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CHAPTER 15 Classification of Matter. ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS: WHAT IS MATTER? HOW DO WE CLASSIFY MATTER? WHAT ARE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES?

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 15 Classification of Matter. ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS: WHAT IS MATTER? HOW DO WE CLASSIFY MATTER? WHAT ARE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES?"— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 15 Classification of Matter

2 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS: WHAT IS MATTER? HOW DO WE CLASSIFY MATTER? WHAT ARE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES?

3 Composition of Matter Properties of materials are used to classify them. The two main categories are –P–PURE SUBSTANCES and –M–MIXTURES

4 PURE SUBSTANCES A type of matter with a fixed composition. ELEMENT: a substance that contains ONE TYPE of atom: copper, carbon (graphite/diamond) and oxygen (O 2 )..

5 A type of matter with a fixed composition. COMPOUND: a substance in which the atoms of two or more elements are combined in a fixed proportion: H 2 O, CaCO 3, CO 2, and NaCl. The compound properties are often different from the elements that make them

6 MIXTURES A type of matter with NO fixed composition. HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURES: different materials are distinguished easily: pizza, soup mix, and granite. Not all are easily recognized

7 HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURES: contains two or more gaseous, liquid or solid substances blended evenly throughout: soda, air, sea water, and vinegar. These are also known as SOLUTIONS: a homogeneous mixture of particles that are CONSTANTLY and UNIFORMLY mixed.

8 COLLOID: a mixture with particles that are larger than a solution, but not heavy enough to settle out: milk (water, sugars, fats, proteins), paint (oil, pigment, etc), fog (air, liquids), and smoke in air.

9 SUSPENSIONS: heterogeneous mixture containing a liquid in which the particles settle.

10 PROPERTIES OF MATTER Using physical properties to separate – sifting, sorting, using a magnet, etc. RECYCLING.

11 Section 15.2: PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL CHANGES OF MATTER PHYSICAL CHANGE: a change in size, shape, or state of matter. THE IDENTITY REMAINS THE SAME. These changes may involve energy changes but the properties don’t change. E.g. iron when heated.

12 PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL CHANGES OF MATTER PHYSICAL CHANGE: a change in size, shape, or state of matter. THE IDENTITY REMAINS THE SAME. DISTILLATION – Uses a physical change to separate (evaporation). Used in industry.

13 CHEMICAL PROPERTIES & CHANGES CHEMICAL PROPERTY – A characteristic of a substance that indicates whether it can undergo a certain chemical change. E.g. flammable, changes color.

14 CHEMICAL CHANGE – produces heat, light, sound, color change, precipitate, and gas bubbles.

15 PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL CHANGES FOR EXAMPLE: WEATHERING Physical – rocks broken apart by ice, streams carving away rock, wind moving sand Chemical – Limestone (CaCO 3 ) changes to gypsum in acid


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