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Company LOGO Kyoto and Beyond Report on Copenhagen June, 2010
Introduction Click here to view entire series Kyoto and Beyond is a series of presentations that provide information concerning the evolving international climate treaty process that began with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Report on Copenhagen is a summary of events that transpired in Dec 2009 at the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties (COP15), including the drafting of the Copenhagen Accord and subsequent public discourse.
Contents The Kyoto Protocol Steps toward COP16 COP15 and the Copenhagen Accord 2010 Timeline Reactions to COP15
The Kyoto Protocol The convocation of nations in Copenhagen to address a future climate agreement is the 15 th in a series of meetings resulting from the UNFCCCUNFCCC The first formal international climate agreement requiring limits to fossil fuel emissions is the Kyoto Protocol which is currently in force.
Kyoto Protocol Background The Protocol is a multilateral agreement aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Developed countries were assigned limits on emissions relative to 1990, and targets vary by nation. The Protocol was signed by 84 countries and ratified by nearly all who signed. The US did not ratify. Countries who ratified are now bound by Protocol requirements. The Protocol, part of the UNFCCC, has been in force since The first commitment period ends 2012 and no binding framework has been established post Four Conference of the Parties have taken place since the Protocol entered into force. Each COP has been accompanied by a CMP, a meeting specific to the Protocol.Conference of the Parties CMP
Kyoto Protocol Emissions Updates Developed countries were assigned limits on emissions relative to 1990 levels and targets vary by nation. This table from UNFCCC data shows progress made in emissions reductions as of Image credit: UNFCCC
Kyoto Protocol Emissions Updates Source: World Wildlife Foundation/Allianz For specific information on each country, click on the country flags The Climate Scorecard below shows an interpretation of the performance of key nations (known as the G8) with respect to meeting the terms of the Protocol.
COP15: Overview The most recent Conference of the Parties was COP15 in Copenhagen, Denmark Dec 7-18, COP15 was particularly significant due to an increasing international push for new binding climate change legislature. The focus of COP15 was on attempting to draft new legislation and deciding if goals set by the Kyoto Protocol should continue post Time was also spent improving the clean development mechanism and drafting decisions on adaptation, technology, and capacity building. Click here to view the schedule of COP15 Image credit: Wikimedia Commons
COP15: Details What was expectedWhat actually happened Finding a new commitment phase for the Kyoto Protocol that includes emissions reductions from developing countries. Lowering the target temperature rise from 2C to 1.5C to protect the least developed nations and smallest islands from disappearing. Forming an agreement on how to avoid catastrophic temperature increases by Forming a method for developing countries to receive aid and funding towards reducing emissions levels. Creating an accountability mechanism to ensure funding occurs. Forming a new legally binding agreement. No binding framework was created; no obligations on developing countries to make cuts. The 2C target temperature prevailed due to the high cost associated with the.5C decrease (trillions of dollars per industrialized nation). The goal of reducing global CO2 emissions by 50% (80% for industrialized nations) was dropped. No mechanisms put in place to mobilize $100 billion by 2020 to aid developing countries. No decisions were made as to which developed countries would provide funding. The Copenhagen Accord was created separately from COP15. Not legally binding.
The Copenhagen Accord The Copenhagen Accord was the result of an independent action of the U.S., China, Brazil, India, and South Africa. The meeting, as well as the drafting of the accord, were not an official part of COP15. The process was controversial due to the limited international involvement. It became apparent that the COP15 process was floundering, and during the last days of COP15 the Copenhagen Accord evolved. Some countries that were excluded from the process renounced the Accord. These include Venezuela, Bolivia, Cuba, and Nicaragua. Image credit: Wikimedia Commons
Contents of the Copenhagen Accord A Sets a goal limiting the increase in Earth’s average temperature to 2 degrees Celsius from pre-industrial levels; process yet to be established. B States that Annex I countries of the Protocol should further strengthen their efforts to meet targets set by the Protocol.Annex I C Funding will be provided to developing countries for lowering emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and for adaptation and technology development and transfer. D Copenhagen Green Climate Fund will be the operator of finances to help developing countries conduct activities related to mitigation. NOTE: No specific emissions reductions have been set and the Accord is not legally binding. Click here to view the entire Copenhagen Accord
Outcome COP15 did not achieve its objective which was to establish an agreement subsequent to the Kyoto Protocol. However, on the last day, December 18 th, it did acknowledge the Accord as a means to move the process forward. The Copenhagen Accord is not legally binding, but allows for nations to submit voluntary commitments. While the Accord initially raised controversy, there has been increasing acceptance. As of January 2010, 124 countries were engaged in some form of voluntary commitment. increasing acceptance The Accord is currently viewed as a declaration that expresses an intent to act on climate change. Image credit: Wikimedia Commons
Supportive Reactions to COP15 “The meeting has had a positive result, everyone should be happy. After negotiations both sides have managed to preserve their bottom line. For the Chinese this was our sovereignty and our national interest.” -Xie Zhenhua, Head of China’s Delegation “The Copenhagen Accord is no substitute for a real-deal treaty, but world leaders became personally acquainted with the tough issues, directly and seriously negotiating for the first time…” -Kelly Sims Gallagher, Professor of Energy and Environmental Policy at The Fletcher School “We have made a start. I believe that what we need to follow up on quickly is ensuring a legally binding outcome.” - Gordon Brown, UK Prime Minister “We’ve come a long way but we have much further to go.” -Barack Obama, US President “The leaders of a small number of key countries…worked to identify a politically feasible path forward. Their roadmap, despite its flaws, offers a possible foundation for progress…Unlike Kyoto, this accord establishes a framework for involving key, rapidly growing developing countries” -Robert Stavins, Professor at the Harvard Kennedy School “Given where we started and the expectations for this conference, anything less than a legally binding and agreed outcome falls far short of the mark. On the other hand… perhaps the bar was set too high and the fact that there’s now a deal… perhaps gives us something to hang our hat on.” -John Ahse, Chair of Kyoto Protocol Talks
Unsupportive Reactions to COP 15 “It’s very disappointing, I would say, but it is not a failure…We have a big job ahead to avoid climate change through effective emissions reduction targets and this was not done here.” -Sergio Serra, Brazil’s Climate Change Ambassador “Anything above 1.5 Degrees, the Maldives and many small islands and low-lying islands would vanish. It is for this reason that we tried very hard during the course of the last two days to have 1.5 degrees in the document. I am so sorry that this was blatantly obstructed by big- emitting countries.” - Mohamed Nasheed, Maldives’ President “The draft text asks Africa to sign a suicide pact, an incineration pact in order to maintain the economic dominance of a few countries” - Lumumba Stanislaus Di-Aping, Head of G-77 Group “I will not hide my disappointment regarding the non-binding nature of the agreement here. In that respect the document falls far short of our expectations” -Jose Manuel Barroso, EU Commission President “It looks like we are being offered 30 pieces of silver to betray our people and our future.” -Ian Fry, Tuvalu’s Lead Negotiator “Copenhagen has been an abject failure. Justice has not been done. By delaying action, rich countries have condemned millions of the world’s poorest people to hunger, suffering and loss of life as climate change accelerates. The blame for this disastrous outcome is squarely on the developed nations.” - Nnimmo Bassey, Friends of the Earth International Click here to view other reactions
COP15: Limited Progress The general consensus of attending parties was that COP15 was unsuccessful. In the coming months, countries will work towards finding an agreement on new binding legislation. Many feel it will be necessary to provide more detail in the Accord to increase transparency to rebuild trust. There is talk of creating a global climate fund to service developing nations. This may create balance between the developed and developing nations. Image credit: Wikimedia Commons
Steps Toward COP16 Forums and Talks Strengthening Emissions Pledges Progress Tracking System Improving Details of the Accord Further talks necessary before COP 16 in order to reach a legislative agreement. Emissions pledges not large enough. Need new program to strengthen pledges. Execute progress tracking systems for developed countries. Create for developing countries. Details on finance, forests, adaptation, technology. Click stepped text for further details on each step. November 29 – December 10, 2010 in Cancun, Mexico
Address by Yvo de Boer at Petersberg Climate Dialogue The World’s People’s Conference on Climate Change in Bolivia 2010 Timeline Decoding the Copenhagen Accord Event on Capitol Hill 20 th Meeting of the Joint Implementation Supervisory Committee Speech by Yvo de Boer at Public Hearing on Climate Change Bonn Climate Change Talks 9 th Meeting of the Enforcement Branch of the Compliance Committee Bonn Climate Change Talks – Second Round Second International Conference on Climate Change World Energy Congress in Montreal Mexico’s Proposed Additional Climate Change Meeting G20 Climate Meetings in Seoul COP16 in Cancun, Mexico Key Date Set Proposed Date Click on events for further information and supporting documents January | February | March | April| May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December
Concluding Statement Article 2 of the UNFCCC calls for the stabilization of atmospheric GHG concentrations at levels that “prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.” The UNFCCC/Kyoto/Copenhagen process continues as nations attempt to meet this objective. We plan to provide updates and links to important documents when COP16 and other notable events occur.
References Ahmed, Imad. "What Happened at Copenhagen?" Graduate Professional School of International Affairs - The Fletcher School at Tufts University. 7 Jan Web. Baste, Ivar A. "Joint Implementation Supervisory Committee Publishes Report of 20th Meeting - Climate- L.org." Climate-L.org - Daily News. 24 Feb Web. supervisory-committee-publishes-report-of-20th-meeting/http://climate-l.org/2010/02/25/joint-implementation- supervisory-committee-publishes-report-of-20th-meeting/ "Bolivia Climate Change Conference and the Rights of Mother Earth." Ecowalkthetalk.com. 28 Apr Web. earth/ earth/ "Bonn Climate Change Talks." International Institute for Sustainable Development - Reporting Services (IISD RS) - "Linkages" - A Multimedia Resource for Environment and Development Negotiations. Web. "Bonn Climate Change Talks." United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Web. "Bonn Climate Change Talks Conclude: More Optimism, but Still ‘unbalanced’." United Nations Non-governmental Liaison Service. 16 June Web. Climate Change Conference 2010." Climate Change. University of Queensland. Web /http://on-climate.com/conference- 2010/ "End of COP15: Our Work Begins Now." Cascade Climate Network. Web. G20 Seoul Summit. Web. "G8 Climate Scorecards." World Wildlife Fund. Web. scorecards.htmlhttp://www.worldwildlife.org/climate/policy/G8-climate- scorecards.html "GHG Data from UNFCCC." United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Web. "Hill Event Analyzes Copenhagen Accord and the Future of Climate Negotiations." The German Marshall Fund of the United States. 25 Jan Web. Morales, Alex. "Mexico Proposes Two Additional Climate Change Meetings in 2010." Bloomberg.com. 12 Feb Web. Morgan, Jennifer. "From Angst to Action: Moving Forward After Copenhagen | World Resources Institute." World Resources Institute | Global Warming, Climate Change, Ecosystems, Sustainable Markets, Good Governance & the Environment. 7 Apr Web. 22 May after-copenhagen?utm_campaign=wri-digest&utm_medium= &utm_source=wridigest &utm_content=hyperlink&utm_term=FromAngstToActionhttp://www.wri.org/stories/2010/04/angst-action-moving-forward- after-copenhagen?utm_campaign=wri-digest&utm_medium= &utm_source=wridigest &utm_content=hyperlink&utm_term=FromAngstToAction Stavins, Robert. "Opportunities and Ironies: Climate Policy in Tokyo, Seoul, Brussels, and Washington."Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs. Harvard University, 21 Mar Web. Vidal, John. "Bolivia Climate Change Talks to Give Poor a Voice." The Guardian. Guardian News, 18 Apr Web. "What Happened at COP15 in Copenhagen?" GHG Accounting. Web.
Conference of Parties The Conference of Parties (COP) is the managing body of the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). The COP meets annually to discuss climate change in relation to the UNFCCC and, more recently, the Kyoto Protocol.
CMP The CMP (Conference of Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol) is a body of the Protocol which holds annual meetings at the same time and place as the COP. The first CMP was held in Montreal, Canada at COP11 in December, The CMP was responsible for the adoption of the Marrakesh Accords, the “rulebook” of the Protocol. Participators of the CMP are Parties to the Protocol. Parties to the UNFCCC who are not Parties to the Protocol may observe the CMP but may not make any decisions.
Germany Emissions Update Germany has made significant progress in emissions reductions due to increased national measures. Between 1990 and 2007, emissions levels decreased by 21.3% Germany has established a goal of a 40% emissions reduction by 2020 compared to 1990 levels. Germany has promoted new renewable energy sources, and has implemented a number of climate policies to aid emissions reductions. Click here for a detailed view of Germany’s efforts. Image credit: G8 Climate Scorecard from WWF/Allianz
UK Emissions Update The UK has been successful in reducing emissions, and emissions are currently already below the Kyoto target. Between 1990 and 2007, emissions levels decreased by 17.3% The UK has agreed to a legally binding emissions reduction of 80% by 2050 and at least 34% by Every 5 years, the UK is legally bound to report on risks of climate change and how the risks will addressed. Click here for a detailed view of the UK’s efforts. Image credit: G8 Climate Scorecard from WWF/Allianz
France Emissions Update France’s emissions are currently below the target set by the Kyoto Protocol. However, emissions are projected to increase if no more policies are implemented. Between 1990 and 2007, emissions levels decreased by 5.3% France has low emissions rates per capita in comparison to industrialized countries’ average. France is one of the first countries to agree to a long-term target by law (-75% by 2050). Click here for a detailed view of France’s efforts. Image credit: G8 Climate Scorecard from WWF/Allianz
Italy Emissions Update Italy’s emissions are currently above the target set by the Kyoto Protocol and are projected to increase further. Between 1990 and 2007, emissions levels increased by 7.1%. Italy’s emissions rates are low compared to other industrialized countries. Italy has agreed to reduce emissions by 20% below 1990 levels, or 30% if other countries commit as well. Click here for a detailed view of Italy’s efforts. Image credit: G8 Climate Scorecard from WWF/Allianz
Japan Emissions Update WE HAVE NO EMISSIONS UPDATE FOR JAPAN AT THIS TIME. PLEASE CHECK BACK LATER.
Russia Emissions Update Russia’s emissions are currently significantly below the target set by the Kyoto Protocol. However, they are steadily increasing. Between 1990 and 2007, emissions levels decreased by 33.9%. Russia’s emissions rates are averaged compared to other industrialized countries. Russia currently has few climate related policies. Click here for a detailed view of Russia’s efforts. Image credit: G8 Climate Scorecard from WWF/Allianz
USA Emissions Update The USA is currently the country with the highest absolute emissions in the G8 and among the highest in the world. Between 1990 and 2007, emissions levels increased by 16.8%. The Obama administration has plans for new climate policies which may help aid the emissions reductions. The Kyoto Protocol was not ratified by the USA and national targets are still under discussion. Click here for a detailed view of the USA’s efforts. Image credit: G8 Climate Scorecard from WWF/Allianz
Canada Emissions Update Canada is among the few G8 countries with emissions that are increasing with high emissions per capita. Between 1990 and 2007, emissions levels increased by 26.2%. Canada has not made many recent climate related policy improvements, and plans that have been created have not yet been implemented. Certain provinces, however, do have greenhouse gas emissions regulations. Click here for a detailed view of Canada’s efforts. Image credit: G8 Climate Scorecard from WWF/Allianz
Unsupportive Reactions Continued “The text we have is not perfect…If we had no deal, that would mean that two countries as important as India and China would be freed from any type of contract…the United States, which is not in Kyoto, would be free of any type of contract. That’s why a contract is absolutely vital.” - Nicolas Sarkozy, French President “I ask whether…you are going to endorse this coup d’etat against the authority of the United Nations” - Claudia Salerno Caldera, Venezuelan Delegate “We lost our vigorous commitment from other parties to (a temperature target of) 1.5C. We were not able to secure mid-term targets, a peaking year and many other factors that AOSIS believes is crucial to our survival.” - Dessima Williams, Association of Small Island States “The city of Copenhagen is a crime scene tonight, with the guilty men and women fleeing to the airport. There are no targets for carbon cuts and no agreement on a legally binding treaty. It seems there are too few politicians in this world capable of looking beyond the horizon of their own narrow self-interest, let alone caring much for the millions of people who are facing down the threat of climate change.” - John Sauven, Greenpeace UK “The Copenhagen negotiations were doomed to fail because the positions of the parties were so far apart, particularly the United States versus developing countries. Matters were exacerbated by procedural chaos, in a way suggesting that important progress can only be made through small meetings of big countries.” - Jeffery Frankel, Professor of Capital Formation and Growth at Harvard Kennedy School
Improving Details of the Accord This section of the Accord is meant to facilitate funding from developed countries to developing countries. Before COP16, developed countries will have to begin the short-term investments and find a way to distribute funds so that the countries most in need are guaranteed help. Developing countries are preparing to reduce carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and management (REDD+). The Accord calls for a mechanism to aid the process. The finalization of this mechanism will be sorted in A system that helps distribute pledged funds and aids the development of developing countries will be prepared for finalization in COP16. The Accord created a Technology Mechanism to transfer emissions reduction and adaptation technologies to developing countries. Mechanism to be initiated in 2010 through partnerships such as the Energy and Climate Partnership of the Americas. FinanceForestsAdaptationTechnology
Creating Systems for Tracking Progress Developed countries have created an accounting system to track progress. The following year calls for an integration of the system into the Accord. This will generate transparency for the developing countries so that both developing and developed countries can better cooperate due to built trust.
Strengthening Emissions Pledges So far, emissions pledges are not large enough to avoid a degree Celsius temperature warming. The United States will have to concentrate on adopting climate legislation before COP16 in order to meet the 17% reduction target set by Barack Obama in Copenhagen. Image credit: Wikimedia Commons
Forums and Talks Before COP16 takes place in Cancun, Mexico, countries will need to engage in further talks and forums in order to reach a final legislative agreement.
Decoding the Copenhagen Accord & Charting the Course Ahead January 25 th, 2010, Washington, DC. The event was hosted by the German Marshall Fund and the Embassy of Spain. Participants included people such as Teresa Ribera Rodriguez, Spain’s Secretary of State for Climate Change and Luis Alfonso de Alba, Mexico’s Special Ambassador for Climate Change. The topic of the event was COP15. Comments made stressed the lack of transparency in the process as well as the complexity of the attempted negotiations. Those who spoke at the event mentioned the need for close coordination between developing and developed countries in order to achieve an agreement on the Copenhagen Accord.
20 th Meeting of the Joint Implementation Supervisory Committee February 23 rd -4 th, 2010, Bonn, Germany The Joint Implementation Supervisory Committee (JISC) discussed the outcome of COP15/CMP5 in regards to the significant progress the committee has made. The JISC also mentioned that countries that are in most need of aid must be prioritized in the coming months. Click here to view supporting document
Bonn Climate Change Talks April 9 th -11 th, 2010, Bonn, Germany This was the first round of climate change negotiations after COP15. During the meeting, developing countries called for an agreement on Annex I country emissions reductions for the post-2012 period. Developed countries stressed the need for more coordination between developing countries, developed countries, and the Ad Hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (AWG-LCA). Click here to view supporting document
Speech by Yvo de Boer at the Public Hearing on Climate Change Date: April 14 th, 2010, Brussels, Belgium Yvo de Boer stated that a conclusion in the climate change negotiations would facilitate sustainable development and green growth. He also highlighted the need to rebuild trust so that involved parties better cooperate and come to a conclusion more rapidly. Click here to view the full speech.
The World’s People’s Conference on Climate Change in Bolivia April 19 th -22 nd, 2010, Cochabamba, Bolivia The conference was held in as an alternative to COP15. The event included at least 15,000 people from indigenous movements and civil society groups, presidents, scientists, and activists. The conference was meant to give voice to developing nations which have felt the burden of the greenhouse gas emissions made by developed countries. It worked to make governments more aware of the consequences of climate change to developing countries.
9 th Meeting of the Enforcement Branch of the Compliance Committee May 10 th -12 th, 2010, Bonn,Germany Emphasis was on addressing the question of implementation in regards to Bulgaria. The question concerns the national system of Bulgaria, which includes the legal arrangements made to estimate emissions as well as report and archive them. The question does not relate to whether or not Bulgaria is in compliance with the Kyoto Protocol. Click here to view supporting document
Address by Yvo de Boer at Petersberg Climate Dialogue May 3 rd, 2010, near Bonn, Germany Yvo de Boer addressed Environment Ministers. He mentioned the need for consistent interaction amongst those on a higher political level to provide guidance to negotiators on the key issues of climate change negotiations. He also called for an honest discussion about the future of the Kyoto Protocol. Click here to view full address.
Bonn Climate Change Talks – Second Round May 31 st – June 11 th, 2010, Bonn, Germany The conference was a continuation of the Bonn Climate Change Talks that occurred in April. 182 countries gathered to discuss unresolved issues from COP15, as well as to help strengthen international action on climate change. Issues discussed included the future of the Kyoto Protocol, emissions trading, wind energy solutions in developing countries, and land-use change and forestry. The Talks were seen as necessary to reach a consensus at COP16.
Second International Conference on Climate Change July 8 th -10 th, 2010, Brisbane, Australia The conference will address the evidence of climate change, its natural and human causes, and its impacts on humans and the ecosystem. The conference is open to anyone with an interest in and concern for subjects on climate change.
World Energy Congress September 1 st, 2010, Montreal, Canada The World Energy Congress has occurred every 3 years since 1924 and is organized by the World Energy Council. It is estimated that around 3,500 top world leaders in industry, governments, and international organizations will be in attendance. This congress is seen to be especially crucial because it will occur 9 months after COP15. It will further the conversation on how to respond to global challenges resulting from climate change and cause people to continue thinking about solutions in the time leading up to COP16.
Mexico’s President Felipe Calderon has said that international governments need to reach a comprehensive agreement on a possible solution to climate change, and that this meeting would help to further facilitate the process. September or October, 2010 Additional Climate Change Meeting
G20 Climate Meetings November 11 th -12 th, 2010, Seoul, South Korea Goals for the meeting include the discussion of long-term policy issues including financial safety nets, development-related economic issues, and reform of international financial institutions. Due to negative reactions to COP15, attention at the G20 meetings will also be focused on climate change. The meetings fall directly before COP16 and some feel that the group could attempt to forge some type of agreement.
COP16 November 29 th – December 10 th, 2010, Cancun, Mexico The goal is that a binding international climate change treaty can be agreed upon. Many believe this an be achieved, but that there must be cooperation between involved parties as well as stable leadership.
Annex I Countries Australia Austria Belarus Belgium Bulgaria Canada Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia European Community Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Japan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Monaco Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russian Federation Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland United States of America
UNFCCC The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is the secretariat for the Kyoto Protocol. The UNFCCC was drafted in 1992 to slow global warming. It was ratified by 189 countries, all of which agreed to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions amounts. The UNFCCC hosts a conference of parties (COP) every year to discuss climate change and the Kyoto Protocol.
Parties Agreeing to the Accord The following is a list of countries countries currently agreeing to the Copenhagen Accord. Albania, Algeria, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Benin, Bhutan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Canada, Central African Republic, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Denmark, Djibouti, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, European Union, Fiji, Finland, France, Gabon, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kiribati, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Latvia, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Madagascar, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Mexico, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Samoa, San Marino, Senegal, Serbia, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Swaziland, Switzerland, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, United Republic of Tanzania, United States of America, Uruguay, Zambia The following countries expressed intention to be listed as agreeing to the Accord. Afghanistan, Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Belize, Brunei Darussalam, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Jamaica, Kenya, Liberia, Mauritius, Mozambique, Nigeria, Timor- Leste, Togo, Uganda, Ukraine, Vietnam