Presentation on theme: "Presenter: Miriam Lear Coordinator: English for Law"— Presentation transcript:
1Presenter: Miriam Lear Coordinator: English for Law READING AT UNIVERSITY Reading with Understanding Strategies for Success15 May, 2014HumanitiesPresenter: Miriam Lear Coordinator: English for LawAuckland Park Campus
2Introductions Academic Development Centre Academic Development & SupportUnits:Academic Literacies Access ModulesLearning DevelopmentAcademic literaciesWriting CentreWe are from the Academic Development Division which is housed in D Ring 3, APK Campus.UJ has 9 faculties. Which faculty are you from? We don’t belong to any faculty i.e non faculty but work with across all faculties.Offer Academic literacy modules (year long) to students on extended degree programmes & also to first year mainstream students.We also run the MAPS course – colleagues will be tell you more about this course later in the day.Students from across faculties are encouraged to use the writing centre – where they are assisted with their writing – must make an appointment. The Writing Centre’s times are as follows: Mondays to Thursdays: 8.30 to and Fridays from 8.30 to
3THE WRITING CENTRE Visit us at the Writing Centre if at some point you realise that you are already a good writer, but would like to make your writing even betteryou need help putting your ideas down on paperyou would like to organise your assignment betterlecturers are unhappy with your assignmentsyou get low marks even when you think you have worked very hard
4The Writing CentreThe Writing Centre is for any student who would like to write good assignments and get excellent marks.Mondays to Thursdays 8:30 – 15:30Fridays 8:30 – 13:00Stop by to make an appointment -D Ring 3.
5Reasons for readingCasual reading: relaxation/pleasure; boredom; escape worldPractical reasons: know what is happening in the world/current issues; communicate effectively; help other peopleEducational Goals: increase general information/knowledge; obtain better understanding of topic; learn vocabulary; improve reading/reading speed; improve language and study purposesGet students to discuss the various reasons why people read (5 minutes) then get feedback & build on responses.I have grouped the reasons for reading into three broad categories: casual reading, practical reasons and educational goals. NB: try to fit responses you get from students into these three categories.
6What difficulties do you experience when reading for study or research purposes? Get students to discuss with seated partner some of the difficulties they experience when reading and what they do to overcome these difficulties (5-6 minutes).Range of techniques that one can use to overcome reading difficulties. Many students entering higher education are not aware of strategies or techniques that can help them improve their reading and understanding. Therefore it is essential to teach them reading strategies. This is particularly relevant for students whose home literacies are not congruent with the literacy practices of their discipline or institution.
8Reading at universityAcademic reading is much more challenging than reading in high school- deep reading (as opposed to surface reading) is requiredMany students struggle to cope with the level, complexity and volume of academic reading required"By deep reading, we mean the array of sophisticated processes that propel comprehension and that include inferential and deductive reasoning, analogical skills, critical analysis, reflection, and insight. The expert reader needs milliseconds to execute these processes; the young brain needs years to develop them. Both of these pivotal dimensions of time are potentially endangered by the digital culture's pervasive emphases on immediacy, information loading, and a media-driven cognitive set that embraces speed and can discourage deliberation in both our reading and our thinking."(Maryanne Wolf and Mirit Barzillai, "The Importance of Deep Reading." Challenging the Whole Child: Reflections on Best Practices in Learning, Teaching, and Leadership, ed. by Marge Scherer. ASCD, 2009)•"Deep reading requires human beings to call upon and develop attentional skills, to be thoughtful and fully aware"Unlike watching television or engaging in the other illusions of entertainment and pseudo-events, deep reading is not an escape, but a discovery. Deep reading provides a way of discovering how we are all connected to the world and to our own evolving stories. Reading deeply, we find our own plots and stories unfolding through the language and voice of others."(Robert P. Waxler and Maureen P. Hall, Transforming Literacy: Changing Lives Through Reading and Writing. Emerald Group, 2011)
9Research on readingResearch indicates that there is a strong correlation between reading proficiency and academic successReading proficiency also influences writing – good readers tend to be good writers and vice versaReading & writing are complimentary processes. As such, reading forms the basis of academic writing* It is important that you develop and improve your skills for reading academically in order to study and learn more effectively.
10“A man who chooses not to read is just as ignorant as a man who cannot read.” (Mark Twain)
11How do “good” readers read academic texts? Good readers make use of various reading strategies and reading techniquesBefore readingDuring readingAfter readingThese strategies can be learned by all students
12Before reading Good readers ask themselves the following questions: Who is the author of the text?When was the text written?Who is the audience?Why was it written?What do I already know about the topic?What don’t I know?What do I need to know?
13During readingGood readers do not read all texts in the same way - different texts invite different ways of readingExperienced readers identify a purpose for reading and adjust their reading speed accordingly
14After reading*It is important to remember what you have read and to further develop and clarify ideas and concepts from your reading.Good readers summarise, discuss, respond to and ask questions about what they have readExperienced readers often formulate graphic representations of ideas with lines, arrows and shapes to indicate links and connections between themMind mapsConcept maps
15Reading techniquesEffective readers employ different reading techniquesSpeed readingSkimmingScanningStudy reading
16Speed readingReading quickly to get a preliminary understanding of a text or to find background information on a topicThe more familiar you are with advanced reading texts the more quickly you will be able to access information - reading improves with practice!
17SkimmingTo preview or get an overview of a text - reading quickly to gather as much information about a text as possible in the shortest amount of timeWhen you skim, you do not read everythingRead only the following:TitleIntroduction and/ or first paragraphHeadings/ sub-headingsFirst sentence of each paragraphKey words in bold or italicsPictures, diagrams, graphs or chartsConclusion or summary
18Scanning Reading quickly to find specific information in a text Names & datesWords in a dictionaryDefinitions in glossariesTable of contentsTimetables & directories
19Study reading Study reading is deep reading The purpose of study reading is to understand and rememberGood readers also struggle with difficult texts in order to make them comprehensibleGood readers read academic texts slowly and re-read often (sometimes two or three times)Study reading involves reading interactively and critically
20How do we read interactively? We relate what we are reading to our own experience and knowledge of the worldWe read actively and have a “conversation” with the textWe annotate the textIdentify main idea & topic sentence in each paragraphMake notes in the margins; paraphrase & summarise key points; ask questions & make commentsHighlight key words/ concepts in the textHighlight unfamiliar words and work out possible meanings from the context; look up words you still do not understand
21How do we read critically? We read “against the grain”We do not believe everything we read; we ask questions and challenge the writer’s assumptionsWe analyse argumentsWe weigh an author’s claims against evidenceWe discount arguments based on faulty reasoningWe distinguish between fact and opinionWe form our own opinion on the topic
22SQ3R MethodDoes anyone know what these letters and figure stand for?
23SQ3R MethodSURVEY: Pre-read chapter. Look at titles, headings, words in boldface and italics; graphs & diagrams; summary and/ or conclusion and questions at end of chapterQUESTION: Formulate questions before you read. Convert titles & subtitles into questions. Write these down.READ: Read chapter thoroughly and write down the answers to your questions section by sectionRECITE: Try to recite the answers to your questions. Use your own words and give examplesREVIEW: Check your notes against the text; this is an on- going process*SQ3R will help build a framework to help you understand your reading assignments.
25Reading aheadIt is important to read ahead so that when you get into a lecture you are able toListen activelyEngage effectively with the content of the lectureCompare what is in the lecture with what you already knowTake meaningful notes
26Note-taking Work with a partner and answer the following questions: What is active listening?What does taking notes help you to do?How do you think you can take clear and concise notes?
27Purposes of note-taking To consolidate information – integrate the new with the oldTo discover what is important and what material will most likely be included in the examsTo have a permanent record to use for assignments and to study for exams*Class assignments and other important information is also frequently given during the lecture.Draw on prior knowledgeMake links between this knowledge and new informationIntegrate new knowledge into prior frames of reference
28THINK Active listening Listen with a purpose Evaluate Understand AnalyseReviewAnticipate what is coming nextMentally reviewing what has gone before, making connections with other lectures, seeing how things fit togetherAnticipateSelect most central points & ignore irrelevant points
29How to integrate new and prior knowledge Before the lecture:Read the textbook/study guideRead the lecturer’s slides on uLinkRead your previous lecture notesRead the assignmentsRead around the topic and in the field generally
30Building knowledge Integrate with New knowledge / understanding New information(incoming text)Prior knowledge(frames ofreference)Integrate withNew knowledge /understandingIntegrate new / incoming information with prior knowledge to create new understanding (constructing meaning). Successful listening involves:active, constructive, critical thoughtintegrating written or spoken information with prior knowledge to:interpret and comprehend (understand) information
31Active listeningCompare lecturer’s presentation to information in textbook/study guideApply what you hear to your own personal experience (prior knowledge)Reserve judgment when something controversial is saidYour goal is to improve your listening, you don’t have to do all these activities at the same time. A practical way to improve your listening is to focus on one or two of these mental activities at a time. If something stays in your mind after the lecture, then it means that you must have thought about it on some level. The more you think about what you hear, the more likely that you are going to understand and remember the ideas in your lecturers.It is pointless to attend lectures and not think. Afterall the purpose of attending lectures is to understand and record for use in future essay writing, and preparing for exams. Try to learn your lecture’s style and focus on some common characteristics of lectures.
32Active listening Think about questions you have Check for accuracy Shift your attention between the lecturer and your notes
33Use cues Get to know your lecturer’s style of teaching Visual clues – headings, notes, drawings, summaries, examplesVocal clues – emphasis, pauses, slowing down, questionsBody language – position, gesturesDifferent lecturers have different styles and it will help you to think about the teaching styles of your lecturers so that you can get the most out of the lecture. Some give an outline at the beginning of the lecture or review what was talked about the week before. Others tie up the loose ends at the end of the lecture and provide you with a hint or two about what the focus of the next week is. Some have titles for their lectures and slides with headings, whereas some may simply talk and then you have to listen carefully for the main ideas. Some lectures use humour, some seem dry. Some have a way of repeating important information so that it stands out. Some use lots of examples, some rephrase main ideas into different words to give you time to capture what they are saying. Whatever characteristics your lecturer has, it is a good idea if you become acquainted with them.
34Lecture features Introduction Conclusion Repetition Rephrasing Linking expressionsLearning how your lecturer presents can be complemented by understanding some features of lectures that are common. Paying attention to these features can assist you in deciding on the main ideas of the lecture.
35Introduction Explains the lecture structure or outcomes Highlights main ideasHelps to categorise the informationSummarises the previous lecture and links to the present lectureAnnounces tests, due dates, changes, cancellationsThe first few minutes of a lecture are very important, especially when it is the lecturer’s style to present a formal introduction or a summary of the previous lecture. Sadly some students rarely organise themselves to attend class in time to take advantage of this important feature of the lecture.
36Conclusion Reveals connections between ideas Brings closure and summarises main pointsLinks to reading materialPreviews next lecture
37Repetition and rephrasing Emphasises main ideasCreates opportunity to record importantinformationRemember that the biggest hurdle to taking good notes is that the lecturer’s speak more quickly than you are able to take your notes. And lecturers know this. So, lecturers often repeat the central ideas, rephrase them or elaborate them over an extended period of time. Repetition gives you what you need most and that is time. Speaker’s can say average 200 words per minute but your writing speed is probably words per minute. For you to take advantage of the repetition, you need to recognise it in its various forms. You have to prompt yourself to listen for the ways in which repetition is occuring. Sometimes you will just hear the word being repeated. Sometimes an idea will be rephrased. Said in different words to make the meaning clearer.
38Linking expressionsLinking words and phrases logically organise ideas in lectures which will help you toOrganise your own notesIdentify main ideasSome students feel that they have to take down every single word in the lecture. Clearly students do this so that they feel sure they have noted everything that could possibly appear in an exam. Given the presence of repetition in lectures, you might begin to see how this is not necessary. Another feature of lectures that you can attend to are linking expressions. Their purpose is to help you logically organise the relationships between ideas expressed in lectures.
39Note Taking: Reasons for taking notes Making yourself take notes forces you to listen carefully and test your understanding of the material.When you are reviewing, notes provide a gauge to what is important in the text.Personal notes are usually easier to remember than the text.The writing down of important points helps you to remember then even before you have studied the material formally.
40Important things to write down Material written on the blackboard.RepetitionEmphasisEmphasis can be judged by tone of voice and gesture.Emphasis can be judged by the amount of time the instructor spends on points and the number of examples he or she uses.Word signals (e.g. "There are two points of view on " "The third reason is " " In conclusion ")Summaries given at the end of class.Reviews given at the beginning of class.
41Find your own method of making notes Make your notes brief.Never use a sentence where you can use a phrase. Never use a phrase where you can use a word.Use abbreviations and symbols, but be consistent.Put most notes in your own words. However, the following should be noted exactly:FormulasDefinitionsSpecific factsUse outline form and/or a numbering system. Indention helps you distinguish major from minor points.If you miss a statement, write key words, skip a few spaces, and get the information later.Don't try to use every space on the page. Leave room for coordinating your notes with the text after the lecture. (You may want to list key terms in the margin or make a summary of the contents of the page.)Date your notes. Perhaps number the pages.
42Making Notes: What to include? A4 paper (think about where you will file this later) Date and title Record the bibliographic details of your text. Answer questions:Who will use this summary?What is its purpose?What form is appropriate? Do an overview of the text.Introductory paragraphConclusionScan for the main ideas Read text in detail. Look up the words you do not understand. Make a list and compare with your partner. Identify the main ideas.
43Examples of linking expressions Emphasis words: most importantly, especiallySummary words: in brief, in conclusionAmplification words: for example, in other wordsContrast words: however, but, despiteSome of you will be familiar with these expressions and you will be learning how to incorporate them into your writing in future lectures. Their job in writing and in speaking is to link ideas and develop argument.
44Successful note-taking Write down the headingWrite down main ideasFollow main argument or focus of lectureLeave space for elaboration, examplesBeware of repetition- you need the essence, not alternativesUse abbreviations – create your own if necessary
45Note-taking method The Cornell note-taking system is used all over the World.Divides note pages into three columnsnotesreviewreflectionUses abbreviations (after lecture complete phrases as much as possible)Allows for recording notes in paragraph form, skipping lines to show new thoughts
46Cornell methodTo review, cover your notes leaving the main ideas exposedSay the main ideas out loud, adding as much as you can remember about eachStudying while organizing material, i.e., learning – using hearing, as well as visual reinforcement, repetition, etc.
48Pictorial notes Diagrammatic way of organising key ideas from lectures Shows interconnection of main concepts and supporting detailsA great deal of information can be included on a single pageKey words and phrases can be further developed in your review column or in mind-maps
49ScarcityIncentivesChoicesMacroeconomicsDefinitionTwo kindsMicroeconomicsEconomicsGive to getFactors of productionChoices & tradeoffsLandCapital&EntrepreneurshipGuns vs butterLabour
50After the lecture review regularly recite (repeating key concepts from lecture)reflect (connecting lecture ideas to other notes and readings)
51SummaryIt is important to develop academic reading proficiency in order to study and learn more effectivelyGood readers make use of various reading strategies and reading techniquesThese strategies can be learned by all studentsDuring lectures listen activelyDraw on your prior knowledgeKnow your lecturer’s styleLearn the features of a lectureUse an effective system of note-taking
52Exercise: In pairs, make notes from the following text:
53Understand your assignment title MAKE NOTES HEREMain topicKey wordsUnfamiliar wordsAsk questionsParaphrase/ summariseFind examplesDefinitionsOutline of the textEtc.Understand your assignment titleUnderstanding your assignment title fully and precisely is vital in producing a successful piece of writing.* Give yourself plenty of time (preferably at least a week) to analyse and just think about the title before you start doing anything with it.Discuss it with other students and with your tutor.Shorter titles may look simpler, but can actually be more vague and therefore more difficult to interpret than longer ones.Try to read the title objectively rather than seeing what you want to see or expect to see.
54Good luck in your first year at UJ! Hard work!Rewards…More hard work!Good luck in your first year at UJ!