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Road to Civil War Chapter 15.

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1 Road to Civil War Chapter 15

2 Standard 8.H.11 Disputes over the nature of federalism, complicated by economic developments in the United States, resulted in sectional issues, including slavery, which led to the American Civil War.

3 Chapter 15 Vocabulary Abstain – to not take part in an activity, such as voting Arsenal – a storage place for weapons and ammunition Border Ruffians – Missourians who traveled in armed groups to vote in Kansas’s election during the mid-1850’s Fugitive – runaway or trying to runaway Kansas-Nebraska Act – decision made by Congress to allow people of Kansas and Nebraska to decide whether they would be a free of slave state Martyr – a person who sacrifices his or her life for a principle or cause Popular Sovereignty – idea that people living in a territory have the right to decide by voting if slavery would be allowed there Secession – withdrawal from the Union State’s Rights – the belief that states’ rights supersede federal rights and law Wilmot Proviso – proposal in Congress that said any lands acquired from fighting with Mexico should be free



6 Slavery – Crash Course

7 New Western lands and slavery
For twenty-five years, since the Missouri Compromise, Congress did not discuss slavery With new territories of Texas, New Mexico, and California that changed Just after Mexican War began, Pennsylvania rep David Wilmot proposed the Wilmot Proviso Any lands acquired from Mexico should be free California applied for statehood in 1849 At the time, free and slave states were split 15-15 California would give what ever side it chose an advantage in Congress Southerners began talking of seceding if balance was lost

8 T

9 Free-Soil Party In the 1848 election, neither Whig candidate Zachary Taylor or Democratic candidate Lewis Cass took a stand on slavery Whigs supported power of Congress over President Name modeled after 1776 revolutionaries going against tyranny This angered voters and antislavery Congressmen Antislavery Democrats and Whigs left to form the Free-Soil Party “Free Soil, Free Speech, Free Labor, and Free Men.” Endorsed the Wilmot Proviso Martin Van Buren presidential candidate Zachary Taylor won election 13 free-soil members won seats in Congress

10 Disputes in Congress After Taylor was elected, he faced heated debate in Congress. The talk of adding new territories brought slavery back into the mix Antislavery forces wanted District of Columbia to be free Southerners wanted a fugitive slave law Would New Mexico, Utah, Oregon, and California be free? What would this mean for slavery supporters in Congress?

11 Henry clay’s proposal January 1850, Henry Clay presented a five-point plan to settle issues dividing Congress. 1. California admitted as free state 2. New Mexico territory has no restrictions on slavery 3. New Mexico-Texas border set in favor of New Mexico 4. Slave trade but NOT slavery abolished in District of Columbia 5. Stronger Fugitive Slave Law Debate over Clay’s proposal raged for seven months

12 Compromise of 1850 Congress could not pass proposal as a whole.
President Taylor opposed plan but passed away in July Millard Fillmore becomes president and supports compromise Senator of Illinois Stephen Douglas proposes to vote on points separately instead of as a whole Through bargaining, Fillmore persuaded many Congressmen to abstain votes so bills could be passed The five separate bills were passed into law in August and September of 1850


14 A nation dividing Fugitive Slave Act (2:20) required all citizens to help catch runaways Anyone caught helping escaped slaves could be fined $1,000 or imprisoned Southerners took advantage of the act Traveled into Northern towns and cities to find runaways Captured runaways from years past Captured and forced free African Americans into slavery Many Northerners were angered by the law and southerners actions



17 Think about it! How could slavery be defended?
What do you do if laws are morally wrong? On the paper provided, answer the following questions… How did the Fugitive Slave Law provide support to Southern slave owners opinions about slaves (for the primary sources we read in class)? Why did the Fugitive Slave Law convince many Abolitionists there was a “Slave Power” conspiracy in the U.S. Government? How might the Fugitive Slave Law changed slaves opinions about running away?

18 Kansas-Nebraska Act The Compromise of 1850 did not last
Stephen Douglas proposed organizing territories of Kansas and Nebraska for settlement and a transcontinental railroad Both above Missouri 36’30’ boundary which would have made them free states Douglas proposed popular sovereignty Many northerners objected; southerners supported idea Act passed in May 1854

19 Interactive Map

20 Color free states/territories blue
Color slave states/territories red Abbreviate states

21 “Bleeding Kansas” After Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed, antislavery and proslavery groups rushed supporters into Kansas for the elections. Elections of 1855 voted for a proslavery legislature in Kansas 6,000 votes cast with only 1,500 voters living there before election Proslavery supporters crossed from Missouri Traveled in armed bands called Border Ruffians Proslavery government started to establish laws supporting slavery Antislavery supporters refused to obey laws. Armed themselves, held own elections, and adopted constitution that banned slavery. Two governments now existed in Kansas Antislavery supported by House of Reps Proslavery supported by President Franklin Pierce and Senate

22 “Bleeding Kansas” (cont.)
Violence erupts in Kansas May 1856, 800 slavery supporters attack Antislavery capital of Lawrence. Sack town, burn hotel and governor’s home, and destroy newspaper offices Abolitionist John Brown retaliated by taking his sons and killing five supporters of slavery Armed bands roam the territory inciting violence In fall of 1856, U.S. Army finally stops bloodshed More than 200 people were killed

23 Republican Party Forms
Events in Kansas shake up the political landscape Parties start to divide along sectional (North and South) lines The death of leaders Henry Clay and Daniel Webster and differing views destroy Whig party In 1854, the remaining antislavery Whigs and antislavery Democrats join the Free-Soilers to form Republican Party Party formed to eliminate slavery from new territories Support for Republicans in North was strong, but in the south, there was no support Democrats win election of 1856; James Buchanan becomes president

24 Dred Scott Decision Buchanan took office on March 4, Two days later, the Supreme Court made a historical decision Dred Scott was an enslaved African American in Missouri. In 1830’s, the doctor who purchased him moved to Illinois (a free state) and then Wisconsin (where slavery was banned) In 1846, he obtained lawyers and sued for his freedom, claiming since he lived on free land, he should be free The case attracted enormous attention because Americans hoped the court decision would end the issue of slavery in territories for good

25 Dred Scott Decision (cont.)
Chief Justice Roger Taney ruled the following Scott is still a slave Scott is not a citizen and therefore cannot bring a lawsuit to court Scott is property and Congress cannot take away property under 5th Amendment Congress has no power to eliminate slavery in territories and Missouri Compromise of 1820 was unconstitutional Bottom line: the Constitution PROTECTS slavery The decision (3:00) divided the country even more

26 Lincoln and Douglas Debates
Illinois Senatorial race of 1858 put the favorite Senator Stephen Douglas against unknown candidate Abraham Lincoln Douglas supported popular sovereignty while Lincoln believed slavery should not be allowed to spread Lincoln challenged Douglas to a series of debates to build his popularity From August through October 1858, Douglas and Lincoln had seven debates all over Illinois with slavery being the main topic of discussion Lincoln lost, but debates put him in the national spotlight


28 Harpers Ferry October 16, 1859 Abolitionist John Brown led 18 men (whites and African Americans) to Harpers Ferry, Virginia Brown wanted to seize the federal arsenal there and spark an uprising of enslaved people. His plan failed. No slaves rebelled and U.S. Marines captured Brown and his men. Ten of Brown’s men were killed. Brown and six of his followers were sentenced to hang on December 2nd. Brown’s death became a rally point for abolitionists, some even calling him a martyr

29 Election of 1860 The question on everyone’s mind before the election of 1860 was ‘can the nation stay together?’ Alabama said they would secede if a republican became president Election came down to three candidates: Southern Democrat John Breckinridge, Northern Democrat Stephen Douglas, and Republican Abraham Lincoln Lincoln won with 180 of 303 electoral votes and only 40% of the popular vote (Douglas was second with 30% of vote) Lincoln’s name was not even on the ballot in most southern states, but he won every northern state

30 South Secedes Southern states feared a Republican president would not protect southern rights and liberties December 20, 1860, South Carolina seceded Many STILL wanted to keep Union together, but divide was too wide By February 1861, Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, and Georgia also seceded and on February 4th, established the Confederate States of America Jefferson Davis elected President Southerners justified seceding on the theory of states’ rights


32 Presidential Response
As southern states seceded, Lincoln had to wait to do anything until he took office on March 4th. Many people, including border states between northern states and southern (seceded) states, wanted to see what Lincoln would do In Inaugural Address, Lincoln said secession would not be allowed, but pleaded with south to keep nation intact

33 Fort Sumter After seceding, some southern states took control of U.S. forts within their borders Lincoln did not want to start war by taking them back, but also did not want to admit southern right to take them The commander at Fort Sumter sent word to Lincoln he needed resupplied and Confederates were demanding his surrender

34 Fort Sumter (cont.) Lincoln sent message to Governor of South Carolina, Francis Pickens, that he was sending and unarmed group to Fort Sumter with supplies and would not send weapons unless the group was fired upon. Confederate President Jefferson Davis ordered the attack of Fort Sumter before supplies arrived. On April 12, 1861, the Civil War began and on April 14th, Fort Sumter surrendered. The North was sparked into action and Lincoln issued a call for 75,000 troops to fight and save the Union. Summary of Chapter 15 Crash Course

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