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REVIEW CHAPTER 5 HOW ECOSYSTEMS WORK. Which of the following is one of the largest carbon reservoirs on Earth? A. Atlantic Ocean A. Atlantic Ocean B.

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Presentation on theme: "REVIEW CHAPTER 5 HOW ECOSYSTEMS WORK. Which of the following is one of the largest carbon reservoirs on Earth? A. Atlantic Ocean A. Atlantic Ocean B."— Presentation transcript:

1 REVIEW CHAPTER 5 HOW ECOSYSTEMS WORK

2 Which of the following is one of the largest carbon reservoirs on Earth? A. Atlantic Ocean A. Atlantic Ocean B. Limestone B. Limestone C. Amazon rain forest C. Amazon rain forest D. Fossil fuels D. Fossil fuels

3 B. Limestone

4 Where would an ecologist be least likely to go to study primary succession? A. A locked, abandoned asphalt parking lot in New York City A. A locked, abandoned asphalt parking lot in New York City B. The Amazon Rain Forest B. The Amazon Rain Forest C. A new island formed by a volcanic eruption C. A new island formed by a volcanic eruption D. A gravel-filled valley that had been covered by a glacier until recently D. A gravel-filled valley that had been covered by a glacier until recently

5 B. The Amazon Rain Forest

6 If an insect eats a plant and a bird eats the insect, about how much energy from the plant is stored in the insect for the bird to use? A. 90% A. 90% B. 50% B. 50% C. 10% C. 10% D. 1% D. 1%

7 C. 10%

8 Plants play a crucial role in the carbon cycle because they A. Allow carbon to enter an ecosystem through photosynthesis A. Allow carbon to enter an ecosystem through photosynthesis B. Have special bacteria that live in their root systems B. Have special bacteria that live in their root systems C. Do not release carbon dioxide during cellular respiration C. Do not release carbon dioxide during cellular respiration D. Are chemically converted into fossil fuels when burned. D. Are chemically converted into fossil fuels when burned.

9 A. Allow carbon to enter an ecosystem through photosynthesis

10 What term is used to refer to the many feeding relationships that are possible in an ecosystem? A. Energy transfer A. Energy transfer B. Energy pyramid B. Energy pyramid C. Food chain C. Food chain D. Food web D. Food web

11 D. Food web

12 Which of the following statements is NOT correct A. Rare bacteria that live deep in the ocean get their energy from hydrogen sulfide in hot water A. Rare bacteria that live deep in the ocean get their energy from hydrogen sulfide in hot water B. Plants and other producers get their energy directly from the sun B. Plants and other producers get their energy directly from the sun C. Animals get their energy from the sun indirectly C. Animals get their energy from the sun indirectly D. Consumers get their energy directly from the sun. D. Consumers get their energy directly from the sun.

13 D. Consumers get their energy directly from the sun.

14 Which of the following is NOT a true statement about cellular respiration? A. It is essentially photosynthesis in reverse A. It is essentially photosynthesis in reverse B. Sugar molecules are its primary products B. Sugar molecules are its primary products C. Oxygen is one of the primary reactants C. Oxygen is one of the primary reactants D. It produces energy for organisms to use D. It produces energy for organisms to use

15 B. Sugar molecules are its primary products

16 Consumers are organisms that A. Occupy an ecosystems lowest energy level A. Occupy an ecosystems lowest energy level B. Get solar or other energy indirectly B. Get solar or other energy indirectly C. Are also known as self-feeders C. Are also known as self-feeders D. Eat only other animal species D. Eat only other animal species

17 B. Get solar or other energy indirectly

18 Succession is possible because A. Climate change over time A. Climate change over time B. It is a rapid and chaotic process that is very difficult to control B. It is a rapid and chaotic process that is very difficult to control C. Existing plants reproduce quickly C. Existing plants reproduce quickly D. New species make the environment less suitable for previous ones D. New species make the environment less suitable for previous ones

19 D. New species make the environment less suitable for previous ones

20 Which of the following is NOT a likely component of soil formed during primary succession? A. Broken bits of stone and rock A. Broken bits of stone and rock B. Decayed lichens and bacteria B. Decayed lichens and bacteria C. Cast-off parts of shrubs and trees C. Cast-off parts of shrubs and trees D. Dust particles from the air D. Dust particles from the air

21 C. Cast-off parts of shrubs and trees

22 Which item is a carbon sink and NOT part of the carbon cycle? A. Consumers breaking down carbohydrates into carbon dioxide during respiration A. Consumers breaking down carbohydrates into carbon dioxide during respiration B. Carbon dioxide being converted into carbohydrates during photosynthesis B. Carbon dioxide being converted into carbohydrates during photosynthesis C. Carbon in the atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide C. Carbon in the atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide D. Carbon found within limestone rocks D. Carbon found within limestone rocks

23 D. Carbon found within limestone rocks

24 Which gas makes up 78% of our atmosphere but can be used by plants only when transformed by bacteria first? A. Nitrogen A. Nitrogen B. Oxygen B. Oxygen C. Carbon dioxide C. Carbon dioxide D. Hydrogen D. Hydrogen

25 A. Nitrogen

26 Which statement describes how humans are affecting the balance of carbon in the atmosphere? A. Fewer agricultural crops are planted, reducing the amount of CO 2 released into the atmosphere A. Fewer agricultural crops are planted, reducing the amount of CO 2 released into the atmosphere B. Burning fossil fuels in great quantities has increased the amount of CO 2 in the atmosphere B. Burning fossil fuels in great quantities has increased the amount of CO 2 in the atmosphere C. Overgrazing of grasslands has reduced the amount of CO 2 in the atmosphere C. Overgrazing of grasslands has reduced the amount of CO 2 in the atmosphere D. Severe drought in large areas of the world has decreased the amount of CO 2 that is released into the atmosphere D. Severe drought in large areas of the world has decreased the amount of CO 2 that is released into the atmosphere

27 B. Burning fossil fuels in great quantities has increased the amount of CO 2 in the atmosphere

28 What type of succession occurs after a natural process such as a volcanic eruption or flood? A. Old-field succession A. Old-field succession B. Climax community B. Climax community C. Primary succession C. Primary succession D. Secondary succession D. Secondary succession

29 D. Secondary succession

30 The bacteria that live within the roots of a soybean plant are a critical part of the nitrogen cycle because they A. Provide the plant with sugars needed for growth A. Provide the plant with sugars needed for growth B. Transform nitrates into nitrogen gas for release B. Transform nitrates into nitrogen gas for release C. Change atmospheric nitrogen into a usable form C. Change atmospheric nitrogen into a usable form D. Release nitrogen by decomposing dead plant parts D. Release nitrogen by decomposing dead plant parts

31 C. Change atmospheric nitrogen into a usable form

32 Which of the following is an example of secondary succession? A. Pioneer plants begin to grow after glacial melting A. Pioneer plants begin to grow after glacial melting B. Appearance of weeds in cracks in a concrete surface B. Appearance of weeds in cracks in a concrete surface C. Breaking down of bare rock by fungi and mosses C. Breaking down of bare rock by fungi and mosses D. Growth of plants after a forest is destroyed by fire. D. Growth of plants after a forest is destroyed by fire.

33 D. Growth of plants after a forest is destroyed by fire.

34 Which kind of organism obtains energy only from producers? A. Omnivores A. Omnivores B. Decomposers B. Decomposers C. Herbivores C. Herbivores D. All of the above D. All of the above

35 C. Herbivores

36 What kind of natural disaster helps some forest communities by allowing some trees to release their seeds, by clearing away deadwood, and by encouraging new growth? A. Fire A. Fire B. Flood B. Flood C. Windstorm C. Windstorm D. Drought D. Drought

37 A. Fire

38 The energy consumed by organisms A. Is not partially lost during digestion A. Is not partially lost during digestion B. Can be stored in fat and sugar molecules B. Can be stored in fat and sugar molecules C. Remains constant at all trophic levels C. Remains constant at all trophic levels D. undergoes magnification in food chains D. undergoes magnification in food chains

39 B. Can be stored in fat and sugar molecules

40 What type of vegetation would you expect to find on an abandoned farm that has remained undisturbed for 150 years A. Short grasses A. Short grasses B. Shrubs B. Shrubs C. Young pine trees C. Young pine trees D. Tall, mature oak trees D. Tall, mature oak trees

41 D. Tall, mature oak trees

42 Which of the following does NOT contain carbon from the bodies of plants and animals that died millions of years ago? A. Coal A. Coal B. Oil B. Oil C. Natural gas C. Natural gas D. Phosphate salts D. Phosphate salts

43 D. Phosphate salts

44 Which of the following are photosynthetic organisms? A. Intestinal bacteria A. Intestinal bacteria B. Freshwater algae B. Freshwater algae C. Deeply buried soil bacteria C. Deeply buried soil bacteria D. Fungal decomposers D. Fungal decomposers

45 B. Freshwater algae

46 Which of the following is responsible for making nitrogen in the atmosphere usable by living organisms? A. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria A. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria B. Absorption of nitrogen into water systems B. Absorption of nitrogen into water systems C. Decomposing bacteria C. Decomposing bacteria D. Conversion of nitrogen into carbohydrates by photosynthesis D. Conversion of nitrogen into carbohydrates by photosynthesis

47 A. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria

48 Which organism is likely to be in the bottom trophic level of a food chain? A. Leopard seal A. Leopard seal B. Algae B. Algae C. Krill C. Krill D. Killer whale D. Killer whale

49 B. Algae

50 Which of the following plants is likely to be a pioneer species? A. Grass A. Grass B. Shrub B. Shrub C. Lichen C. Lichen D. Oak tree D. Oak tree

51 C. Lichen


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