2Standard 8.H.11Disputes over the nature of federalism, complicated by economic developments in the United States, resulted in sectional issues, including slavery, which led to the American Civil War.
3Chapter 15 VocabularyAbstain – to not take part in an activity, such as votingArsenal – a storage place for weapons and ammunitionBorder Ruffians – Missourians who traveled in armed groups to vote in Kansas’s election during the mid-1850’sFugitive – runaway or trying to runawayKansas-Nebraska Act – decision made by Congress to allow people of Kansas and Nebraska to decide whether they would be a free of slave stateMartyr – a person who sacrifices his or her life for a principle or causePopular Sovereignty – idea that people living in a territory have the right to decide by voting if slavery would be allowed thereSecession – withdrawal from the UnionState’s Rights – the belief that states’ rights supersede federal rights and lawWilmot Proviso – proposal in Congress that said any lands acquired from fighting with Mexico should be free
7New Western lands and slavery For twenty-five years, since the Missouri Compromise, Congress did not discuss slaveryWith new territories of Texas, New Mexico, and California that changedJust after Mexican War began, Pennsylvania rep David Wilmot proposed the Wilmot ProvisoAny lands acquired from Mexico should be freeCalifornia applied for statehood in 1849At the time, free and slave states were split 15-15California would give what ever side it chose an advantage in CongressSoutherners began talking of seceding if balance was lost
9Free-Soil PartyIn the 1848 election, neither Whig candidate Zachary Taylor or Democratic candidate Lewis Cass took a stand on slaveryWhigs supported power of Congress over PresidentName modeled after 1776 revolutionaries going against tyrannyThis angered voters and antislavery CongressmenAntislavery Democrats and Whigs left to form the Free-Soil Party“Free Soil, Free Speech, Free Labor, and Free Men.”Endorsed the Wilmot ProvisoMartin Van Buren presidential candidateZachary Taylor won election13 free-soil members won seats in Congress
10Disputes in CongressAfter Taylor was elected, he faced heated debate in Congress. The talk of adding new territories brought slavery back into the mixAntislavery forces wanted District of Columbia to be freeSoutherners wanted a fugitive slave lawWould New Mexico, Utah, Oregon, and California be free?What would this mean for slavery supporters in Congress?
11Henry clay’s proposalJanuary 1850, Henry Clay presented a five-point plan to settle issues dividing Congress.1. California admitted as free state2. New Mexico territory has no restrictions on slavery3. New Mexico-Texas border set in favor of New Mexico4. Slave trade but NOT slavery abolished in District of Columbia5. Stronger Fugitive Slave LawDebate over Clay’s proposal raged for seven months
12Compromise of 1850 Congress could not pass proposal as a whole. President Taylor opposed plan but passed away in July Millard Fillmore becomes president and supports compromiseSenator of Illinois Stephen Douglas proposes to vote on points separately instead of as a wholeThrough bargaining, Fillmore persuaded many Congressmen to abstain votes so bills could be passedThe five separate bills were passed into law in August and September of 1850
14A nation dividingFugitive Slave Act (2:20) required all citizens to help catch runawaysAnyone caught helping escaped slaves could be fined $1,000 or imprisonedSoutherners took advantage of the actTraveled into Northern towns and cities to find runawaysCaptured runaways from years pastCaptured and forced free African Americans into slaveryMany Northerners were angered by the law and southerners actions
17Think about it! How could slavery be defended? What do you do if laws are morally wrong?On the paper provided, answer the following questions…How did the Fugitive Slave Law provide support to Southern slave owners opinions about slaves (for the primary sources we read in class)?Why did the Fugitive Slave Law convince many Abolitionists there was a “Slave Power” conspiracy in the U.S. Government?How might the Fugitive Slave Law changed slaves opinions about running away?
18Kansas-Nebraska Act The Compromise of 1850 did not last Stephen Douglas proposed organizing territories of Kansas and Nebraska for settlement and a transcontinental railroadBoth above Missouri 36’30’ boundary which would have made them free statesDouglas proposed popular sovereigntyMany northerners objected; southerners supported ideaAct passed in May 1854
20Color free states/territories blue Color slave states/territories redAbbreviate states
21“Bleeding Kansas”After Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed, antislavery and proslavery groups rushed supporters into Kansas for the elections.Elections of 1855 voted for a proslavery legislature in Kansas6,000 votes cast with only 1,500 voters living there before electionProslavery supporters crossed from MissouriTraveled in armed bands called Border RuffiansProslavery government started to establish laws supporting slaveryAntislavery supporters refused to obey laws. Armed themselves, held own elections, and adopted constitution that banned slavery.Two governments now existed in KansasAntislavery supported by House of RepsProslavery supported by President Franklin Pierce and Senate
22“Bleeding Kansas” (cont.) Violence erupts in KansasMay 1856, 800 slavery supporters attack Antislavery capital of Lawrence.Sack town, burn hotel and governor’s home, and destroy newspaper officesAbolitionist John Brown retaliated by taking his sons and killing five supporters of slaveryArmed bands roam the territory incitingviolenceIn fall of 1856, U.S. Army finally stopsbloodshedMore than 200 people were killed
23Republican Party Forms Events in Kansas shake up the political landscapeParties start to divide along sectional (North and South) linesThe death of leaders Henry Clay and Daniel Webster and differing views destroy Whig partyIn 1854, the remaining antislavery Whigs and antislavery Democrats join the Free-Soilers to form Republican PartyParty formed to eliminate slavery from new territoriesSupport for Republicans in North was strong, but in the south, there was no supportDemocrats win election of 1856; James Buchanan becomes president
24Dred Scott DecisionBuchanan took office on March 4, Two days later, the Supreme Court made a historical decisionDred Scott was an enslaved African American in Missouri.In 1830’s, the doctor who purchased him moved to Illinois (a free state) and then Wisconsin (where slavery was banned)In 1846, he obtained lawyers and sued for his freedom, claiming since he lived on free land, he should be freeThe case attracted enormous attention because Americans hoped the court decision would end the issue of slavery in territories for good
25Dred Scott Decision (cont.) Chief Justice Roger Taney ruled the followingScott is still a slaveScott is not a citizen and therefore cannot bring a lawsuit to courtScott is property and Congress cannot take away property under 5th AmendmentCongress has no power to eliminate slavery in territories and Missouri Compromise of 1820 was unconstitutionalBottom line: the Constitution PROTECTSslaveryThe decision (3:00) divided the countryeven more
26Lincoln and Douglas Debates Illinois Senatorial race of 1858 put the favorite Senator Stephen Douglas against unknown candidate Abraham LincolnDouglas supported popular sovereignty while Lincoln believed slavery should not be allowed to spreadLincoln challenged Douglas to a series of debates to build his popularityFrom August through October 1858, Douglas and Lincoln had seven debates all over Illinois with slavery being the main topic of discussionLincoln lost, but debates put him in the national spotlight
28Harpers FerryOctober 16, 1859 Abolitionist John Brown led 18 men (whites and African Americans) to Harpers Ferry, VirginiaBrown wanted to seize the federal arsenal there and spark an uprising of enslaved people.His plan failed. No slaves rebelled and U.S. Marines captured Brown and his men. Ten of Brown’s men were killed.Brown and six of his followers were sentenced to hang on December 2nd.Brown’s death became a rally point for abolitionists, some even calling him a martyr
29Election of 1860The question on everyone’s mind before the election of 1860 was ‘can the nation stay together?’Alabama said they would secede if a republican became presidentElection came down to three candidates: Southern Democrat John Breckinridge, Northern Democrat Stephen Douglas, and Republican Abraham LincolnLincoln won with 180 of 303 electoral votes and only 40% of the popular vote (Douglas was second with 30% of vote)Lincoln’s name was not even on the ballot in most southern states, but he won every northern state
30South SecedesSouthern states feared a Republican president would not protect southern rights and libertiesDecember 20, 1860, South Carolina secededMany STILL wanted to keep Union together, but divide was too wideBy February 1861, Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, and Georgia also seceded and on February 4th, established the Confederate States of AmericaJefferson Davis elected PresidentSoutherners justified seceding on the theory of states’ rights
32Presidential Response As southern states seceded, Lincoln had to wait to do anything until he took office on March 4th.Many people, including border states between northern states and southern (seceded) states, wanted to see what Lincoln would doIn Inaugural Address, Lincoln said secession would not be allowed, but pleaded with south to keep nation intact
33Fort SumterAfter seceding, some southern states took control of U.S. forts within their bordersLincoln did not want to start war by taking them back, but also did not want to admit southern right to take themThe commander at Fort Sumter sent word to Lincoln he needed resupplied and Confederates were demanding his surrender
34Fort Sumter (cont.)Lincoln sent message to Governor of South Carolina, Francis Pickens, that he was sending and unarmed group to Fort Sumter with supplies and would not send weapons unless the group was fired upon.Confederate President Jefferson Davis ordered the attack of Fort Sumter before supplies arrived.On April 12, 1861, the Civil War began and on April 14th, Fort Sumter surrendered.The North was sparked into action and Lincoln issued a call for 75,000 troops to fight and save the Union.Summary of Chapter 15 Crash Course