2History 5th Century: Germanic tribes invade AnglesSaxonsJutesEstablished Anglo-Saxon presence in England (Angle-Land)Alfred the Great: “Rex Angul-Saxonum”Late 800s: fights away Danish invadersPromotes sense of national identityConverts Latin texts to Old English
3Civilizations Anglo-Saxons settled away from old Roman cities Strategic sites for agriculture or river ports to control land.One-room structures of timber and thatchVillage centered around “Mead-Hall,” with central hearth.
4Values Strength, courage, and power Hated peace—fighting is more honorable.Revenge taken seriouslyWar ended only by “wergild” or “peace-weaver.”Worst fate: survive fellow warriors or exile.
5Religion Beliefs carried over from Germanic Paganism Pagan Gods: Tyr, Woden, Thor, FriggChristianization occurred between ADPagan information documented through priests set out to destroy it.Example: St. Augustine, Kentish King, and Woden
6Law Saxon Chiefs chopped off hands and noses to punish petty crimes. Fear maintained control.A good king was a fearsome king.A good king was also generous.Warrior gifts for acts of bravery in battle.
8Riddle 34 A strange creature ran on a rippling road, Ic wiht geseah on wege feran,A strange creature ran on a rippling road,seo wæs wrætlice wundrum gegierwed:Its cut was wild, its body bowed,hæfde feowere fet under wombeFour feet under belly, eight on its back,ond ehtuweTwo wings, twelve eyes, six heads, one track.monn h w M wiif m x l kf wf hors qxxs ufon on hrycge;5It cruised the waves decked out like a bird,hæfde tu fiþru ond twelf eaganBut was more--the shape of a horse, man,ond siex heafdu. Saga hwæt hio wære.Dog, bird, and the face of a woman--For flodwegas; ne wæs þæt na fugul ana,Weird riddle-craft riding the drift of words--ac þær wæs æghwylces anra gelicnes10Now sing the solution to what you've heard.horses ond monnes, hundes ond fugles,ond eac wifes wlite. þu wast, gif þu const,to gesecganne, þæt we soð witan--hu þære wihte wise gonge.Riddle 34
10Riddle 69 Power and treasure for a prince to hold, Hard and steep-cheeked, wrapped in redGold and garnet, ripped from a plainOf bright flowers, wrought--a remnantOf fire and file, bound in stark beauty5With delicate wire, my grip makesWarriors weep, my sting threatensThe hand that grasps gold. StuddedWith a ring, I ravage heir and heirloom* * *To my lord and foes always lovely10And deadly, altering face and form.Riddle 69
12Riddle 14 In battle I rage against wave and wind, Strive against storm, dive down seekingA strange homeland, shrouded by the sea.In the grip of war, I am strong when still;In battle-rush, rolled and ripped In flight. Conspiring wind and waveWould steal my treasure, strip my hold,But I seize glory with a guardian tailAs the clutch of stones stands hardAgainst my strength. Can you guess my name?Riddle 14
16Riddle 87 My head is struck by a forging hammer, Sheared close by a shaping blade,Honed smooth by a fierce file.Sometimes I swallow my tempered foe,When bound by rings, I heave from behind,Thrust a long limb through a hard hole,Catch hard the keeper of the heart's pleasure,Twist with my tongue and turn backThe midnight guardian of my lord's treasureWhen the conquering warrior comes to hold The gift of slaughter, the joy of gold.Riddle 87