2 1. Three of the following are reasons why the Emperor Constantine selected the ancient town of Byzantium as the site for his new capital of Constantinople. Which is NOT?a. It had an excellent harbor.b. Its nearness to Rome would facilitate communications withthe Western Empire.c. It was strategically located to deal with the Persians inthe east and barbarians to the north.d. It was on the natural trade routes connecting Asia withEurope and the Black Sea with the Mediterranean Sea.Constantinople was picked as capital because of its excellent harbor, its strategic location and access to trade routes.
3 2. What was a result of Justinian's attempt to reunite the eastern and western halves of the old Roman Empire?a. The effort was a complete failure.b. All of the western lands of the old empire became part ofthe Byzantine Empire.c. The attempt led to a return of prosperity to Rome and Italy.d. Italy and North Africa were conquered, but then lost tonew invaders.As a result of Justinian's attempt to reunite the eastern and western halves of the old Roman Empire, Italy, and North Africa were conquered, but later lost to new invaders.
4 3. Which of the following is a principle contained in the Code of Justinian? a. Imperial judges can interpret the laws of the empire.b. The power of the emperor is limited by custom and tradition.c. The older laws of the Roman Empire should be discardedand new laws enacted.d. There should be a division of power between the Easternand Western Roman emperors.The Code of Justinian contains the principle that imperial judges can interpret the laws of the empire. The code preserved much of Roman law and legal practices including the principle that the will of the emperor was law.
5 4. All of the following groups became threats to the Byzantine Empire after the death of Justinian. Which group presented the greatest danger?a. Visigothsb. Muslimsc. Slavsd. BulgarsThe Muslims presented the greatest danger to the Byzantine Empire after the death of Justinian. After converting to Islam during the seventh century, the Arabs burst out of Arabia. By the year 700, the Arabs conquered Byzantine provinces in Syria, Palestine, Egypt, and North Africa.
6 5. The iconoclastic controversy that arose during the 8th century in the Byzantine Empire involved a conflicta. between Christians and Muslimsb. among officers of the imperial armyc. over the use of statues and religious paintings inChristian churchesd. among the four patriarches of the Orthodox ChurchThe iconoclastic controversy involved a conflict over the use of statues and religious paintings in Christian churches. Emperor Leo III ( ) opposed the use of religious paintings and statues in churches. He ordered the removal of all icons -- small religious panel-paintings -- from churches.
7 6. What was a basic cause of the schism (final split) between the Catholic and Orthodox Churches in 1054?a. the seizure of Constantinople by crusaders from Western Europeb. the emperor and religious leaders of the Byzantine Empirerefused to accept the authority of the popec. the support given by the pope to Slavic rebels in theByzantine Empired. the Turkish demand that the Byzantine emperor break withthe Catholic ChurchA basic cause of the schism between the Catholic and Orthodox Churches was the refusal of the Byzantine emperor and religious leaders to accept the authority of the pope over Byzantine churches.
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