccharidesFatsProteinsSugarsGlycerolFatty acidsAmino acidsAmino groupsGlycolysisAcetyl-CoAKrebsCycleElectronTransport
22LipogenesisExcess glucose does not complete respiration but instead is converted into glycerol and fatty acids. The acetyl-CoA subunits from the transition reaction are added together to produce fatty acids. This occurs primarily in adipose tissue and the liver..
24LipolysisTriglycerides are hydrolyzed into glycerol and free fatty acids (FFA) by lipolysis.In some tissues glycerol can be converted into phosphoglyceraldehyde.FFAs are a major energy source and are metabolized by b-oxidation..
26Amino AcidsExcess amino acids (a.a.) in the diet are not simply stored as additional protein – instead they are deaminated and the carbon skeleton is either respired or converted to carbohydrates or fats.Adequate amounts of amino acids are required for growth and repair. Some a.a. can be make by rearranging parts of carbohydrates and essential a.a. A new amino acid can be obtained by transamination.Amine group (NH2) transferred from one amino acid to form another amino acid and a keto acid.Catalyzed by a specific enzyme (transaminase)..
29Excess amino acids are processed for excretion by oxidative deamination. The amine group is removed and converted to urea, which is then excreted by the kidneys.
30Not all cells can use glucose as the energy source. Blood contains a variety of energy sources:Glucose and ketone bodies, fatty acids, lactic acid, and amino acids.Different tissues preferentially use different energy molecules.Blood [glucose] maintained as many organs spare glucose.Why??