Presentation on theme: "The First World War: War involving nearly all the nations of the world 1914-1918 What? When?"— Presentation transcript:
The First World War: War involving nearly all the nations of the world 1914-1918 What? When?
Reasons for start of war… Extreme nationalism – pride in country Imperialism Militarism – building up military Alliance system –European powers formed rival alliances to protect themselves –PROBLEM? One event could drag all countries involved into a conflict.
Alliances and Strategies The goals of each of the alliance members Britain – maintain continental balance and UK sea superiority France – confine Germany Russia – expand if possible Germany – solidify German-speaking peoples and never fight on two fronts (West first and then East) Austria – hold everything together Italy – try to solidify your own territory Ottoman Turks – survive
The Black Hand.. The main objective of the Black Hand was the creation, by means of violence, of a Greater Serbia. Its stated aim was: "To realize the national ideal, the unification of all Serbs. This organization prefers terrorist action to cultural activities; it will therefore remain secret."
The spark that lit the fuse…. The one event that started the Great War happened in the Balkans. The Archduke Franz Ferdinand (Austria) was assassinated while visiting Serbia. The Black Hand was responsible….
Outbreak of War Balkan trigger –Serbs revolt/backed by Russians –Austria suppressed Serbs –Serbian killed Austrian heir War (domino effect) –Austria declared war on Serbia –Russia declared war on Austria –Germany joined with Austria –France and Britain declared war on Austria and Germany Archduke Ferdinand on day of assassination
The First World War: Who? Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Russia France Great Britain Italy Japan United States (1917) Central Powers:Allies:
Germanys plan Germany wanted to quickly defeat France, move east to fight Russia Great Britains declaration of war on Germany doomed its plan The Great War became bloody stalemate Russia enters fighting Russia attacked German territory from the east Russians defeated in Battle of Tannenberg Germany distracted from France, Allies turned on German invaders Early battles Battle of the Frontiers pitted German troops against both French and British Both sides suffered heavy losses Germany victorious Fighting in 1914
New science of war Trench warfare Toxic gas- chemical warfare Tanks Airplanes U-Boats
trenches Western front From Switzerland to the English Channel Daily life –your house, eating place, latrine, and battle headquarters
Study this cross-section for 2 mins.
What can you remember?
French soldiers waiting for their meal.
Trench with French soldiers
How were portrayals of life in the trenches back home and the reality of fighting different?
Exposure to the elements
Mud & water
Poison Gas Both sides develop poison gas Chlorine, Mustard Gas Germans first to use the gas Rips apart lungs and suffocates the soldier Gas mask invented and made part of uniform
American soldier wearing his gas mask
Tanks 1 st war with tanks Slow Unreliable Often break down or catch fire killing all inside.
Airplanes Drop small bombs Use mounted machine guns
The Great Aces Red Baron Manfred Von Richthofen German Ace
Capt. Eddie Rickenbacker
U-Boats German Submarines are mighty and are the devils of the seas Used extensively
German remains at Verdun Dead French soldiers in the Argonne
German dead in frontline trench on the Somme, 1916 Russian soldier dead on the wire
Battle of Verdun the longest and one of the bloodiest engagements of World War I. February 1916 – December 1916 Two million men were engaged. The intention of the Germans had been a battle of attrition in which they hoped to bleed the French army white. In the end, they sustained almost as many casualties as the French; an estimated 328,000 to the French 348,000.
* The Allied defense of Paris was the turning point of the war. Battle of Belleau WoodBattle of Belleau Wood – June, 1918 · This was the first battle involving U.S. troops. · The Germans were defeated after three weeks of battle. "American Marines in Belleau Wood (1918) Georges Scott (1873-1943)
Russian Revolution Unhappiness with the war among the Russian people –Germany/Austria beating Russians Changes in government –Lenin transported –Mensheviks (moderates) victorious Bolshevik counter revolution Russia withdraws from war –Germany ready to have a single front war
Russian Revolutions February 1917 – Riots protesting the shortage of food forced Russias Czar Nicholas II from powerCzar Nicholas II First Russian Revolution (February Revolution)
October 1917 – The Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, seized power in Russia and began the communist revolution. BolsheviksVladimir Lenin Communist / Bolshevik Revolution (October Revolution)
· Russia signed the Treaty of Brest- Litovsk with Germany and dropped out of the war. Treaty of Brest- Litovsk · Germany then sent their troops on the Eastern Front to the Western Front.
CommunismCommunism – a theory that supports the elimination of private property and the equal distribution of goods Facts: · Supports the violent revolution of the working class against thebourgeois ruling class.bourgeois This 1920 Soviet poster depicts a bourgeois hanging onto a globe by his fingertips as a dogged Red Army soldier tries to stab him with a bayonet.
CommunismCommunism – a theory that supports the elimination of private property and the equal distribution of goods Facts: · Led by a single, authoritarian political party. authoritarian Communist symbol located on the flag of the former U.S.S. R.
A mourning poster conveys the message that Lenins death has united workers and peasants.
Communism: Development and Duration
· The battle was fought in an attempt to push Germany further out of France. Battle of the Argonne Forest Battle of the Argonne Forest – Sept.-Oct., 1918
End of the War Battle of Argonne broke German morale Versailles Peace Treaty –70 nationalities –Woodrow Wilson (League of Nations) –Britain and France desires Fence Germany in Reparations Mandates over other territories –Division of German colonies –German reaction Too harsh Felt justified in the war –Seeds of WWII planted
With the failure of the Ludendorf Offensive, and with the exhausted state of Germany, the German generals recognised that it was time to sue for peace with the Allies. The Kaiser was forced to abdicate on the 8 th November and a new democratic republic was established.
On 8 th November 1918, Imperial Germany came to an end when a democratic republic was established. Though it was intended to have Wilhelm tried as a war criminal he was eventually allowed to spend the rest of his life in exile in the Netherlands. He died in 1941.
David Lloyd-George [Great Britain] Orlando [Italy] Georges Clemenceau [France] Woodrow Wilson [USA]
THE TERMS OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES 1919 WAR GUILT CLAUSE GERMAN NATIONAL TERRITORY GERMANYS MILITARY FORCES REDUCED GERMAN OVERSEAS TERRITORRIES NO UNION WITH AUSTRIA REPARATIONS Germany had to accept blame for starting WW1 - Army restricted to 100,000 men. - No modern weapons such as tanks, military air force. - Navy could not have battle ships over 10,000 tons and no U-Boats. - Germany lost national territory which was given to Belgium and Denmark, most went to Poland. Germany lost Chinese ports [Amoy and Tsingtao], Pacific Islands, and African colonies [Tanganika and German SW Africa]. RHINELAND TO BE DE-MILITARISED Germany forced to pay massive fine for war damages - 1,000,000,000 Marks (6.6bn pounds). The Treaty was designed to cripple Germany militarily, territorially and economically
Punch was Britains main political magazine of the period. What does the Angel represent? 1.Describe the scene shown, what is the storyline? 2.Then, assess the individual features in the cartoon. 3.Then, identify the political message intended by the cartoonist. Why the candle snuffer? What political message does it represent? What does the candle represent? What is the general political message of the cartoon?
Describe the condition of the room in which this family is living? How is the child shown? Why? Look at the caption, what is its political message? How reliable is this source? HOW USEFUL IS THIS SOURCE AS HISTORICAL EVIDENCE: i. What do we learn from it about the period being studied? ii. How reliable is this source?