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The First World War: What? When?

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Presentation on theme: "The First World War: What? When?"— Presentation transcript:

1 The First World War: What? When?
War involving nearly all the nations of the world When?

2 Reasons for start of war…
Extreme nationalism – pride in country Imperialism Militarism – building up military Alliance system European powers formed rival alliances to protect themselves PROBLEM? One event could drag all countries involved into a conflict.

3 Alliances and Strategies
The goals of each of the alliance members Britain – maintain continental balance and UK sea superiority France – confine Germany Russia – expand if possible Germany – solidify German-speaking peoples and never fight on two fronts (West first and then East) Austria – hold everything together Italy – try to solidify your own territory Ottoman Turks – survive

4 The Black Hand.. The main objective of the Black Hand was the creation, by means of violence, of a Greater Serbia. Its stated aim was: "To realize the national ideal, the unification of all Serbs. This organization prefers terrorist action to cultural activities; it will therefore remain secret."

5 The spark that lit the fuse….
The one event that started the Great War happened in the Balkans. The Archduke Franz Ferdinand (Austria) was assassinated while visiting Serbia. The Black Hand was responsible….

6 Assassination

7 Archduke Ferdinand on day of assassination
Outbreak of War Balkan trigger Serbs revolt/backed by Russians Austria suppressed Serbs Serbian killed Austrian heir War (domino effect) Austria declared war on Serbia Russia declared war on Austria Germany joined with Austria France and Britain declared war on Austria and Germany Archduke Ferdinand on day of assassination

8 The First World War: Who? Central Powers: Allies: Germany
Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Russia France Great Britain Italy Japan United States (1917)

9 The Bloody Conflict 9

10 Fighting in 1914 Germany’s plan Early battles Russia enters fighting
Germany wanted to quickly defeat France, move east to fight Russia Great Britain’s declaration of war on Germany doomed its plan The Great War became bloody stalemate Early battles Battle of the Frontiers pitted German troops against both French and British Both sides suffered heavy losses Germany victorious Russia enters fighting Russia attacked German territory from the east Russians defeated in Battle of Tannenberg Germany distracted from France, Allies turned on German invaders

11 New science of war Trench warfare Toxic gas- chemical warfare Tanks
Airplanes U-Boats 11

12 trenches Western front From Switzerland to the English Channel
Daily life –your house, eating place, latrine, and battle headquarters 12

13 Study this cross-section for 2 mins.

14 What can you remember? 14

15 15

16 French soldiers waiting for their meal.

17 Trench with French soldiers

18 German trenches

19 Child Soldiers

20 How were portrayals of life in the trenches back home and the reality of fighting different?

21 Exposure to the elements

22 Mud & water 22

23 Trench foot 23

24 Poison Gas Both sides develop poison gas Chlorine, Mustard Gas
Germans first to use the gas Rips apart lungs and suffocates the soldier Gas mask invented and made part of uniform 24

25 American soldier wearing his gas mask

26 Tanks 1st war with tanks Slow Unreliable
Often break down or catch fire killing all inside.

27 27

28 Airplanes Drop small bombs Use mounted machine guns 28

29 The Great Aces Red Baron Manfred Von Richthofen German Ace 29

30 Capt. Eddie Rickenbacker

31 U-Boats German Submarines are mighty and are the devils of the seas
Used extensively 31

32 Battles 32

33 Battles 33

34 Dead French soldiers in the Argonne
German remains at Verdun

35 German dead in frontline trench on the Somme, 1916
Russian soldier dead on the wire

36 Battle of Verdun the longest and one of the bloodiest engagements of World War I. February 1916 – December 1916 Two million men were engaged. The intention of the Germans had been a battle of attrition in which they hoped to bleed the French army white. In the end, they sustained almost as many casualties as the French; an estimated 328,000 to the French 348,000.

37 Battle of Belleau Wood – June, 1918
· This was the first battle involving U.S. troops. · The Germans were defeated after three weeks of battle. * The Allied defense of Paris was the turning point of the war. "American Marines in Belleau Wood” (1918) Georges Scott ( )

38 Russian Revolution Unhappiness with the war among the Russian people
Germany/Austria beating Russians Changes in government Lenin transported Mensheviks (moderates) victorious Bolshevik counter revolution Russia withdraws from war Germany ready to have a single front war

39 First Russian Revolution (“February Revolution”)
Russian Revolutions First Russian Revolution (“February Revolution”) February 1917 – Riots protesting the shortage of food forced Russia’s Czar Nicholas II from power

40 Communist / Bolshevik Revolution (“October Revolution”)
October 1917 – The Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, seized power in Russia and began the communist revolution.

41 · Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany and dropped out of the war.
· Germany then sent their troops on the Eastern Front to the Western Front.

42 Communism – a theory that supports the elimination of private property and the equal distribution of goods Facts: · Supports the violent revolution of the working class against the “bourgeois” ruling class. This 1920 Soviet poster depicts a bourgeois hanging onto a globe by his fingertips as a dogged Red Army soldier tries to stab him with a bayonet.

43 · Led by a single, authoritarian political party.
Communism – a theory that supports the elimination of private property and the equal distribution of goods Facts: · Led by a single, authoritarian political party. Communist symbol located on the flag of the former U.S.S. R.

44 A mourning poster conveys the message that Lenin’s death has united workers and peasants.

45 Communism: Development and Duration

46 Battle of the Argonne Forest – Sept.-Oct., 1918
· The battle was fought in an attempt to push Germany further out of France.

47 End of the War Battle of Argonne broke German morale
Versailles Peace Treaty 70 nationalities Woodrow Wilson (League of Nations) Britain and France desires Fence Germany in Reparations Mandates over other territories Division of German colonies German reaction Too harsh Felt justified in the war Seeds of WWII planted

48 Germany's defeat, 11 November 1918
With the failure of the Ludendorf Offensive, and with the exhausted state of Germany, the German generals recognised that it was time to sue for peace with the Allies. The Kaiser was forced to abdicate on the 8th November and a new democratic republic was established.

On 8th November 1918, Imperial Germany came to an end when a democratic republic was established. Though it was intended to have Wilhelm tried as a ‘war criminal’ he was eventually allowed to spend the rest of his life in exile in the Netherlands. He died in 1941.

50 David Lloyd-George [Great Britain]
Woodrow Wilson [USA] Orlando [Italy] Georges Clemenceau [France]

The Treaty was designed to cripple Germany militarily, territorially and economically REVENGE ON GERMANY WAR GUILT CLAUSE Germany had to accept blame for starting WW1 GERMANY’S MILITARY FORCES REDUCED NO UNION WITH AUSTRIA - Army restricted to 100,000 men. - No modern weapons such as tanks, military air force. - Navy could not have battle ships over 10,000 tons and no U-Boats. THE TERMS OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES 1919 REPARATIONS Germany forced to pay massive fine for war damages - 1,000,000,000 Marks (6.6bn pounds). GERMAN OVERSEAS TERRITORRIES RHINELAND TO BE DE-MILITARISED Germany lost Chinese ports [Amoy and Tsingtao], Pacific Islands, and African colonies [Tanganika and German SW Africa]. GERMAN NATIONAL TERRITORY Germany lost national territory which was given to Belgium and Denmark, most went to Poland.

52 1914--------------------1919

53 ‘Punch’ was Britain’s main political magazine of the period.
Source 2: Describe the scene shown, what is the storyline? Then, assess the individual features in the cartoon. Then, identify the political message intended by the cartoonist. ‘Punch’ was Britain’s main political magazine of the period. Why the candle ‘snuffer’? What political message does it represent? What does the ‘Angel’ represent? What does the candle represent? What is the general political message of the cartoon?

i. What do we learn from it about the period being studied? ii. How reliable is this source? Source 4 Describe the condition of the room in which this family is living? How is the child shown? Why? Look at the caption, what is its political message? How reliable is this source?

55 Poison Gas 55

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