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Examining Learner-Content Interaction Importance and Efficacy in Online, Self- Directed Electronic Professional Development in Science for Elementary Educators.

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Presentation on theme: "Examining Learner-Content Interaction Importance and Efficacy in Online, Self- Directed Electronic Professional Development in Science for Elementary Educators."— Presentation transcript:

1 Examining Learner-Content Interaction Importance and Efficacy in Online, Self- Directed Electronic Professional Development in Science for Elementary Educators in Grades Three Six Dissertation Defense November 2010 Al Byers

2 Research Purpose Conduct a quantitative exploratory study to determine which features of on-demand, self-directed online professional development are of greatest import, satisfaction, and learning value from a sample of upper elementary science teachers (grades three - six).

3 Research Implications It is hoped research findings will: Inform Instructional Designers creating online PD as to which interaction strategies of online content may be most engaging and maximize learning for elementary teachers Inform Education Administrators charged with selecting PD for their teachers Inform emerging theory related to online learner-content interaction: Andersons (2003) Equivalency of Interaction Theorem

4 4 Focus of Presentation What content interaction strategies correlate with teacher age, experience, and preferences? Literature Review Discussion Research Question and Hypotheses Methodology Results Six hypotheses based on Andersons Equivalency of Interaction Theory (2003)& review of literature Discusses methods, instruments, and analysis used to answer the research hypotheses Demographics of participants and findings for each of the six hypotheses Findings & Research Implications for Andersons Theory, Instructional Designers, and Education Administrators Dissertation Findings State of US Education, Elementary Teacher Science Content Knowledge, Scalable Self-Directed e-PD

5 5 Literature Review

6 6 US students scores on national and international science assessments stagnant NAEP (2000, 2006); TIMSS (2007); PISA (2006) Elementary and Middle level Teachers Content Knowledge Lacking and Professional Development Inadequate to address needs Banilower et al. (2007); Dede et al. (2006); Elmore (2004); Garet et al. (2001); Loucks-Horsley (1999); US Department of Education (2009); Yoon et al. (2008) State of Affairs in Science Education in United States: Need for Improvement in Science Instruction More Info

7 7 US Student Scores in Science Stagnant: Focus on Teachers Rise in student scores nationally and internationally slow. –2000 NAEP: Only 29% of 4 th and 8 th grade students at proficient level. Flat across all grades in science last 30 years –2007 TIMSS: Dozens of nations in grades 4 and 8 tested. US shows little growth in science since Ranked behind 11 other nations for 8 th grade science. At grade 4, only 4 nations statistically higher. By 12 th grade, we are last among 20 competing nations. –2006 PISA in Science: For 15 year olds, US ranked below top 20 countries tested (29 th out of 53 nations and scored below the overall average score for PISA)

8 8 Elementary School Teachers 20% 40% 60% 80% 74% Elementary and Middle Level Teachers of Science Vast majority of K-8 teachers have general education degree, not in science or science education (74-80%) Horizons Research (2001) At middle school level (grades 5-8), large percentages of teachers within-field teaching out-of-field Ingersoll (1999) There are approximately 1.9 million elementary teachers in United States NCES (2010) Middle School Teachers

9 9 Elementary School Teachers 20% 40% 60% 80% 71% 67% Vast majority of K-8 teachers expressed need to deepen their own science content knowledge (67-71%). Only 18-29% of K-4 teachers felt well prepared to teach science. Elementary and Middle Level Teachers of Science Horizons Research (2001); NSDC (2008) Content-related PD top priority requested by teachers in NCES SASS survey

10 10 StudyNational ReformFindings Elmore (2004) School research in classrooms across US over years Elementary teachers have little knowledge of various curriculum & assessment for science, nor support to implement effectively within classroom CCSSO (2007) Analysis of NCES 2004 Schools and Staffing Survey 50% Elementary teachers in US in self- contained classrooms responsible all subjects, little formal preparation in science. Only spend 2-3 hrs/week on science grades 1-6 (down from 3.5 hrs/week on 1994 SASS) Griffin (2008) State-wide N=164, volunteer survey Due to NCLB, survey shows 60% report decreased time on science spending as little as 1.5 hrs/wk Ma (1999)Comparison of US vs. China methods and classrooms Elementary math teachers less formal schooling then US, but deeper knowledge of content and PCK, team lesson analysis difference, more planning time Overview of Curriculum, Instruction and Assessment on Science in US Return

11 11 –Is fragmented, lacks coherence, evaluation of effectiveness; insufficient follow-up, and is not part of school-wide reform effort for sustainability. –Is of an insufficient duration and frequency to affect lasting change in teachers practice or increases in student learning, and not within theoretical framework –Online teacher PD: Potential compliment to face-to-face PD to address scale –Online PD primarily fixed stop/start moderated courses with little hands-on inquiry, simulations, or learning objects. Mostly asynchronous discussion. Dede et al. (2006, 2009); National Research Council (2007); US Dept of Ed (2006; 2010) Dede et al. (2006); Elmore (2004); Loucks-Horsley (1999); US Dept. of Ed (2009) Asbell-Clark & Rowe (2007); Harlen & Doubler (2004); Sloan Consortium (2008) Banilower et al. (2007); Dede et al. (2009); Garet et al. (2001); Yoon et al. (2008) Professional Development More Info

12 12 –US Partnerships in Mathematics and Science In invest $181 million dollars Funded 501 programs Average expenditure per program: $337,015 Average teachers reached: 113 Primary model: Summer Institute with follow-up site visits Total teachers Reached: 56,000 Total teachers of science in US: 3 Million –If funding levels do not change, take over 50 years to impact all our nations teachers using this model –Online PD may be way to address scale on level that is sustainable Challenges of Scale for onsite Professional Development US Department of Education (2006)

13 13 Research in K-8 Online PD (Self-Directed Online Learning Studies) StudyPD ModelAudience/ContentResearch Findings del Valle et al. (2009) Self-paced, 12 week module, instructor help K-12 inservice teachers--24 from elementary Mastery-sig. time over longer period, Task-focused-less time in shorter per. Procrastinator-little time, long pd Krall et al. (2009) Self-paced, on- demand, hands- on kits, mentor 43 Elem. & Middle Science and Inquiry, grades 4-8 Significant gains in content & conceptual knowledge. Mentor rated lowest across all interaction Lapointe et al. (2008) Evaluate import of online community 74 adult grad students out of 412, 30 disciplines Perception survey and quantitative data reveal mixed results. Not all favor peer-peer interaction (split) Rhodes (2009) Self-paced courses part of certificate model 10 adults in undergrad ed tech PD courses Learners interacted most with content and instructor and ranked ahead of learner-learner interaction Russell et al. (2008) Compare 8 wk online PD, varied support 145 Middle level math teachers (grades 5-8) Sig. gains in pedagogy and content knowledge across all delivery/ support modes. NSD between mode Walker et al. (2008) Online modules, support In & Pre-service, K-8 grades (N=32) Survey: high ease of use, and enhanced instruction (self-reported)

14 14 Research in Online PD in Science Ed (Pedagogical Content Knowledge Addressed Online) StudyPD ModelAudience/ContentResearch Findings Asbell- Clarke (2007) 40 moderated online courses, review across courses, and 6 institutions 250 K-12 science educators and 35 instructors completed pre/post questionnaires Instructor lead asynchronous discussion. Little hands-on or sims. Students felt supported and large discourse regarding pedagogy and self-reflection. Harlen et al. (2004) Short course w/ hands on inquiry (compare w/ f2f) Elementary and Middle Science (N = 15 and 18 respectively) Online group significant learning gains and time spent. Inquiry more difficult to teach Sherman et al. (2008) Self-paced, mentor, learning objects Middle school science and inquiry (N = 43) Significant gains in content knowledge and self-efficacy Owston et al. (2006) 4 f2f workshops between 8 weeks online. 25 weeks. Two cohorts Middle Science & Math. 65 science teachers (in Canada) Significant gains in teacher perception of inquiry. Weak online participation. Difficult to take release time provided Return

15 15 Anderson Equivalency of Interaction Theorem Deep and meaningful formal learning is supported as long as one of the three forms of interaction (learner–instructor; learner- learner; learner-content) is at a high level. The other two may be offered at minimal levels, or even eliminated, without degrading the educational experience. High levels of more than one of these three modes will likely provide a more satisfying educational experience, though these experiences may not be as cost or time effective as less interactive learning sequences (2003, p. 4).

16 16 Andersons Equivalency of Interaction

17 17 Andersons Equivalence of Interaction Many focus on learner-learner or learner-instructor interaction. This study focused on importance and learning efficacy of five different learner-content interaction strategies.

18 18 Learner-Content Interaction Strategies Interactive Reference: Content narrative, images, animations, audio and glossary (Schaller et. al 2002, 2007) Hands-On Opportunities: Activities to learn content via tactile inquiries (Krall et al. 2009; Harlen et al. 2004) Pedagogical Implications: Application of content in classroom contexts by grade band (Asbell-Clarke 2007; Berger et al. 2008; Harlen et al. 2004;Owston et al. 2006; Russell et al ) Simulations: Control of relational variables, phenomenon (Schaller et al. 2002, 2007; Sherman et al. 2008) Personal Feedback: Provided for individual (del Valle et al. 2009; Whitaker et al. 2007; Hoskins et al. 2005) Literature & Examples

19 19 Content-Interaction Strategies: Simulations, Hands-On Inquiry, Interactive Reference StudyPDAudience/ContentResearch Findings Harlen et al. (2004) Short course w/ hands-on inquiry (compare w/ f2f) Elem. & Middle Science (15 and 18 in each group) Online group significant learning gains and time spent. Inquiry more difficult Krall et al. (2009) Self-paced, hands-on kits, mentor Elem. & Middle Science & Inquiry Significant gains in content knowledge. Low mentor rating. Sherman (2008) Self-paced, , learning object with simulations Middle school science/inquiry Significant gains in content knowledge & teacher self- efficacy Schaller et al. (2002) Museum content- web sites/web logs 2 groups (adults/ children) N=549 Adults preferred Interact. Ref. & Simulations. Kids preferred role playing and games Schaller et al. (2007) Museum web sites (content- type) 7,800 exit surveys from 11 museums Learning style affects adult pref. Social-Role Play, Intellectual--Interactive Ref. Whitaker et al. (2007) 235 preK teachersThree levels of content packsages and services Level of support received affects level of participation

20 20 Learner-Content Interaction Types Interactive Reference: Content narrative, images, slide shows, animations, audio and glossary classified as interactive reference permitting learner to engage in content via playback of animations, movies, check-your thinking mouse- overs, etc. (Hoskins et al. 2005; Schaller et al. 2002, 2007)

21 21 Interactive Reference

22 22 Interactive Reference

23 23 Interactive Reference

24 24 Learner-Content Interaction Types Hands-On Opportunities: Activities to learn content via tactile mode via simplistic yet elegant inquiry using items readily available within home. Not a full-blown student lesson plan. (Asbell-Clarke et al. 2007; Harlen et al. 2004; Krall et al. 2009; NRC 1996)

25 25 Hands-On Activities

26 26 Learner-Content Interaction Types Pedagogical Implications: Translation of content for classroom contexts by grade band (e.g., strategies for teaching difficult concepts, what cognitively appropriate by grade band, K-2, 3-5, 6-8, 9-12) and as aligned to both the National Science Education Standards and AAAS Benchmarks for Science Literacy (Berger et al. 2008; Asbell-Clarke et al. 2007; Russel et al. 2009; Owston et al. 2006)

27 27 Pedagogical Implications

28 28 Pedagogical Implications

29 29 Learner-Content Interaction Types Simulations: Control of relational variables to observe differences in science content phenomenon under examination (e.g., height ball dropped, angle down hill, type of surface ball rolling across (Anderson 2003; Asbell-Clarke et al. 2007; Sherman et al. 2008; Schaller et al. 2002, 2007; Bayraktar, 2001; Kulik, 1991; J. Lee, 1999; Vogel, et al., 2006)

30 30 Simulations Air Gravity Cart Track Plate Tectonics Seismic Waves Make a Reef Reflecting Light Curved Mirrors

31 31 Learner-Content Interaction Types Personal Feedback: Feedback provided for individual learners based on selections they make as answering varied question types that are embedded throughout content and as quizzes at the end of each section (e.g., multiple choice answers, drag-n- drop hotspots, sequencing questions, etc.) (Hoskins et al. 2005; Lapointe et al. 2008; Rhodes et al. 2009)

32 32 Personal Feedback

33 33 Ex: Frequency of Interaction in one web module

34 34 (Appendix F)

35 35 Research Questions and Hypotheses

36 Research Questions Which learner-content interaction strategies of self-directed online professional development are of greatest import, satisfaction, and learning value from a sample of upper elementary science teachers (grades three - six): –Interactive Reference –Embedded Hands-on Activities –Personal Feedback Questions –Simulations –Pedagogical Implications Will age, years teaching experience, and learning style correlate with different content- interaction strategies?

37 Learner-Content Interaction Content-interaction strategies in self-paced web modules were examined across seven science content areas: 1.Interactive Reference Content 2.Embedded Hands-on Activities 3.Personal Feedback Questions 4.Simulations 5.Pedagogical Implications Learning Content Preferences was measured via an online survey and correlated with learner age and years teaching experience. Learning Achievement was correlated with age and years teaching experience using NSTAs Pre/Post Assessment tool. Learning Styles measured via Kolb (2005) Learning Style Inventory 3.1 was compared against learning preferences and perception of learning impact for different learner-content interaction types via multiple one-way analysis of variance.

38 38 Learner-Content Interaction Focus (Anderson, 2003) Still challenge to define when interaction has educational value Broad combination of delivery modes and pacing should be available (del Valle et al. 2009; Krall et al. 2009; Rhodes 2009; Russell; 2009) Increase networking & computer power warrant exploration of student-content interactions Independent study materials (e.g., simulations, quizzes, learning objects) may enhance learning and minimize instructor interaction (Asbell-Clarke et al. 2007; Sherman et al. 2008; Walker et al. 2008)

39 39 Research Hypotheses H1: Age will be positively correlated with the type of preferred content- interaction strategy desired in self- directed web-based modules (del Valle et al. 2009; Farahani, 2003; Hoskins et al. 2005; Jiang et al. 2006; Kayes 2005; Schaller et al. 2007) H2: Years teaching experience will be positively correlated with the type of preferred content-interaction strategy desired in on-demand, self-directed web-based modules (del Valle et al. 2009; Kayes 2005)

40 40 Research Hypotheses H3: Age will be positively correlated with the achievement as measured via a pre/post assessment for those that have completed and passed an online web module (del Valle et al. 2009; Hoskins et al. 2005; Kayes 2005). H4: Years teaching experience will be postively correlated with achievement as measured via a pre/post assessment for those that have completed and passed an online web module (del Valle et al. 2009; Kayes 2005; Russell et al. 2009)

41 41 Research Hypotheses H5: Adult learners prefer an online interaction type matching their learning style when accessing self-directed online PD focused on learner-content interaction (Lapointe et al. 2008; Rhode 2009; Schaller et al. 2002; 2007; Su et al. 2005; Farahani 2003; Harlen et al. 2004; Kolb et al. 2005; Krall et al. 2009) 1.Teachers selecting Interactive Reference most favorable will be identified with Assimilating learning style 2.Teachers selecting Hands-On activities most favorable will be identified with Accommodating learning style 3.Teachers selecting Pedagogical Implications most favorable will be identified with Converging learning style 4.Teachers selecting Personal Feedback most favorable will be indentified with Diverging learning style 5.Teachers selecting Simulations most favorable will be identified with Converging learning style More Info

42 42 Variables: Age, Work Experience, Achievement, Perception StudyStudy DesignAud./ContentResearch Findings Del Valle et al Content usage in on-demand 12 wk course, cluster analysis determined 3 distinct groups of learners online 59 teachers, 24 elementary. On-demand course on inquiry & tech integration with mentoring. Three Groups: Mastery oriented, Task Focused, Procrastinators. Mastery most sessions & time. Task Focused shorter time, more logins then procrastinators-least time, fewest logins. Work Experience: Mastery group significant more yrs experience vs. task focused group. Minimalist group: Prefer cohort group envir. Age: NSD among 3 clusters. Self-Reported Learning: All report learned, NSD found between cluster groups. Hoskins et al Tool/content usage-online quizzes, dis. boards, etc. Multiple linear regressions and discriminate function analysis to predict use. 110 ungrads, 12 wk blended course in biological psychology. Analysis of Covariance determine web use impact on achievement Age: Older students (>21 yrs) put forth more effort to process content at deeper level for more intrinsic reasons. As age increased, number of logins and time online increased, and use of discussion boards. Study Approach: As lower achievement oriented learners completed more quizzes they learned more, higher achievement oriented users access more content/tools. Academic Achievement: Increased use of discussion board predicted increase achiev.

43 43 Hoskins et al Closes the study with a call to examine components in online learning environments in more detail and to explore the use of content and delivery styles in an effort to maximize student engagement and learning. Given the small sample of older learners, the authors conclude with a call for more research to confirm or refute the findings with a larger population of mature learners

44 44 StudyStudy DesignAud./ContentResearch Findings Schaller et al Online exit surveys across 5 museum web sites for 549 users Interaction types: Creative play, guided tour, interactive reference, puzzle/mystery, role play, simulation Learning Preference: Sig. Diff. found among types of web-based learning between kids and adults. Adults: favored interactive reference and simulations Kids: Creative Play or Role Play Novice Learners: Regardless of age preferred Guided Learning web modules. Schaller et al Two separate online exit surveys across 11 museum web sites for 5606 users, 2298 adults. Use Kolb LSI 3.1 for preference Middle & High School kids and Adults. Content Interaction Types: Interactive Reference, Discussion, Design, Simulation, Role Play, Puzzle- Mystery Learning Preference: Sig. Diff. Adults: Learning style influence preferences for learning activities. As get older move from Accommodating style to more Assimilating and Converging learning styles Age: Adults prefer Int. Reference and Puzzle, Kids--Role-Play, & Design. Gender: Female adults-more social then male adults. Kids-NSD Variables: Learner-Content Type, Learner Preference by Age

45 45 StudyStudy Design Aud./ContentResearch Findings Kayes 2005 Internal validity and reliability of Kolb undergrad and grad business students completed Kolb 3.1 Found significant differences in learning preferences between undergrads and grads. Researchers attributed to age or work experience. Russell et al. (2008) Compare 8 wk online PD, varied support. 70% female. 145 Middle level math teachers (grades 5-8). 48%< 40 yrs old. No further breakdown Sig. gains in pedagogy and content knowledge across all delivery modes. NSD between modes. NSD between support groups on demographic variablesteachers self-selected mode. Brittan et al. (2008) Learning styles on academic course achievement & course selection 108 undergrad students at HBCU (91% female). Psychological Assessment course (online or f2f compared). Self select enrollment Surveyed students who volunteered to take Kolb after completing f2f exam. Using Chi-Square found NSD between learning style and course delivery preference. NSD also found between course grade (achievement) and course delivery format (2X4 ANOVA). Researchers call for re-evaluation of learning styles given interaction available in online learning environments Variables: Learner preference, Achievement, Age, Work Exp.

46 46 Research Hypotheses H6: Teachers completing the 10- hour web modules and passing the final assessment will demonstrate significant gains in learning. (del Valle et al. 2009; Krall et al. 2009; Sherman et al. 2008; Russell et al. 2008).

47 47 Methodology

48 48 Non-Experimental Quantitative Design: Multi-Statistical Method study Bivariate Pearson Product Moment Correlations for H1-H4 (age, years experience, learning achievement, interaction strategies) Multiple One-Way Analysis of Variance for H5 (Kolb learning preference matches content-interaction strategy) Paired Sample t-tests for H6 (learning outcomes between pre/post & final assessments) Dependent Variables: Learning Achievement Teacher perceptions of effectiveness for the five learner content-interaction strategies Independent Variables: Age, Yrs Teaching Experience, and Learning Preference Methodology: Study Design More Info

49 49 Criteria for Participation: Currently teaching in grades three – six Completed a 10-hour self-directed web module in one or more science content areas Completed a pre and post assessment instrument Pass a separate final assessment at the end of the web module Methodology: Participants

50 50 Non-Experimental, Quantitative Design: Descriptive research involves the collection and analysis of quantitative data in order to develop a precise description of a samples behavior or personal characteristics (Gall et al. 1999, p. 173). Corrleational research seeks to investigate relationships between variables to discern degree and directional relationships (Gall et al. 1999; McMillian, 2008). Limited external validity (generalizability) applies with non-random sampling and non-randomized assignment. Predictive regression analysis should be avoidedsubject to severe bias in regression estimations (Pedhazur et al. 1991) Methodology: Study Design

51 51 Bivariate Pearson Product Moment Correlations For H1-H4 the Pearson Product Moment correlations will uncover any relationships between age, years teaching experience, learner achievement, and preferences for and perceived learning impact of the five learner content-interaction strategies. Pearson Product Moment correlation (r) is appropriate statistic with a small standard of error for determining the degree of relationship when comparing only two continuous variables (interval & ratio) as it is the covariance between the scores after they have been standardized as z scores. (Babbie, 1990; Gall et al. 1999, Pedhazur et al. 1991) Use of Pearson Product Moment is preferred over simultaneous multiple regression given a non-probabilistic sample. (Pedhazur et al. 1991) Methodology: Study Design

52 52 H1 and H2: Correlation Independent Variables (continuous ratio data): Learner Age Years Teaching Experience Dependent Variables (interval data): Teacher preference of, perception for and learning effectiveness of the five learning- content interaction types (measured via learner preference survey) Methodology: Study Design

53 53 H3 and H4: Correlation Independent Variables (continuous ratio data): Learner Age Years Teaching Experience Pre-Assessment (covariant, items same as post assessment) Dependent Variables (interval data): Learning Achievement (measured via NSTA post assessment instrument) Methodology: Study Design

54 54 Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance H5 will compare teachers learning style as related to content- interaction strategy preferences captured via an online survey. Analysis of variance more elegant and accurate method for simultaneous comparisons between means than multiple t-tests, and avoids likelihood of creating Type 1 error (falsely rejecting null). (Gall et al. 1999) Pooled overall interaction strategy indexes from survey calculated by averaging responses to five-item survey. Internal consistency and cohesiveness for scale across five item survey high (Chronbach α). Ran a within-subjects factor via a split-file using SPSS to report out separately individuals learning style, and then repeated measures ANOVA were run on the interaction strategy indexes for differences. Avoidance of Type 1 error minimized by performing a Geisser Greenhouse correction for assumption of sphericity in SPSS, which adjust degrees of freedom - and F score downward. (Lane et al. 2008) Methodology: Study Design

55 55 H5: Multiple One-Way Analysis of Variance Dependent Variables:(interval data) Teacher preference of, perception for, and learning effectiveness of five content interaction types (Likert scale survey) Independent Variable: (categorical determined via interval data): Learning Style Preference (via Kolb LSI 3.1) Methodology Accommodating Diverging Converging Assimilating

56 56 H5 Analysis Steps: 1.Classify learners into individual groups based on their learning style preference (diverging, assimilating, converging, accommodating) 2.Run multiple one-way ANOVAs for each preference group to examine which content interaction strategies most preferred based off teacher preference/perception of pooled indexes (Chronbach αs high): Methodology Simulations α =.91 Hands-On α =.96 Personal Feedback α =.93 Interactive Reference α =.94 Pedagogical Implications α =.96

57 57 H6: Paired Sample t-Tests H6 looks for learning gains between pretest and posttest and pretest and final assessment mean scores. This method recommended as appropriate to determine if the difference between mean scores of two groups significant as long as: only matched pairs are used scores are normally distributed variance between paired samples are the same observations are independent of each others (Gall et al. 1999; Pedhazur et al. 1991) Given there was no control group to compare pre, post, and final assessment scores, and no random assignment to equally distribute extraneous participant variables, attributing teacher learning to treatment (i.e., web modules) is tentative. Threat to internal validity. (Gall et al. 1999; Pedhazur et al. 1991) Methodology: Study Design More Info

58 58 Non-probabilistic Judgment Sample Based off intellectual strategy and framework of variables that could influence individuals contributions incorporating theory, availability, literature, and researchers practical knowledge (Marshall, 1996, p. 523; Nesbary, 2000) 708 K-12 Science Teachers in Frame: Exact number in national database from grades 3-6 unknown privacy issues 85 educators volunteered and met parameters of participation Participants from 11 different states (CT, GA, IL, KY, MT, OH, OR, PA, TX, WA, WV) Methodology: Sampling Frame More Info

59 59 Web Module Science Content Area Number that have completed the online pretest, posttest and passed the final assessment at the conclusion of the web module Force and Motion296 Energy173 Oceans Effect on Weather and Climate 86 Solar System25 Earths Changing Surface35 Cell Structure and Function47 Nature of Light46 Totals 708 Table 1. Completion Frequencies of Pre/Post Assessments Methodology: Sampling Frame

60 60 Sufficient Sample Size: Nonprobabilistic No smaller than 30 or larger than 500 Within 10% of size of parent population 10% larger than # of variables being studied Larger samples better than small ones (Sue et al. 2007) 82 Teachers meets theses research guidelines 102 Unique Responses 2 educators completed 3 Feedback Surveys 15 educators completed 2 Feedback Surveys All met parameters for participation Methodology: Sampling Size

61 61 NSTA Pretest, Posttest and Final Assessment Instruments: Measures learning achievement (Chronbach αs between ) Kolb Learning Style Inventory 3.1 (2005) Determines preferred learning style. (Chronbach αs between ) Learner Demographic and Content-Interaction Preference Survey: Determines learner preferences across 5 content interaction strategies for 7 science content areas (Chronbach αs at least.91 or higher for indexes) Methodology: Instrumentation More Info

62 62 Developed in 1969, revised in 1985, 1999 and 2005 Adheres to standards for educational testing by American Educational Research Association 12 item survey with 4 forced choice questions Learners placed in one of 4 learning styles Used in over 650 studies for research across multiple groups, including education, normative testing group –over 6977 users Average internal reliability (test-retest) alpha of.81 (range.73 to.99) Internal Construct Validity for learning preference categories (CE, AE, RO, AC). Range.77 to.82 (Kayes 2005) Instruments: Kolb Learning Style Inventory 3.1 (2005)

63 63 StudyStudy DesignAud./ContentResearch Findings Felder et al Varied teaching strategies needed to accommodate different learning preferences. Literature review-Kolb Engineering Students. Three categories diversity have important implications for teaching and learning. Literature Review: Differences in students learning styles (characteristic ways of taking in and processing information-Kolb 3.1), Approaches to learning (surface, deep, and strategic) Intellectual development levels (attitudes about the nature of knowledge and how acquired and evaluated). Brittan et al. (2008) Role learning styles on academic course achievement and preferences for course selection 108 undergrad students at HBCU (91% female). Psychological Assessment course (online or f2f compared). Self select enrollment mode. Surveyed students who volunteered to take Kolb after completing f2f exam. Using Chi-Square found NSD between learning style and course delivery preference. NSD found between course grade (achievement) and course delivery format (2X4 ANOVA). Researchers call for re-evaluation of learning styles given interaction available in online learning environments Selected Kolb Learning Preference Studies

64 64 StudyStudy Design Aud./ContentResearch Findings Schaller et al Two separate online exit surveys across 11 museum web sites for 5606 users, 2298 adults. Use Kolb LSI 3.1 for preference Middle & High School kids and Adults. Content Interaction Types: Interactive Reference, Discussion, Design, Simulation, Role Play, Puzzle- Mystery Learning Preference: Sig. Diff. Adults: Learning style influence preferences for learning activities. As get older move from Accommodating style to more Assimilating and Converging learning styles Age: Adults prefer Int. Reference and Puzzle, Kids--Role-Play, & Design. Gender: Female adults-more social then male adults. Kids-NSD Kayes 2005 Internal validity and reliability of Kolb undergrad and grad business students completed Kolb 3.1 Found significant differences in learning preferences between undergrads and grads. Researchers attributed to age or work experience. Selected Kolb Learning Preference Studies

65 65 Kolb Learning Style Inventory 3.1

66 66 Pre/Post Assessment No. of Items No. of CasesMeanSD Internal Consistency Force & Motion Solar System Energy Nature of Light Earths Changing Surface Oceans Effect on Weather and Climate Cell Structure and Function Instruments: NSTA Content Knowledge Assessment Chronbach α Internal Consistency

67 67 Online Survey Example (Appendix G) Age Years Teaching Experience Subjects Certified to Teach Learner content-interaction preferences for and perceptions of learning for: simulations, hands- on, pedagogical implications, interactive reference, and personal feedback Is engaging to me Facilitates my learning science content Facilitates my retention of content over time Facilitates teaching the science content to my students I would like to see more of this content type Instruments: Learner demographics and content interaction preferences survey

68 68 Individual Measures of Reliability for the five-item preferences were high across the 7 science content area surveys with following Chronbach α reliability ratings: Simulations Chronbach α =.91 Hands-on Chronbach α =.96 Personal Feedback Chronbach α =.93 Interactive Reference Chronbach α =.94 Pedagogical Implications Chronbach α =.96 Results indicate the 5 items for each content-interaction strategy form a statistically appropriate scale to test hypotheses and combine to create an overall satisfaction preference index for each strategy type (Howell, 1997). Instruments: Learner demographics and content interaction preferences survey

69 69 Back-end analysis of national database: Generated master excel of 708 K-12 qualified educators. List segmented into 7 different content areas personalized s/weekend. Sent out over 6 waves between March and May, No one invited more than 3 times to participate. Once agreed, separate URL forwarded. Increase Response Rate Strategies: Personalized invitations (first name), from individual with Sr. title Guaranteed incentive (free e-book of choice from NSTA) Raffle opportunity to win one of 14 Apple iPod touches Informed educators selectively chosen because of status Invited non-respondents with updated progress of completion Communicated importance and promise to share results (Dillman et al. 2008; Kaplowitz et al. 2004; Porter et al. 2003; Sills et al. 2002; Sue et al, 2007) Methodology: Data Collection More Info

70 70 Methodology: Data Collection

71 71 Response Rates 708 Eligible, 85 Responded, 102 Unique Responses Unable to know response rate or how many taught grades 3-6. Two of 85 did not complete survey once started (98% response rate for eligible, self-selected participants). Two completed 3 surveys and 15 completed 2 surveys. 39 s bounced (94.5% of 708 eligible for study). Sampling Errors: Self-selection bias, non-response bias, non-coverage errors not germane given not attempting to generalize findings to larger population beyond the sample in exploratory, descriptive study (Sills et al. 2002; Wright, 2005) Ex: non-coverage error avoided with purposive sampling, examples in survey also provided as refresher. Focus is on quality of content and relationships revealed between variables under examination. Methodology: Data Collection

72 72 Delimintations External validity due to self-imposed non- probabilistic design Internal threats to validity such as: pretest sensitization (pre and posttest) Volunteer self-selection Non-response coverage error Limitations Eligible participants for study Knowledge of eligibility Unknown sampling frame size (privacy issues) Methods of contact and survey limited ( only) Methodology: Delimitations and Limitations

73 73 Results

74 74 Gender Within Study: 88% female, 12% male Mirrors US Elementary Public Schools: (Aud et al. 2010) 84% female, 16% male Age of Participants: Range: Years Results: Participant Demographics Age ClustersStudyUS Public Schools Less than 30 Years4.88%18.7% Years28.05%26.8% Years40.24%23.9% Years23.17%25.4% 60+ Years3.66%5.2%

75 75 Years Teaching Experience Largest percentage with 4-9 years experience: 37% Approximately mirrors percentages reflected at National level for most categories (Aud et al. 2010) Results: Participant Demographics Years Teaching Experience StudyUS Public Schools 0-3 Years12.20%17.0% %28.0% %27.9% %27.0%

76 76 Teaching License Credentials preK-6 Licensure Largest: 56% Middle level certification: 28% Secondary Science Certificate: 9.7% Results: Participant Demographics Teacher LicensureFrequencyPercentage preK % Middle Education (6-8)2328.0% Secondary Science- General 56.10% Secondary Science- Life Science 22.40% Secondary Science- Earth/Space Science 11.20% Secondary Science- Physical Science 00 Multiple Secondary Science Endorsements 56.10%

77 77 Grade Levels Taught Could check multiple grade levels 63% taught grades 3-6 (target of study) Largest percentage taught grade six: 21% Results: Participant Demographics Grade Level FrequencyPercentage Teaching Certificate 163.4% PreK-6 56% 295.1% % % % % Middle Level 28% % %

78 78 All 85 Teachers placed into 1 of 4 categories 17 took survey multiple times, 15 had identical preference Results: Learning Preferences 26 Teachers Interactive Reference 25 Teachers hands-on 23 Teachers Simulations, Pedagogical Implications 11 Teachers Personal Feedback

79 79 Three Interaction Strategies positively correlated with age at a significant level: (a) Simulations, (b) Personal Feedback, (c) Interactive Reference H1 Results: Age and Interaction Strategy Correlated Age and Content-Interaction Strategies Across Seven Science Content Areas (Table 8, p. 105) Range of rsOverall Correlation Index Simulations.09 (p =.33) 26 (p =.03) r(102) =.2, p =.03 Hands-On Activities.04 (p =.54).09 (p =.34) r(102) =.08, p =.45 Personal Feedback.09 (p =.36).24 (p =.01) r(102) =.20, p =.04 Interactive Reference.10 (p =.30).21 (p =.04) r(102) =.008, p =.02 Pedagogical Implications -.09 (p =.34).03 (p =.76) r(102) =.008, p =.94 Chronbach α

80 80 Individual Measures of Reliability for the five-item preferences were high across the 7 science content area surveys with following Chronbach α reliability ratings: Simulations Chronbach α =.91 Hands-on Chronbach α =.96 Personal Feedback Chronbach α =.93 Interactive Reference Chronbach α =.94 Pedagogical Implications Chronbach α =.96 Results indicate the 5 items for each content-interaction strategy form a statistically appropriate scale to test hypotheses and combine to create an overall satisfaction preference index for each strategy type (Howell, 1997). Instruments: Learner demographics and interaction preferences survey

81 81 Two Interaction Strategies positively correlated with Years Teaching Experience at a significant level: (a) Personal Feedback, (b) Interactive Reference H2 Results: Years Teaching Experience & Interaction Strategy Correlated Chronbach α Years Teaching Experience and Content-Interaction Strategies (Table 2, p. 107) Interaction Strategy Range of rsCorrelation Simulations.01 (p =.92) 12 (p =.20) r (102) =.04, p =.67 Hands-On Activities.05 (p =.54).14 (p =.16) r (102) =.11, p =.29 Personal Feedback.21 (p =.03).28 (p =.005) r (102) =.27, p =.006 Interactive Reference.10 (p =.29).27 (p =.007) r (102) =.22, p =.02 Pedagogical Implications (p =.95) -.17 (p =.08) r (102) = -.08, p =.41

82 82 The overall correlation between age and learning achievement was not significant. H3 Results: Age and Learning Achievement Correlated Age, Pre- and Postassessments and Final Assessments (Table 10, p. 109) PretestPosttestFinal Assessment Ager(102) =.02, p =.85r(102) =.08, p =.45r(102) =.17, p =.08 Correlation between learning achievement assessments Pretest–Posttestr(102) =.48, p =.001 Pretest–Final Assessment r(102) =.22, p =.02 Posttest–Final Assessment r(102) =.42, p =.001

83 83 Statistically Significant Correlation between Years Teaching Experience and Learning Achievement on the Final Assessment (which rewards certificate). H4 Results: Year Teaching Experience and Learning Achievement Correlated Years Experience, Pre- and Postassessments and Final Assessments (Table 10, p. 109) PretestPosttestFinal Assessment Years Experience r(102) = -.07, p =.47r(102) =.15, p =.12r(102) =.22, p =.03 Correlation between learning achievement assessments Pretest–Posttestr(102) =.48, p =.001 Pretest–Final Assessment r(102) =.22, p =.02 Posttest–Final Assessment r(102) =.42, p =.001

84 84 H5 Results: Content Interaction Strategy Matches Preferred Learning Style Learner Preference Classification Predicted Interaction Strategy Findings Assimilating (n = 26) Interactive Reference Pedagogical Implications least preferred (M = 3.58, SD = 1.39), and at significant level, F(4,116) = 13.40, p <.001. Accommodating (n = 25) Hands-On Pedagogical Implications least preferred (M = 3.14, SD = 1.39), and at significant level, F(4,116) = 20.33, p <.001. Converging (n = 23) Simulations, Pedagogical Implications Pedagogical Implications least preferred (M = 3.14, SD = 1.39), and at significant level, F(4,116) = 11.81, p <.001. Diverging (n = 11) Personal Feedback No significant difference between any of 5 interaction strategies F(4,116) =.41, p <.80 (Combination Tables 11-15, pp )

85 85 See Table 11, p. 113 Assimilating Teachers: Predicted Interactive Reference. Silver Lining: Interactive Reference highest ranked mean, but NSD Accommodating Teachers: Predicted Hands-On Silver Lining: Hands-on was highest ranked mean, but NSD Converging Teachers: Predicted Simulations & Pedagogical Implications Gray Lining: Simulations was one of most preferred, but NSD Diverging Teachers: Predicted Personal Feedback as most preferred No Lining: NSD between any of 5 interaction strategies H5 Results: Content Interaction Strategy Matches Preferred Learning Style

86 86 H6 Results: Significant Learning Gains for Teachers with Self-Directed Web Modules across 2 instruments Paired Sample Descriptive Statistics (Table 16, p. 120) PairNMeanSD Standard Error Mean Pair 1 Pretest Posttest Pair 2 Pretest Final Assessment Paired Sample t-Tests for Teacher Learning Gains (Table 17, p. 120) Paired SamplesNMeanSDtdfp Pretest–Posttest Pretest–Final Assessment

87 87 H6 Results: Significant Learning Gains for Teachers with Self-Directed Web Modules across 2 instruments Paired Sample Correlations (Table 18, p. 120) PairNCorrelationp Pair 1Pretest and Posttest Pair 2Pretest and Final Assessment The pretest, posttest, and final assessment at the end of each web module were all statistically correlated with each other, ensuring coherence between measurement instruments.

88 88 Discussion

89 Discussion Findings Conduct a quantitative exploratory study to determine which features of on-demand, self-directed online professional development are of greatest import, satisfaction, and learning value from a sample of upper elementary science teachers (grades three - six). Overarching Research Question

90 Discussion Findings Age and Content-Interaction Strategies Predicted age would correlate with strategies Others found age affecting preferences for different types of online content (Schaller, et al. 2002, 2007) and as potential predictor of achievement (Hoskins & van Hooff, 2005). Three strategies significantly correlated –Simulations –Personal Feedback –Interactive Reference Seems to Makes Sense! Research supports value of simulations for science (Bayraktar, 2001; Cameron, 2003; Lee et al. 2004; Reed et al., 2002; Renkl et al. 2002; Schnotz et al., 2005), and other two strategies from instructional design for Science and Online Learning (Kali et al. 2008; Narciss, 2008; Shute et al., 2008). More Info

91 91 AuthorStudyAudience Schaller et al. (02) Museum content-web sites/logs2 groups (adults/ children) N=549 Findings: Adults preferred Interact. Ref. & Simulations. Kids preferred role playing and games Schaller et al. (07) Museum web sites (content-type)7,800 exit surveys from 11 museums Findings: Learning style affects adult pref. Social-Role Play, Intellectual--Interactive Ref. Hoskins et al. (05) Tool/content usage-online quizzes, dis. boards, etc. 110 ungrads, 12 wk blended course in biological psychology. Findings: Age: Older students (>21 yrs) put forth more effort to process content at deeper level for more intrinsic reasons. As age increased, number of logins and time online increased, and use of discussion boards. Study Approach: As lower achievement oriented learners completed more quizzes they learned more, higher achievement oriented users access more content/tools. Academic Achievement: Increased use of discussion board predicted increase achiev. del Valle et al. (09) Self-paced, 12 week module, instructor help K-12 inservice teachers--24 from elementary Findings: Mastery-sig. time over longer period, Task-focused-less time in shorter per. Procrastinator-least time, long period. Age not sig diff. Mastery- sig. diff-teachers more yrs exp Age and Content-Interaction Strategies

92 Discussion Findings Years Experience and Interaction Strategies Predicted years experience would correlate with content-interaction strategies Others have found work experience affecting preferences for different types of online content (del Valle et al. 2009; Kayes, 2005 ) Two strategies significantly correlated in this study –Personal Feedback –Interactive Reference Seems to Makes Sense! Research studying PD and teacher demographics reveal differences based on where they are in their profession (needs, motivation, time to contribute, & skill vary) (Anderson et al. 2006; del Valle et al. 2009; Mulholland et al. 2005).

93 Discussion Findings Age, Years Experience correlated with Learning Achievement Predicted both age and years experience would correlate with learning achievement Age was not significantly correlated (but approached) Years Experience was significantly correlated with Final Assessment (tied to certificate and reward). Research Findings Mixed. Research for self-reported learning found ceiling effect (del Valle et al. 2009; Sherman et al. 2008), or found NSD in achievement between online PD with different levels of support (Russell et al. 2009). Research espouses quality of resources, learning environment, pedagogy and context are what matters based on where teachers are in their career. (Anderson et al. 2006; del Valle et al. 2009; Mentis, 2008; Mushayikwa et al. 2009; Yoon et al. 2003).

94 Discussion Findings Content-Interaction Strategy matches Preferred Learning Style Prediction based on literature examining learning preferences, and science and mathematics online PD (Felder et al. 2005; Hoskins et al. 2005; Kayes 2005; Schaller et al., 2002, 2007; Asbell- Clarke et al, 2007; Harlen et al. 2007; Krall et al, 2009; Rhode, 2009). Partial support found: In 3 of 4 learning style categories learners highest rated strategy did match predicted, but not at level of significance. Pedagogical Implications: Least favored at significant level for 3 of 4 categories. Diverging, NSD found in preference for any of the 5 interaction strategies. Potential Reasons: PI provides no interaction espoused by Anderson, just e-textbook. Teachers experienced, not perceive need, desire sci. content.

95 Discussion Findings Teacher Learning Gains Generalizing findings beyond sample limited given nonprobabilistic judgment sample and non-random assignment to treatment. Worthwhile data in context of exploratory descriptive study discerning facets of phenomenon under study Scores on PostAssessment and Final Assessment Significantly Higher than on PreAssessment. Seems to Makes Sense! Emerging consensus in K-12 science that simulations (and CAI) provide access to representations that enhance user motivation and learning (Kulik 1991; Lee, 1999; Linn et al., 2006; Lunetta et al, 2007; Songer, 2007; Varma et al, 2008). Care to avoid claims that one form of media is better than another (Head et al., 2002; Lockee et al. 2002; Mentis, 2008)

96 Research Implications It is hoped research findings will: Inform Instructional Designers creating online PD as to which interaction strategies of online content may be most engaging and maximize learning for elementary teachers Inform Education Administrators charged with selecting PD for their teachers Inform emerging theory related to online learner-content interaction: Andersons (2003) Equivalency of Interaction Theorem

97 Research Implications Instructional Designers Given sig. learning gains, designers may wish to review the templates as they seek to design rich interactions in self-directed web learning objects Templates apply the Cognitive Theory in Multimedia Learning seeking to minimize extraneous load as dual coding/processing occurs for audio/video/text/images: Segmenting content into chunks Pretraining and Indexing Needs Proximity of text, images and questions Rich feedback from multiple choice questions (Mayer & Moreno, 2003; Moreno & Valdez; 2005; Morrison et al., 2005; van Merrienboer & Ayers; 2005; Narciss; 2008) More Info

98 Research Implications Qualitative Feedback: Any additional feedback regarding the type of human interaction you would desire in support of your online professional development? I do not need as much human interaction. However, when the content is more difficult, I definitely see a need for live chat and access to an expert to clear things up. Part of the beauty of the Science Objects to me is being able to complete them when it is convenient to me and not on a schedule with others. Having someone to contact with my questions, however, would be beneficial. I like the interactive simulations that enable me to make adjustments and see the results. I think the modules are excellent ways for me to review and update my knowledge in order to improve my science instruction and my ability to deliver effective lessons in the classroom. I feel the live chats with other educators would be useful for teachers who may not have extensive content knowledge on various subject matter. Since it may be midnight before I get a chance to do online work, ing questions is the easiest way. Some encouragement along the way would be nice.

99 Research Implications Administrators Seek to provide teachers with level of autonomy and control over their own learning. This facilitates motivation moving from extrinsic to internally motivated and regulated as stated in Self-Determination Theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Consider need analysis and career experience of teacher workforce as one size doesnt fit all (Anderson et al., 2006; Mulholland et al. 2005) Consider selecting a suite of varied PD opportunities, including learning objects, as not all need or desire learner-learner interaction (Cavanaugh et al. 2010; Lapoint et al. 2008; Su et al., 2005; OKeefe et al, 2006; Shimic; 2008; Waight et al., 2005; Walker et. al, 2008; ).

100 Research Implications Andersons Equivalency of Interaction The positive, significant learning outcomes across 7 science content areas lend support. Providing rich learner-content interaction may allow the other interactions to be offered in diminished capacities to address scale. Others also find significant gains in learning for self-directed web modules (Chadwick et al., 2010; Russell, 2009; Krall et al., 2009; Sherman et al., 2008) Many large scale efforts now looking at self-directed e-PD via web modules (Waight et al., 2005; Walker et. al, 2008; Woodbury; 2008; Cavanaugh et al. 2010).

101 Research Implications Future Research Expand analysis within a particular strategy with different teacher characteristics: prior knowledge, subject domains, grade levels. Examine different levels of incentives and support structures to effectively support self- directed e-PD, or the different delivery systems themselves. Examine how self-directed systems and features interact with different interaction strategies to increase intrinsic learner motivation in light of mobile access to web 2.0 social networks and informal learning.

102 102 Research in K-8 Online PD (Self-Directed Online Learning Studies) StudyPD ModelAudience/ContentResearch Findings del Valle et al. (2009) Self-paced, 12 week module, instructor help K-12 inservice teachers--24 from elementary Mastery-sig. time over longer period, Task-focused-less time in shorter per. Procrastinator-little time, long pd Krall et al. (2009) Self-paced, on- demand, hands- on kits, mentor 43 Elem. & Middle Science and Inquiry, grades 4-8 Significant gains in content & conceptual knowledge. Mentor rated lowest across all interaction Lapointe et al. (2008) Evaluate import of online community 74 adult grad students out of 412, 30 disciplines Perception survey and quantitative data reveal mixed results. Not all favor peer-peer interaction (split) Rhodes (2009) Self-paced courses part of certificate model 10 adults in undergrad ed tech PD courses Learners interacted most with content and instructor and ranked ahead of learner-learner interaction Russell et al. (2008) Compare 8 wk online PD, varied support 145 Middle level math teachers (grades 5-8) Sig. gains in pedagogy and content knowledge across all delivery/ support modes. NSD between mode Walker et al. (2008) Online modules, support In & Pre-service, K-8 grades (N=32) Survey: high ease of use, and enhanced instruction (self-reported)

103 103 Content-Interaction Strategies: Simulations, Hands-On Inquiry, Interactive Reference StudyPDAudience/ContentResearch Findings Harlen et al. (2004) Short course w/ hands-on inquiry (compare w/ f2f) Elem. & Middle Science (15 and 18 in each group) Online group significant learning gains and time spent. Inquiry more difficult Krall et al. (2009) Self-paced, hands-on kits, mentor Elem. & Middle Science & Inquiry Significant gains in content knowledge. Low mentor rating. Sherman (2008) Self-paced, , learning object with simulations Middle school science/inquiry Significant gains in content knowledge & teacher self- efficacy Schaller et al. (2002) Museum content- web sites/web logs 2 groups (adults/ children) N=549 Adults preferred Interact. Ref. & Simulations. Kids preferred role playing and games Schaller et al. (2007) Museum web sites (content- type) 7,800 exit surveys from 11 museums Learning style affects adult pref. Social-Role Play, Intellectual--Interactive Ref. Whitaker et al. (2007) 235 preK teachersThree levels of content packsages and services Level of support received affects level of participation

104 104 Teachers Belief System Content Knowledge and Pedagogical Content Knowledge Understanding How Students Learn Knowledge of science content including representations & metaphors, along with ability to develop and implement inquiry-based lessons to facilitate students deeper understanding and active learning knowledge of formative assessment strategies to help make students thinking visible as build upon students existing knowledge and prior experiences through social discourse Elicit existing attitudes, experiences, and self-efficacy towards science education and understandings regarding the nature of science Professional Development should address the following

105 105 Pedagogical Content Knowledge (Abell, 2007-modified from prior work) Science Syntactic Knowledge Science Substantive Knowledge Instructional Principles Classroom Management Educational Aims Learners & Learning Science Subject Matter Knowledge (SMK) Orientations Toward Teaching Science Knowledge of Science Learners Knowledge of Science Curriculum Pedagogical Knowledge (PK) Knowledge of Science Instructional Strategies Knowledge of Science Assessment Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Science Teaching (PCK) Knowledge of Context (KofC) StudentsSchoolCommunity includes influences includes District

106 106 Refined Definition Ability for educators to transform and apply deep and flexible understanding of science content knowledge through appropriate and varied instructional strategies, materials, analogies, explanations, examples, demonstrations, and representations, coupled with an intellectual knowledge of how students learn given sensitivity to students cultural background and dialectics. Shulman (1986, 1987); Gess-Newsome & Lederman (1999); Ma (1999) Pedagogical Content Knowledge Return

107 107 Science Subject Matter Knowledge –Via proxy measures there appears to be positive correlation between teachers science content knowledge and student achievement (grades 6 and above). Varies by science subject, physical science strong –Research shows lack of knowledge may limit teachers ability to plan and implement effective inquiry lessons and active/deep conceptual learning for their students Abell (2007); Abell & Smith (1994); Appleton (2007); Brransford et al. (2000); Butts et al. (1993); Carlsen (1992, 1997); Garbett (2003); Griffith (2008); Grossman (1989); Harlen (1997); Hashweh (1996); Hewyood (2007) Howitt (2007); Kang (2007); Lee & Houseal (2003): Lee (1995); Luera (2005); Parker (2004); Schmidt (1983); Wilson et al. (2002) Pedagogical Content Knowledge Darling-Hammond (2002); Economic Policy Institute (2003); Hanushek & Rivkin (2007); Wilson et al. (2002) Return

108 108 Pedagogical Content Knowledge Orientations towards Teaching Science Teachers knowledge and beliefs about purposes for teaching guide their decisions on pedagogy, content, etc. Return StudyProgram or StudyFindings Brickhouse (1990) 3 inservice science teachers interviewed and observed on Nature of Science Teachers beliefs regarding the nature of science affects their classroom practice. Early career teachers beliefs (wobble) Lee (2003)Four 5 th grade science teachers case study: How and why teach certain way If hands-on not work teachers can revert to teacher-centered. Self-efficacy and content knowledge affect practice Magnusson et al. (1999) Review of literature and in- depth discussion on PCK Orientation to teaching science drive pedagogy (didactic, discovery, inquiry, guided inquiry, etc.) Wenner (1993) 167 preservice elementary science teachers surveyed and assessed SMK Low level of science knowledge. Confirm relationship btw science knowledge and negative beliefs toward science instruction Smith & Neal (1989) 4 wk Summer training for K-3 elementary teachers. N=10 Limited content knowledge and teachers admitted avoiding due to low knowledge & self-confidence. Beliefs affect pedagogy.

109 109 Pedagogical Content Knowledge Knowledge of Science Learners Teachers knowledge of challenges students encounter in learning particular science concept and how students learn Return StudyProgram or StudyFindings Jones et al. (1999) Inservice elementary & middle teachers (N=56), graduate course Teachers increase understanding of their misconceptions and that of their students in light, sound, electricity-revaluate their methods Abell (2007)Literature review in Research on Handbook of Research on Science Education Conceptual change more gradual w/ constructivism. Teachers still lack knowledge of students science conceptions, but increase w/ experience. Use student derived models Beeth et al. (1999) Case study-Gertrudes 1- 6 elementary pedagogy Students thinking/reflection visible--discourse, evidence & justification, deep learning follows Bransford et al. (2000) How students learn research, hands-on, minds-on, discourse Students construct knowledge from prior experiences & ideas. Need to address and build off these for deeper conceptual learning Appleton (2007) Literature review in elementary science in Handbook on Science Ed Teachers lack content knowledge, and self- confidence in teaching sci. Affect scaffolding of lessons via discourse, sharing kids ideas


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