Presentation on theme: "1 The Structure of the Atom. 2 Objectives Compare and contrast the atomic models of Democritus and Dalton Define an atom. Distinguish between the sub."— Presentation transcript:
1 The Structure of the Atom
2 Objectives Compare and contrast the atomic models of Democritus and Dalton Define an atom. Distinguish between the sub atomic particles in terms of relative charge and mass. Describe the structure of the nuclear atom, including the locations of the subatomic particles.
3 Objectives Explain the role of atomic number in determining the identity of an atom. Define an isotope and explain why atomic masses are not whole numbers. Calculate the number of electrons, protons, and neutrons in an atom given its mass number and atomic number.
4 Daltons Atomic Theory 1.Each element consists of individual particles called atoms 2.Atoms can neither be created nor destroyed 3.All atoms of a given element are identical 4.Atoms combined chemically in definite whole-number ratios to form compounds 5.Atoms of different elements have different masses
5 History The electron was discovered in 1897 by Thomson. He imagined the atom as a raisin pudding with electrons stuck in a cake of positive charge In 1912, Rutherford discovered the nucleus (proton). He concluded the atom was mostly empty space, with a large dense body at the center, and electrons which orbited the nucleus like planets orbit the Sun
6 History RutherfordsRutherfords gold foil experiment was used to show that the nucleus was small, dense, and positively charged ThomsonThomson used the cathode ray to discover electron s Chadwick.The neutron was then discovered in 1932 by Chadwick.
7 Subatomic Particles and the Nuclear Atom
8 Development of Atomic Structure About 1900 Sir J. J. Thomson and Earnest Rutherford established the modern model of the atom. 1.Electrically positive (+1) protons. The number of protons equals the number of electrons. The number of protons equals the number of electrons. The atom is composed of three subatomic particles. 2.Electrically neutral (0) neutrons. 3.Electrically negative (-1) electrons. Atoms have a net charge of zeroAtoms have a net charge of zero.
9 Parts of the atom
10 Parts of an Atom Each element in the Periodic Table has a different number of protons in its nucleus –Change the number of protons change elements The element also has the same number of electrons –Change the number of electrons ionize the element Some elements also have neutrons –They are in the nuclei of atoms p e n
11 The Hydrogen Atom One electron orbiting a nucleus 1 proton = Z = atomic number 0 neutrons = N Total mass = A = Z+N =1 Singly ionized Hydrogen is missing one electron = 1 H + Add a neutron and you have Deuterium = 2 H = D p e 1H1H
12 The Helium Atom Two electrons orbiting a nucleus 2 protons = Z = atomic number 2 neutrons = N Total mass = A = Z+N =4 Singly ionized Helium is missing one electron = 4 He + ppnn e e 4 He
13 If Helium loses one of its protons (and one of its electrons), it becomes a different element Isotopes and Elements If Helium loses one of its neutrons, it becomes an isotope pnn e 3 He p pn e e 3 H (Tritium)
14 Why Learn about Atomic Structure? Knowing the structure of atoms tells us about their –chemical properties –light-emitting properties –light-absorbing properties From this information we can learn about galaxies, stars, planets, asteroids, based on the light they emit or reflect. An example of absorption spectra from many different types of stars.
15 How Atoms Differ Section 4.3
16 Atomic Structure An atom is composed of a dense core called a nucleus and surrounding this nucleus one or more negatively charged electrons. The nucleus is composed of positively charged protons and neutral neutrons.
17 Atomic Structure An atom is mostly empty space because the electron moves around the nucleus at such a great distance. A chemical element is determined based on how many protons the nucleus contains (Hydrogen has 1, Carbon has 6, Oxygen has 8 protons).
18 Ions An atom has the same number of electrons as protons, an atom has no net charge. If an atom loses or gains one or more electrons it has become ionized. With less electrons, the atom has a positive charge (Cation), more electrons it has a negative charge (Anion).
19 Parts of the atom ParticleChargeMass (g) Mass (amu) Proton x Neutron x Electron9.110x /1839
20 Atomic Number & Atomic Mass Atomic Number The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is called the atomic number (Z).The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is called the atomic number (Z).
21 Atomic Number & Atomic Mass The sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom is called the atomic mass number (A). The sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom is called the atomic mass number (A). Mass Number The atomic mass of an atom is estimated from the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.The atomic mass of an atom is estimated from the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. Element Symbol Mass Number Atomic Number
22 Isotopes Isotope -Atoms with the same atomic number but different mass numbers. Isotopes have the same number of protons but differ in number of neutrons.Isotopes have the same number of protons but differ in number of neutrons.
23 Isotopes Isotope Abundance Naturally occurring sample of most elements will contain a mixture of isotopes.Naturally occurring sample of most elements will contain a mixture of isotopes. Percent abundance is used to quantify the amount of each isotope in an elemental sample.Percent abundance is used to quantify the amount of each isotope in an elemental sample. Example: Oxygen Isotope% Abundance# in 100, O , O O
24 Atomic Mass Atomic mass unit is a relative unit 1/12 the mass of a 12 C atom 1 atomic mass unit (amu) = 1.66 X kg
25 Atomic Mass and Isotopes weighted average The atomic mass which appears on the periodic table is the weighted average of the masses of all the isotopes. weighted fractional isotopic average =isotopic X mass abundance
26 Atomic Mass and Isotopes Boron has two isotopes 10 Babundance 19.9%mass u 11 Babundance 80.1%mass u Atomic mass = (0.199 x 10.01) + (0.801 x 11.01) Atomic mass = u
27 Atomic Weight (Mass) – The average mass of a representative sample of atoms. Example 1: Calculate the atomic weight of oxygen given the following data. Isotope % Abundance Atomic Weight 16 O O O
28 Atomic Weight (Mass) – The average mass of a representative sample of atoms. Example 2: Calculate the atomic weight of chlorine given the following data. Isotope% AbundanceAtomic Weight 35 Cl Cl Cl
29 A +/-q Z X X=symbol Z=atomic number (# of protons) A=mass number (# of protons + # neutrons) q= charge :+=electronsprotons Atomic number and mass number
30 Atomic Structure Atomic number (Z) is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. It is also known as the proton number. No. of protons always equals the no. of electrons in any neutral atom of an element. Mass number (A) is the sum of the number of protons and the number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
31 Atomic Structure - Example No. of neutrons = Mass number – atomic number No. of neutron = Mass No. – Atomic No. = 23 – 11 = 12 So how can you work out the number of neutrons in an atom? Example
32 Atomic Mass from Isotopic Composition
33 Atomic Mass from Isotopic Composition (0.9092) (0.0026) (0.0882) amu A.M. Ne = 20.18g/mol
34 Symbols Contain the symbol of the element, the mass number and the atomic number X Mass number Atomic number
35 Symbols Find the –number of protons –number of neutrons –number of electrons –Atomic number –Mass Number F 19 9
36 Symbols n Find n Find the –number –number of protons of neutrons of electrons –Atomic –Atomic number –Mass –Mass Number Br 80 35
37 Symbols n if an element has an atomic number of 34 and a mass number of 78 what is the –number of protons –number of neutrons –number of electrons –Complete symbol
38 Symbols n if an element has 91 protons and 140 neutrons what is the –Atomic number –Mass number –number of electrons –Complete symbol
39 Symbols n if an element has 78 electrons and 117 neutrons what is the –Atomic number –Mass number –number of protons –Complete symbol