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Enhancing SmartConservation : Green Infrastructure Plan Development Robert Cheetham Avencia Incorporated Clare Billett Natural Lands Trust Funding provided by William Penn Foundation

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Overall Objectives Develop a green infrastructure plan for SE PA made up of hubs and corridors. Develop a methodology to use in the site-to- site assessment to score SmartConservation sites based on their proximity to these hubs and corridors – but well defer this until the hubs and corridors are established.

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Hubs 1.Existing Protected Lands (gov & NGO - not ag. lands) 1.Lands with top 20% of region-wide SmartConservation mapped natural resources 2.All CNAI-PNDI Locations

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Protected Lands

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Conservation Resource Lands

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PNDI Lands

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Merged Hubs Protected Lands PNDI Cons. Resource Locations Merged Hubs merge Before merge After merge

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Corridors - The Real Question How can we connect the hubs? Where should the corridors be? How far is any corridor location from a hub?

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Distance vs. Cost Distance Distance as-the-crow-flies is really not the distance that we want. We want to account for barriers in the landscape as well as factors that overcome barriers. We also want to account for density of nearby protected lands. We can use the concept of travel cost to model this.

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Linear Distance Like spinning a ruler around a center

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What is Cost Distance ? Concept: It costs more to travel through certain cells Input: Hubs Friction/Permeability/Cost Surface Output: Represents Accumulated Least Cost from source location (hub) to destination location (another hub)

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What is Cost Distance? Cost: Barriers to travel (including factors that might reduce barriers) Higher cost values means greater barrier Examples: Roads Wind Railways Salinity Gradient Water

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What is Cost Distance?

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Cost Distance to Sample Site from other protected lands How is it used? – an Example

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Least Cost Path from Sample Site to Protected Lands How is it used? – an Example

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Green Infrastructure Development Method - TASKS 1. General Permeability Layer Development 2. Corridor Identification Methodology 3. Aquatic Corridor Development

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Task 1 Objectives Develop a map layer that represents the degree of permeability for terrestrial movement of animals which migrate through the landscape …but also encapsulates the size, shape and degree of protection for each hub

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Barriers 1.Roads Class 2.Active Railways 3.Higher Order Streams 4.Water bodies Barriers are 50% of Travel Cost

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Streets

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Active Railways

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Ordered Streams

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Water bodies

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Relative Travel Cost

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Combine Barriers

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Density 1.Roads 2.Active Railways 3.Higher Order Streams Density is 50% of Travel Cost

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Density – 500m Density calculation done with a radius of 500 m.

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Density – 1000m Density calculation done with a radius of 1000 m.

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Density – 1000m w/ CLASS NLT selected this one to use Density calculation done with a radius of 1000 m and using CLASS as calculation factor.

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Density – 2000m Density calculation done with a radius of 2000 m.

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Building the Corridors Basic Principles: Corridors connect Hubs Corridors occupy the Least Cost Path between two hubs Corridor networks are calculated at different scales (regional/ subregional /local) When multiple corridors are available, the one that combines the best average conservation value, plus destination hub value, will prevail.

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Preliminary Impedance

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Hub Proximity Values Merged protected land sites with overlapping donut buffers of 1km and 2 km and values of 50% and 10 % respectively. Overlap region with cumulative proximity values

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Conservation Resource Value

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Modified Impermeability + Modified Impedance - = () BarriersConservation Value Hub Proximity

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Modifying Impermeability Again Adjust Cost Layer by using Maximum Cost in 150m radius around each cell Create Snowplow effect to encourage paths through areas with best average conservation value and least average barrier costs -- across the entire corridor width of 300m (or 1100ft) Least Cost Path w/o modification 2000 ft 300 ft 60 ft Least Cost Path w/ modification

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Neighborhood Maximum 5863501518 In Out

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Neighborhood Maximum 14311332131211111211011103443434434333231222212221

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Modifying Impermeability Again Adjust Cost Layer by using Maximum Cost in 150m radius around each cell Create Snowplow effect to encourage paths through areas with best average conservation value and least average barrier costs -- across the entire corridor width of 300m (or 1100ft) Least Cost Path w/o modification 2000 ft 300 ft 60 ft Least Cost Path w/ modification

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Preliminary Impedance

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Modified Impedance Conservation Resource Value, Protected Land Zone of Influence values have been subtracted.

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Building the Green Infrastructure Network Basic Principles: Adjacent and overlapping hubs should be treated as a single hub Travel Cost between hubs is a function of both the barrier types and the density of the barriers. Barriers have different relative impact values depending on their impermeability (e.g. relative amount of traffic or similar measure such as width, etc.) Density and Barrier type impact value each comprise 50% of the total corridor cost. Density is calculated at using a 1000m search radius Corridor Cost is reduced by 2 factors: –Conservation Resource Value –Proximity to Hubs Corridor Cost is based on the average cost and values for the entire 300m corridor width, (not just one cell width and then buffered as with other least cost path green infrastructure processes (e.g. TCF, MNRD, etc)).

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Discussion Points - This Afternoon P1: Road Class Barrier Cost (value) P2: Railway Barrier Cost (value) P3: Ordered Stream Barrier Cost (value) P4: Water Body Barrier Cost (value)

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Green Infrastructure Development Method - Next Steps 1. General Permeability Layer Development 2. Corridor Identification Methodology 3. Aquatic Corridor Development

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Task 2 Objective Establish corridors between connecting hubs based on hub size classes

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Hubs

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Conceptual Corridor Network

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Create a Network of Corridors using the following parameters: 1.For each Hub > 1000 acres, select all other hubs within 30 miles 2.Draw least cost path to each 3.Create a Cost Corridor 4.A = Corridor Conservation Value 5.B = Hub Conservation Value 6.C = Length, Cost Length 7.Corridor Value = Average (A + B) 8.Select Top 3 9.Repeat Connect Large Hubs

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Create a Network of Corridors using the following parameters: 1.For each Hub > 500 acres, select all other hubs within 15 miles 2.Draw least cost path to each 3.Create a Cost Corridor 4.A = Corridor Conservation Value. 5.B = Hub Conservation Value 6.Corridor Value = Average(A + B) 7.Select Top 5 8.Repeat Connect Medium Hubs

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Create a Network of Corridors using the following parameters: 1.For each Hub > 100 acres, select all other hubs within 3 miles 2.Draw least cost path to each 3.Create a Cost Corridor 4.A = Corridor Conservation Value. 5.B = Hub Conservation Value 6.Corridor Value = Average (A + B) 7.Select Top 5 8.Repeat Connect Small Hubs

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Least Cost Path - Example Least cost path -- between source & destination hubs

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Least Cost Path - Example Least cost path -- between source & destination hubs

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Cost Weighted Corridor - Example Corridor calculation using the cost weighted method with minimum extent radius of 10 cost units Cost Corridor between source & destination hubs

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Cost Weighted Corridor - Example Corridor calculation using the cost weighted method with minimum extent radius of 10 cost units Cost Corridor between source & destination hubs

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Discussion Points - This Afternoon CI 1: Network scales Network ScaleHub SizeSearch Radius# of Corridors per hub Large>1000 acres30 miles3 Medium>500 acres10 miles3 Small>250 acres5 miles3

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Green Infrastructure Development Method - Next Steps 1. General Permeability Layer Development 2. Corridor Identification Methodology 3. Aquatic Corridor Development

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Task 3 Objectives Create special aquatic corridors that connect hubs using riparian corridors

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Aquatic Corridors are built from… 1.Ordered Streams 2.Water bodies 3.Floodplains 4.Wetlands 5.Hydric Soils

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Stream Order 1-2

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Stream Order 3-5

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Stream Order 6-12

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Flood Plains

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Wetlands

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Hydric Soils

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Water Bodies

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Sample Corridor

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Choosing Aquatic Corridors The best Aquatic Corridors have: Fewest Barriers Highest Aquatic Value

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Aquatic Barriers are... 1.Dams (>5ft):5 points 2.Bridges/Culverts Stream Order 1-2:3 points Stream Order 3-5:2 points Stream Order 6+:1 points

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Bridges/Culverts 1-2 Bridges 1-2 were defined by extracting intersection points of roads and streams of order 1-2

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Bridges/Culverts 3-5 Bridges 3-5 were defined by extracting intersection points of roads and streams of order 3-5

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Bridges/Culverts 6-12 Bridges 6-12 were defined by extracting intersection points of roads and streams of order 6-12

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Dams

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Aquatic Conservation Value

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Hub Proximity Values Merged protected land sites with overlapping donut buffers of 1km and 2 km and values of 50% and 10 % respectively. Overlap region with cumulative proximity values

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Basic Principles: Aquatic Corridors are Special and the best ones should be highlighted The Travel Cost approach is not appropriate for aquatic corridors due to the limited number of possible routes Aquatic corridors are made up from combinations of: -Ordered Streams -Water bodies -Floodplains -Wetlands -Hydric Soils Aquatic corridor barriers are Dams and Bridges/Culverts The best aquatic corridors are: -Less impeded by dams and other barriers -Have higher aquatic conservation value -Lead to hubs of high conservation value Highlighting Special Aquatic Corridors

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Discussion Points - This Afternoon AQ1: Aquatic Corridor Value Formula Input LayersValueFactorMaximum Conservation Value Layers Aquatic Conservation Value0 - 10220 Hub Proximity0 – 10220 Barrier Layers Dams5# of dams 20 Bridges/Culverts1-3# of bridges/culverts

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