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CH. 15-1 NEW IMMIGRANTS AMERICAN HISTORY.  The USA is a nation of immigrants  Native Americans are the only people that did not come from somewhere.

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Presentation on theme: "CH. 15-1 NEW IMMIGRANTS AMERICAN HISTORY.  The USA is a nation of immigrants  Native Americans are the only people that did not come from somewhere."— Presentation transcript:

1 CH NEW IMMIGRANTS AMERICAN HISTORY

2  The USA is a nation of immigrants  Native Americans are the only people that did not come from somewhere else  THE OLD IMMIGRANTS  >10,000,000 immigrants  These people were known as the old immigrants  Most came from Northern & Western Europe

3  United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden, Norway, China  Reasons: political turmoil, economic opportunity, religious freedom  THE NEW IMMIGRANTS  —18,000,000 new immigrants  Southern and Eastern Europe  Czech, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Polish, Russian, Slovak

4  These immigrants were not Protestant Christians  Roman Catholic, Orthodox Christian, Jew  Also Arabs, Armenian, and French Canadians  Smaller numbers from East Asia  Japanese immigrants were beginning to appear  1885—Japanese work on sugar plantations in Hawaii  1904—10,000 Japanese lived in the USA  1910—1 in 12 Americans had been born in a foreign country

5  DESIRE FOR A BETTER LIFE  John F. Kennedy—Irish American—elected in 1961 –wrote a book “A Nation of Immigrants”  “There were probably as many reasons for coming to America as there were people who came.”  THE JOURNEY TO AMERICA  The decision to come involved the entire family

6  The father or eldest son would usually come first  The family would pool their resources to buy his passage on a ship  After arriving, the person would work, save his money, buy prepaid tickets and send them back for other family members  Getting to the departure point was an adventure  Train, wagon, or foot  Might have to wait weeks for a ship to leave

7  US Immigration Law 1893  Get approval from steamship company  Provide identifying information  Have at least $30 in cash  Indicate if they had been to prison, a poorhouse, or mental institution  Immigrants needed to pass a medical exam  Immigrants were then vaccinated, disinfected and then allowed on board

8  ELLIS ISLAND  US Government opened an immigration station in Ellis Island in New York harbor  Open until 1954 (62 years)—112 million immigrants passed through this station  Immigrants had to pass inspection before being allowed to enter the USA  Inspectors examined 1 st or 2 nd class passengers aboard ship  All others had to pass through Ellis Island  Inspection process took about 5 hours

9  ANGEL ISLAND  1910—newcomers in the west processed at an island in San Francisco bay  Mainly Chinese—were detained for weeks or months waiting for decision about whether they could stay  BUILDING URBAN COMMUNITIES  Most immigrants settled in crowded cities

10  Cities became a patchwork of ethnic clusters (p. 492)  Churches and synagogues created to practice religious faith  BENEVOLENT SOCIETIES—aid organizations to help immigrants  Members would contribute money each month and then could receive financial help if they were too sick to work

11  Immigrant labor kept factories running and helped build cities  Native-born Americans saw immigrants as a threat to society  Some thought newcomers were too different to fit in  Others blamed immigrants for crime, poverty, violence  Immigrants accepted lower wages for their work

12  LIMITING CHINESE IMMIGRATION  Many people tolerated Chinese workers but did not welcome them  1873-the economy worsens  Americans blame Chinese immigrants for taking away jobs  Late 1870s-a group of unemployed workers organized the Workingmen’s Party of California  Oppose Chinese immigration

13  Leader was Denis Kearney (Irish immigrant)  1879—California adopted a new state constitution that prohibited Chinese workers from holding state jobs  Local communities could ban Chinese from their cities or restrict them to certain districts  CHINESE EXCLUSION ACT OF 1882—banned Chinese immigration for 10 years  1892—law was renewed  1902—Chinese immigration banned indefinitely

14  LIMITING JAPANESE IMMIGRATION  1906—San Francisco school board segregated its schools  Japanese and white students would attend separate schools  Japanese government complained to President Theodore Roosevelt  GENTLEMEN’S AGREEMENT  USA & Japan  Japan agreed not to sent unskilled workers to the USA and America would not segregate schools

15  DETERRING OTHER IMMIGRANTS  Many nativists called for immigrants to pass a literacy test  The test would be used to keep as many immigrants out as possible  1917—Congress pass THE LITERACY TEST ACT over President Woodrow Wilson’s veto  AMERICANIZATION  Some Americans wanted immigrants to assimilate into society

16  Schools and voluntary organizations taught immigrants English literacy skills and subjects needed for citizenship such as American History and Government  THE END


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