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Chapter 6 - Cell Respiration

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1 Chapter 6 - Cell Respiration
Metabolism - the sum of all the chemical reactions that occur in the body. It is comprised of: anabolism – synthesis of molecules, requires input of energy catabolism – break down of molecules, releases energy.. aerobic – occurs in the presence of oxygen anaerobic – occurs in the absence of oxygen..

2 Energy Flow And Chemical Cycling In The Biosphere
Fuel molecules in food represent solar energy Energy stored in food can be traced back to the sun Animals depend on plants to convert solar energy to chemical energy This chemical energy is in the form of sugars and other organic molecules..

3 Those organisms that consume the autotrophs are consumers.
Those organisms that convert sun energy into food energy are producers. autotrophs - the most common carry out photosynthesis Those organisms that consume the autotrophs are consumers. heterotrophs..

4 Chemical Cycling Between Photosynthesis And Cellular Respiration
The ingredients for photosynthesis are CO2 and H2O CO2 is obtained from the air by a plant’s leaves H2O is obtained from the damp soil by a plant’s roots Chloroplasts rearrange the atoms of these ingredients to produce sugars (glucose) and other organic molecules O2 is a by-product of photosynthesis Both plants and animals perform cellular respiration Cellular respiration is a chemical process that harvests energy from organic molecules and occurs in mitochondria The waste products of cellular respiration, CO2 and H2O, are used in photosynthesis..

5 Sunlight energy Ecosystem Photosynthesis (in chloroplasts) Glucose Oxygen Carbon dioxide Cellular respiration (in mitochondria) Water for cellular work Heat energy

6 Oxygen is the final e- acceptor.
We have been designed to liberate energy from food molecules by aerobic cellular respiration. This process is described as aerobic because oxygen is required. Why is oxygen required? During cellular respiration, hydrogen and its bonding electrons change partners from glucose to water. Oxygen is the final e- acceptor. Glucose Oxygen Carbon dioxide Water Energy

7 Chemical reactions that transfer electrons from one substance to another are called oxidation-reduction reactions. the loss of electrons (and hydrogens) is called oxidation the gain of electrons (and hydrogens) is called reduction [Oxygen gains electrons (and hydrogens)] Oxidation [Glucose loses electrons (and hydrogens)] Glucose Oxygen Carbon dioxide Water Reduction

8 When NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) is reduced, a pair of hydrogen atoms donates a pair of e-, one of which then binds one proton and the other proton follows along = NADH + H+. We simplify this with NADH2..

9 Aerobic cellular respiration occurs in four stages: glycolysis transition reaction Krebs cycle electron transport pathway..

10 Glycolysis – glucose must be “activated” by the addition of two phosphate groups P . The addition of the P also traps glucose within the cell. This process occurs in the cytosol. 2ADP + Pi ATP C6H12O C3H4O3 glucose pyruvic acid 2NAD + 4H NADH2

11 Glucose 2 Pyruvic acid

12 In animals if oxygen is not present to take the e- from NADH2, then the e- will be donated to pyruvic acid = Lactic acid pathway (anaerobic respiration). The final product is lactic acid. This metabolic pathway only yields 2 ATP/molecule. 2 ADP+ 2 Glycolysis Glucose 2 NAD 2 Pyruvic acid + 2 H 2 Lactic

13 Various types of microorganisms perform fermentation
Yeast cells carry out a slightly different type of fermentation pathway = alcoholic fermentation This pathway produces CO2 and ethyl alcohol 2 ADP+ 2 2 ATP Glycolysis Glucose 2 NAD 2 Pyruvic acid 2 CO2 released + 2 H 2 Ethyl alcohol

14 Transition reaction = pyruvic acid moves into the matrix of the mitochondrion. CO2 is cleaved off and at the same time Coenzyme A is added.Coenzyme A is derived from the vitamin pantotenic acid. NAD + 2H NADH2 2C3H4O3 + 2CoA C2H3O-CoA + 2CO2 pyruvic acid coenzyme A acetyl-CoA carbon dioxide

15 CoA Pyruvic acid Acetic Coenzyme A Acetyl-CoA (acetyl-coenzyme A) CO2

16 Krebs Cycle Acetic acid (2C) is added to oxaloacetic acid (4C) to form citric acid (6C). CO2 is enzymatically released. This occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria. 3NAD+6H NADH2 2C2H3O-CoA CO2 FAD+2H FADH2 2ADP+P 2ATP

17 Input Acetic acid ADP 3 NAD FAD Krebs Cycle Output 2 CO2

18 Electron Transport System
e- are passed along a chain of molecules to O2, which acts as the final e- acceptor. The chain functions as a chemical machine that uses energy released by the “fall” of electrons to pump hydrogen ions across the inner mito-chondrial membrane These ions store potential energy When the hydrogen ions flow back through the membrane, they release energy 34 ADP+Pi 34 ATP 2 H+ + 2e- + ½ O H2O

19 If the last member of the chain remained in a reduced state, it would be unable to accept more e-. E- transport would then progress only to the next-to-last molecule. This process would continue until all of the elements of the chain remained in the reduced state. At this point, the system would stop and no ATP could be produced in the mitochondrion. With the system incapacitated, NADH2 and FADH2 could not become oxidized by donating their electrons to the chain and, through inhibition of Krebs cycle enzymes, no more NADH2 and FADH2 could be produced in the mitochondrion. The Krebs cycle would stop and respiration would become anaerobic..

20 Lipids and proteins can also be used in aerobic respiration.
Food Polysaccharides Fats Proteins Sugars Glycerol Fatty acids Amino acids Amino groups Glycolysis Acetyl- CoA Krebs Cycle Electron Transport


22 Lipogenesis Excess glucose does not complete respiration but instead is converted into glycerol and fatty acids. The acetyl-CoA subunits from the transition reaction are added together to produce fatty acids. This occurs primarily in adipose tissue and the liver..


24 Lipolysis Triglycerides are hydrolyzed into glycerol and free fatty acids (FFA) by lipolysis. In some tissues glycerol can be converted into phosphoglyceraldehyde. FFAs are a major energy source and are metabolized by b-oxidation..


26 Amino Acids Excess amino acids (a.a.) in the diet are not simply stored as additional protein – instead they are deaminated and the carbon skeleton is either respired or converted to carbohydrates or fats. Adequate amounts of amino acids are required for growth and repair. Some a.a. can be make by rearranging parts of carbohydrates and essential a.a. A new amino acid can be obtained by transamination. Amine group (NH2) transferred from one amino acid to form another amino acid and a keto acid. Catalyzed by a specific enzyme (transaminase)..



29 Excess amino acids are processed for excretion by oxidative deamination. The amine group is removed and converted to urea, which is then excreted by the kidneys.

30 Not all cells can use glucose as the energy source.
Blood contains a variety of energy sources: Glucose and ketone bodies, fatty acids, lactic acid, and amino acids. Different tissues preferentially use different energy molecules. Blood [glucose] maintained as many organs spare glucose. Why??


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