3Section 1: The Executive Branch of State Government ESSENTIAL QUESTION:What are the powers of Georgia’s governor?
4Section 1: The Executive Branch of State Government What words do I need to know?governorlieutenant governor
5The Executive Branch of State Government Similar structure to federal governmentState constitution organizes government structureGovernor elected to four-year term by popular vote of citizensTwo consecutive terms allowedQualifications:30 years of agecitizen of the US for 15 yearsresident of Georgia for six yearsLieutenant governor takes over if governor dies or resigns
6Formal Powers of the Governor Executive: appoints state officials, makes sure laws are enforcedLegislative: sends requests and messages to legislature, vetos bills or signs them into law as necessary, call special session of legislatureJudicial: pardon convicted criminals, appoint state justicesHave students examine pages 532 and 533 (Tables 61 and 62).
7Informal Powers of the Governor appoints people to state boards and executive officesissuing proclomationsrepresenting the state in various meetings and eventsworking with legislators to get laws passedguiding state agenciescommunicating personal position on important issues
8Office of Lieutenant Governor elected by popular vote at the same time the governor is electedsame qualifications but can serve an unlimited number of consecutive termspresiding officer in the Senatecontrols committee appointments in the state Senate, assigns bills to committees, recognizes Senators who wish to speak
9Georgia’s Other Elected Officials Attorney GeneralCommissioner of AgricultureCommissioner of LaborCommissioner of InsuranceSecretary of StateState School SuperintendentPublic Service CommissionersAll serve four year term (PSC members serve six year term)
10Appointed Officials, Boards, and Commissions statutory officials: jobs are called for by state lawsome boards and agencies created by lawExamples:State Board of Pardons and ParolesBoard of Natural ResourcesState Personnel BoardBoard of Public SafetyClick to return to Table of Contents.
11Section 2: The Legislative Branch of State Government ESSENTIAL QUESTION:What does the legislative branch of government do in Georgia?
12Section 2: The Legislative Branch of State Government What words do I need to know?public regulation
13Legislative Branch law-making body in Georgia officially known as Georgia General Assemblybicameral (two-houses): House of Representatives and Senateonly House can write spending bills; Senate confirms appointments made by the governor
14Members of the General Assembly elected by popular voteno limit on number of consecutive termsmembers’ districts have about the same number of votersQualificationscitizen of US and Georgia at least 2 yearslegal resident of district at least 1 yearSenators: at least 25 years oldRepresentatives: at least 21 years old
15Legislative Sessions 40-day session, January – March members of house of representatives elect Speaker of the Houselieutenant governor presides over senate but has no voteSpeaker can vote if there is a tie
16Committees organized like Congress in committees and subcommittees bills may start in House or Senatestanding committees: permanent part of the General Assemblyinterim committee: works on assigned special tasksconference committee: works out agreements between house and senate on billsjoint committee: has members of House and Senate to work on assigned topic or issuemembers serve on several committees
17Types of Legislationcan pass laws, amend (change) them, or do away with themsome law topics:taxeseducationpropertycriminal matters and punishmentspublic healthregulation of businesses & professions
18How a Bill Becomes a Lawany senator or representative can propose a billbills related to spending must begin in the Housesame version of the bill must pass House and Senatecompromise bill may come from conference committeegovernor can sign or veto the bill if it passes both the House and Senate
19Reapportionment Occurs each 10 years following the census legislature must redraw the voting districts to make them have the equal numbers of people2001: districts drawn by Democratic legislature ruled unconstitutional2004: revisions made to district mapgerrymandering: drawing up a election district to support a particular groupClick to return to Table of Contents.
20Section 3: The Judicial Branch of State Government ESSENTIAL QUESTIONWhat is the role of the judicial branch in Georgia government?
21Section 3: The Judicial Branch of State Government What words do I need to know?felonymisdemeanorSupreme Courtcourt of appealstrial courtsjurisdictiongrand jurytrial jury
22Judicial Branch made up of state’s courts purpose: interpret state constitutionprotect legal rights of citizensenforce laws of the statedue process of law: courts make sure that everyone is protected from abuse by the governmentcivil cases: disputes between citizenscriminal cases: involve violation of lawsfelony: serious crime with severe punishments allowedmisdemeanor: less serious crime with smaller punishments
23Georgia Courts Supreme Court is state’s highest court justices elected by popular vote to six-year termChief Justice is chosen by the other justicesappellate: court which reviews cases – no witnesses and juriescourt of appeals: second highest courttrial courts: hears criminal and civil casesexamples: magistrate, juvenile, state, superior, probate, municipal (city court)jurisdicition: range of action over which court can rule
24Jury System a trial by one’s peers grand jury: determines if enough evidence exists to indict (officially charge) a persontrial jury: citizens whose duty is to determine guilt or innocence of a person charged with a crime
25Separation of Powers each branch of government has its own powers similar to US Constitutiondesigned so that no branch or person can become too powerfulchecks and balances system depends on citizens choosing wisely when they voteClick to return to Table of Contents.
26Section 4: Young People and the Law ESSENTIAL QUESTIONHow are young people affected by the law?
27Section 4: Young People and the Law What words do I need to know?truancyjuvenile
28Young People and the Law Over 2,500 children in jail in Georgiajuvenile: citizen under the age of 17truancy: failure to attend schooljuveniles must follow state’s laws, but violators may be tried by a juvenile courtCommon crimes: smoking, drinking alcohol, loitering (hanging around a public place without permission), violating curfews, running away
29Juvenile Court System every county has a juvenile court purposes: help and protect childrenensure protection of children coming under their jurisdictionprovide care for children removed from their homedelinquent act: act that would be a crime if committed by an adult (example: burglary)status offense: act that would not be a crime if committed by an adult (example: smoking)
30Steps in Juvenile Justice Process juvenile “taken into custody”intake: intake officer evaluates casedetain or release (to parents)detained juveniles sent to RYDC (regional youth detention center)probable cause hearing before a juvenile court judgedismissal, informal adjustment, or formal hearingif the juvenile committed a serious offense or multiple offenses, a judge has many sentencing options
31Georgia’s Seven Deadly Sins Act 1994: legislature addressed issue of increasingly violent youth crimejuveniles charged with certain crimes (murder, rape, armed robbery with a firearm) could be treated as adults by the courtssuperior courts handle these casesmandatory 10-year sentences were a part of the new law
32Rights of Juvenilesjuveniles have the right to a fair and speedy trialno juries in juvenile casesparents or guardians may be present at hearingsattorney must be provided if child’s parents cannot afford one
33Students’ Rights Under School Law sometimes students’ rights have been in conflict with schools’ authoritycourts have ruled that students’ civil rights are in effect at school; however, schools have been given broad power to control and manage the school environment
34Students Responsibilities Under School Law students have a legal right to a free public educationresponsibilities of students:attend school regularly from ages 6-16follow reasonable rules and regulationswork with school officials to prevent disruption and violence which keeps students from learning and achievingClick to return to Table of Contents.