Presentation on theme: "Classification of Matter"— Presentation transcript:
1Classification of Matter CHAPTER 15Classification of Matter
2Classification of Matter ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS:WHAT IS MATTER?HOW DO WE CLASSIFY MATTER?WHAT ARE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES?
3Composition of MatterProperties of materials are used to classify them.The two main categories arePURE SUBSTANCES andMIXTURES
4PURE SUBSTANCES A type of matter with a fixed composition. ELEMENT: a substance that contains ONE TYPE of atom: copper, carbon (graphite/diamond) and oxygen (O2)..
5PURE SUBSTANCES A type of matter with a fixed composition. COMPOUND: a substance in which the atoms of two or more elements are combined in a fixed proportion: H2O, CaCO3, CO2, and NaCl.The compound properties are often different from the elements that make them
6MIXTURES A type of matter with NO fixed composition. HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURES: different materials are distinguished easily: pizza, soup mix, and granite.Not all are easily recognized
7MIXTURESHOMOGENEOUS MIXTURES: contains two or more gaseous, liquid or solid substances blended evenly throughout: soda, air, sea water, and vinegar.These are also known as SOLUTIONS: a homogeneous mixture of particles that are CONSTANTLY and UNIFORMLY mixed.
8MIXTURESCOLLOID: a mixture with particles that are larger than a solution, but not heavy enough to settle out: milk (water, sugars, fats, proteins), paint (oil, pigment, etc), fog (air, liquids), and smoke in air.
9MIXTURESSUSPENSIONS: heterogeneous mixture containing a liquid in which the particles settle.
10PROPERTIES OF MATTERUsing physical properties to separate – sifting, sorting, using a magnet, etc. RECYCLING.
11Section 15.2: PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL CHANGES OF MATTER PHYSICAL CHANGE: a change in size, shape, or state of matter. THE IDENTITY REMAINS THE SAME.These changes may involve energy changes but the properties don’t change. E.g. iron when heated.
12PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL CHANGES OF MATTER PHYSICAL CHANGE: a change in size, shape, or state of matter. THE IDENTITY REMAINS THE SAME.DISTILLATION – Uses a physical change to separate (evaporation). Used in industry.
13CHEMICAL PROPERTIES & CHANGES CHEMICAL PROPERTY – A characteristic of a substance that indicates whether it can undergo a certain chemical change. E.g. flammable, changes color.
14CHEMICAL PROPERTIES & CHANGES CHEMICAL CHANGE – produces heat, light, sound, color change, precipitate, and gas bubbles.
15PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL CHANGES FOR EXAMPLE: WEATHERINGPhysical – rocks broken apart by ice, streams carving away rock, wind moving sandChemical – Limestone (CaCO3) changes to gypsum in acid