Presentation on theme: "The First World War: What? When?"— Presentation transcript:
1The First World War: What? When? War involving nearly all the nations of the worldWhen?
2Reasons for start of war… Extreme nationalism – pride in countryImperialismMilitarism – building up militaryAlliance systemEuropean powers formed rival alliances to protect themselvesPROBLEM? One event could drag all countries involved into a conflict.
3Alliances and Strategies The goals of each of the alliance membersBritain – maintain continental balance and UK sea superiorityFrance – confine GermanyRussia – expand if possibleGermany – solidify German-speaking peoples and never fight on two fronts (West first and then East)Austria – hold everything togetherItaly – try to solidify your own territoryOttoman Turks – survive
4The Black Hand..The main objective of the Black Hand was the creation, by means of violence, of a Greater Serbia.Its stated aim was: "To realize the national ideal, the unification of all Serbs. This organization prefers terrorist action to cultural activities; it will therefore remain secret."
5The spark that lit the fuse…. The one event that started the Great War happened in the Balkans.The Archduke Franz Ferdinand (Austria) was assassinated while visiting Serbia.The Black Hand was responsible….
7Archduke Ferdinand on day of assassination Outbreak of WarBalkan triggerSerbs revolt/backed by RussiansAustria suppressed SerbsSerbian killed Austrian heirWar (domino effect)Austria declared war on SerbiaRussia declared war on AustriaGermany joined with AustriaFrance and Britain declared war on Austria and GermanyArchduke Ferdinand on day of assassination
8The First World War: Who? Central Powers: Allies: Germany Austria-HungaryOttoman EmpireBulgariaRussiaFranceGreat BritainItalyJapanUnited States (1917)
10Fighting in 1914 Germany’s plan Early battles Russia enters fighting Germany wanted to quickly defeat France, move east to fight RussiaGreat Britain’s declaration of war on Germany doomed its planThe Great War became bloody stalemateEarly battlesBattle of the Frontiers pitted German troops against both French and BritishBoth sides suffered heavy lossesGermany victoriousRussia enters fightingRussia attacked German territory from the eastRussians defeated in Battle of TannenbergGermany distracted from France, Allies turned on German invaders
11New science of war Trench warfare Toxic gas- chemical warfare Tanks AirplanesU-Boats11
12trenches Western front From Switzerland to the English Channel Daily life –your house, eating place, latrine, and battle headquarters12
34Dead French soldiers in the Argonne German remains at Verdun
35German dead in frontline trench on the Somme, 1916 Russian soldier dead on the wire
36Battle of Verdunthe longest and one of the bloodiest engagements of World War I. February 1916 – December 1916Two million men were engaged.The intention of the Germans had been a battle of attrition in which they hoped to bleed the French army white.In the end, they sustained almost as many casualties as the French; an estimated 328,000 to the French 348,000.
37Battle of Belleau Wood – June, 1918 · This was the first battle involving U.S. troops.· The Germans were defeated after three weeks of battle.* The Allied defense of Paris was the turning point of the war."American Marines in Belleau Wood” (1918) Georges Scott ( )
38Russian Revolution Unhappiness with the war among the Russian people Germany/Austria beating RussiansChanges in governmentLenin transportedMensheviks (moderates) victoriousBolshevik counter revolutionRussia withdraws from warGermany ready to have a single front war
39First Russian Revolution (“February Revolution”) Russian RevolutionsFirst Russian Revolution (“February Revolution”)February 1917 – Riots protesting the shortage of food forced Russia’s Czar Nicholas II from power
40Communist / Bolshevik Revolution (“October Revolution”) October 1917 – The Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, seized power in Russia and began the communist revolution.
41· Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany and dropped out of the war. · Germany then sent their troops on the Eastern Front to the Western Front.
42Communism – a theory that supports the elimination of private property and the equal distribution of goodsFacts:· Supports the violent revolution of the working class against the “bourgeois” ruling class.This 1920 Soviet poster depicts a bourgeois hanging onto a globe by his fingertips as a dogged Red Army soldier tries to stab him with a bayonet.
43· Led by a single, authoritarian political party. Communism – a theory that supports the elimination of private property and the equal distribution of goodsFacts:· Led by a single, authoritarian political party.Communist symbol located on the flag of the former U.S.S. R.
44A mourning poster conveys the message that Lenin’s death has united workers and peasants.
46Battle of the Argonne Forest – Sept.-Oct., 1918 · The battle was fought in an attempt to push Germany further out of France.
47End of the War Battle of Argonne broke German morale Versailles Peace Treaty70 nationalitiesWoodrow Wilson (League of Nations)Britain and France desiresFence Germany inReparationsMandates over other territoriesDivision of German coloniesGerman reactionToo harshFelt justified in the warSeeds of WWII planted
48Germany's defeat, 11 November 1918 With the failure of the Ludendorf Offensive, and with the exhausted state of Germany, the German generals recognised that it was time to sue for peace with the Allies. The Kaiser was forced to abdicate on the 8th November and a new democratic republic was established.
49KAISER WILHELM ii AND IMPERIAL GERMANY On 8th November 1918, Imperial Germany came to an end when a democratic republic was established. Though it was intended to have Wilhelm tried as a ‘war criminal’ he was eventually allowed to spend the rest of his life in exile in the Netherlands. He died in 1941.
50David Lloyd-George [Great Britain] Woodrow Wilson [USA]Orlando [Italy]Georges Clemenceau [France]
51TREATY OF VERSAILLES, 1919 REVENGE ON GERMANY THE TERMS The Treaty was designed to cripple Germany militarily, territorially and economicallyREVENGE ON GERMANYWAR GUILT CLAUSEGermany had to accept blame for starting WW1GERMANY’S MILITARY FORCES REDUCEDNO UNION WITH AUSTRIA- Army restricted to 100,000 men.- No modern weapons such as tanks, military air force.- Navy could not have battle ships over 10,000 tons and no U-Boats.THE TERMSOF THE TREATY OFVERSAILLES1919REPARATIONSGermany forced to pay massive fine for war damages - 1,000,000,000 Marks (6.6bn pounds).GERMAN OVERSEAS TERRITORRIESRHINELAND TO BE DE-MILITARISEDGermany lost Chinese ports [Amoy and Tsingtao], Pacific Islands, and African colonies [Tanganika and German SW Africa].GERMAN NATIONAL TERRITORYGermany lost national territory which was given to Belgium and Denmark, most went to Poland.
53‘Punch’ was Britain’s main political magazine of the period. Source 2:Describe the scene shown, what is the storyline?Then, assess the individual features in the cartoon.Then, identify the political message intended by the cartoonist.‘Punch’ was Britain’s main political magazine of the period.Why the candle ‘snuffer’? What political message does it represent?What does the ‘Angel’ represent?What does the candle represent?What is the general political message of the cartoon?
54HOW USEFUL IS THIS SOURCE AS HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: i. What do we learn from it about the period being studied?ii. How reliable is this source?Source 4Describe the condition of the room in which this family is living?How is the child shown? Why?Look at the caption, what is its political message?How reliable is this source?