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1 MODEL PERENCANAAN RUANG TERBUKA HIJAU KOTA smno2ub.ac.id2014

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3 Barbosa,O., J. A. Tratalos, P. R. Armsworth, R. G. Davies, R. A. Fuller, P. Johnson dan K. J. Gaston Who benefits from access to green space? A case study from Sheffield, UK. Landscape and Urban Planning, 83: 187–195. Green spaces play a crucial role in supporting urban ecological and social systems, a fact recognised in public policy commitments in both the UK and Europe. The amount of provision, the distribution of green space and the ease of access to such spaces are key contributors to social and ecological function in urban environments. We measured distance along the transport network to public green space available to households in Sheffield, and compared this with the distribution of private garden space. In addition, we used a geodemographic database, Mosaic UK, to examine how access to green space varies across different sectors of society. Public green spaces are chronically underprovided relative to recommended targets. For example, 64% of Sheffield households fail to meet the recommendation of the regulatory agency English Nature (EN), that people should live no further than 300m from their nearest green space. Moreover, this figure rises to 72% if we restrict attention to municipal parks recognised by the local council. There is an overall reduction in coverage by green space when moving from neighbourhoods where green space is primarily publicly provided to those where it is privately provided. While access to public green space varies significantly across different social groups, those enjoying the greatest access include more deprived groups and older people.

4 Nowak,D.J. dan D. E. Crane Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the USA. Environmental Pollution, 116:381–389. Based on field data from 10 USA cities and national urban tree cover data, it is estimated that urban trees in the coterminous USA currently store 700 million tonnes of carbon ($14,300 million value) with a gross carbon sequestration rate of 22.8 million tC/yr ($460 million/year) (Nowak dan Crane, 2002). Carbon storage within cities ranges from 1.2 million tC in New York, NY, to 19,300 tC in Jersey City, NJ. Regions with the greatest proportion of urban land are the Northeast (8.5%) and the southeast (7.1%). Urban forests in the north central, northeast, south central and southeast regions of the USA store and sequester the most carbon, with average carbon storage per hectare greatest in southeast, north central, northeast and Pacific northwest regions, respectively. The national average urban forest carbon storage density is 25.1 tC/ha, compared with 53.5 tC/ha in forest stands (Nowak dan Crane, 2002). These data can be used to help assess the actual and potential role of urban forests in reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide, a dominant greenhouse gas.

5 . Increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and other ‘‘greenhouse’’ gases [i.e. methane (CH4), chlorofluorocarbons, nitrous oxide (N2O), and troposphericozone (O3)] are thought by many to be contributing to an increase in atmospheric temperatures by the trapping of certain wavelengths of radiation in the atmosphere. Some chemicals though, may be reducing atmospherictempe ratures (e.g. sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, stratospheric ozone (Graedel and Crutzen, 1989; Hamburg et al., 1997). 1.Graedel, T.E., Crutzen, P.J., The changing atmosphere. ScientificAmerican 261 (3), 58–68. 2.Hamburg, S.P., Harris, N., Jaeger, J., Karl, T.R., McFarland, M., Mitchell, J.F.B., Oppenheimer, M., Santer, S., Schneider, S., Trenberth, K.E., Wigley, T.M.L., Common questions about climate change. United Nation Environment Programme, World Meteorology Organization.

6 . Globally averaged air temperature at the Earth’s surface has increased between 0.3 and 0.6 C since the late 1800s. A current estimate of the expected rise in average surface air temperature globally is between 1 and 3.5 C by the year 2100 (Hamburg et al., 1997). 1.Hamburg, S.P., Harris, N., Jaeger, J., Karl, T.R., McFarland, M., Mitchell, J.F.B., Oppenheimer, M., Santer, S., Schneider, S., Trenberth, K.E., Wigley, T.M.L., Common questions about climate change. United Nation Environment Programme, World Meteorology Organization.

7 . As urban areas already exhibit climatic differences compared with rural environments, due in part to multiple artificial surfaces and high levels of fossil fuel combustion, climate change impacts may be exacerbated in these areas (Nowak, 2000). 1.Nowak, D.J., The interactions between urban forests and global climate change. In: Abdollahi, K.K., Ning, Z.H., Appeaning, A. (Eds.), Global Climate Change and the Urban Forest. GCRCC and Franklin Press, Baton Rouge, LA, pp. 31–44.

8 . Carbon dioxide is a dominant greenhouse gas. Increased atmosphericCO 2 is attributable mostly to fossil fuel combustion (about 80–85%) and deforestation worldwide (Schneider, 1989; Hamburg et al., 1997). Atmospheric carbon is estimated to be increasing by approximately 2600 million metrictons annually (Sedjo, 1989). 1.Hamburg, S.P., N.Harris, J.Jaeger, T.R.Karl, M.McFarland, J.F.B.Mitchell, M.Oppenheimer, S.Santer, S.Schneider, K.E.Trenberth dan T.M.L.Wigley Common questions about climate change. United Nation Environment Programme, World Meteorology Organization. 2.Schneider, S.H., The changing climate. Scientific American 261 (3), 70–79. 3.Sedjo, R.A., Forests to offset the greenhouse effect. J. Forestry 87, 12–15.

9 . Trees act as a sink for CO2 by fixing carbon during photosynthesis and storing excess carbon as biomass. The net long-term CO2 source/sink dynamics of forests change through time as trees grow, die, and decay. In addition, human influences on forests (e.g. management) can further affect CO2 source/sink dynamics of forests through such factors as fossil fuel emissions and harvesting/utilization of biomass. However, increasing the number of trees might potentially slow the accumulation of atmospheric carbon (Moulton and Richards, 1990). 1.Moulton, R.J. dan K.R. Richards Costs of Sequestering Carbon Through Tree Planting and Forest Management in the United States. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report WO-58, Washington, DC.

10 . Urban areas in the lower 48 United States have doubled in area between 1969 and 1994, and currently occupy 3.5% of the land base with an average tree cover of 27.1% (Dwyer et al., 2000; Nowak et al., 2001b). Though urban areas continue to expand, and urban forests play a significant role in environmental quality and human health, relatively little is known about this resource. As urban forests both sequester CO2, and affect the emission of CO2 from urban areas, urban forests can play a critical role in helping combat increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. 1.Nowak, D.J., Noble, M.H., Sisinni, S.M. dan J.F.Dwyer. 2001b. Assessing the US urban forest resource. J. Forestry, 99 (3): 37–42. 2.Dwyer, J.F., D.J.Nowak, M.H.Noble dan S.M. Sisinni Connecting People with Ecosystems in the 21st Century: An Assessment of our Nation’s Urban Forests (General Technical Report PNWGTR- 490). US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR.

11 . The first estimate of national carbon storage by urban trees (between 350 and 750 million tonnes; Nowak, 1993a) was based on an extrapolation of carbon data from one city (Oakland, CA) and tree cover data from various USA cities (Nowak et al., 1996). A later assessment, which included data from a second city (Chicago, IL), estimated national carbon storage by urban trees at between 600 and 900 million tonnes (Nowak, 1994). 1.Nowak, D.J., 1993a. Atmospheric carbon reduction by urban trees. J. Environ. Manage. 37 (3), 207– Nowak, D.J., Atmospheric carbon dioxide reduction by Chicago’s urban forest. In: McPherson, E.G., Nowak, D.J., Rowntree, R.A. (Eds.), Chicago’s Urban Forest Ecosystem: Results of the Chicago Urban Forest Climate Project. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report NE-186, Radnor, PA, pp. 83–94. 3.Nowak, D.J., R.A.Rowntree, E.G.McPherson, S.M. Sisinni, E. Kerkmann dan J.C. Stevens Measuring and analyzing urban tree cover. Lands. Urban Plann. 36, 49–57.

12 Brack, C.L Pollution mitigation and carbon sequestration by an urban forest. Environmental Pollution, 116: 195–200. At the beginning of the 1900s, the Canberra plain was largely treeless. Graziers had carried out extensive clearing of the original trees since the 1820s leaving only scattered remnants and some plantings near homesteads. With the selection of Canberra as the site for the new capital of Australia, extensive tree plantings began in These trees have delivered a number of benefits, including aesthetic values and the amelioration of climatic extremes. Recently, however, it was considered that the benefits might extend to pollution mitigation and the sequestration of carbon. Brack (2002) outlined a case study of the value of the Canberra urban forest with particular reference to pollution mitigation. This study uses a tree inventory, modelling and decision support system developed to collect and use data about trees for tree asset management. The decision support system (DISMUT) was developed to assist in the management of about 400,000 trees planted in Canberra. The size of trees during the 5-year Kyoto Commitment Period was estimated using DISMUT and multiplied by estimates of value per square meter of canopy derived from available literature. The planted trees are estimated to have a combined energy reduction, pollution mitigation and carbon sequestration value of US$20–67 million during the period 2008–2012.

13 . Small, A.T. dan C.I. Czimczik Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf. Geophysical Research Letters, 37 (2): …. Undisturbed grasslands can sequester significant quantities of organic carbon (OC) in soils. Irrigation and fertilization enhance CO 2 sequestration in managed turfgrass ecosystems but can also increase emissions of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs). To better understand the GHG balance of urban turf, Small dan Czimczik (2010) measured OC sequestration rates and emission of N 2 O (a GHG ∼ 300 times more effective than CO 2 ) in Southern California, USA. It is also estimated CO 2 emissions generated by fuel combustion, fertilizer production, and irrigation. We show that turf emits significant quantities of N 2 O (0.1–0.3 g N m −2 yr −1 ) associated with frequent fertilization. In ornamental lawns this is offset by OC sequestration (140 g C m −2 yr −1 ), while in athletic fields, there is no OC sequestration because of frequent surface restoration. Large indirect emissions of CO 2 associated with turfgrass management make it clear that OC sequestration by turfgrass cannot mitigate GHG emissions in cities.

14 Novak, D.J., J.C.Stevens, S.M.Sisinni dan C.J.Luley Effects of Urban Tree Management and Species Selection on Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. Journal of Arboriculture, 28(3): Trees sequester and store carbon in their tissue at differing rates and amounts based on such factors as tree size at maturity, life span, and growth rate. Concurrently, tree care practices release carbon back to the atmosphere based on fossil-fuel emissions from maintenance equipment (e.g., chain saws, trucks, chippers) ( Novak et al., 2002). Management choices such as tree locations for energy conservation and tree disposal methods after removal also affect the net carbon effect of the urban forest. Different species, decomposition, energy conservation, and maintenance scenarios were evaluated to determine how these factors influence the net carbon impact of urban forests and their management. If carbon (via fossil-fuel combustion) is used to maintain vegetation structure and health, urban forest ecosystems eventually will become net emitters of carbon unless secondary carbon reductions (e.g., energy conservation) or limiting decomposition via long-term carbon storage (e.g., wood products, landfills) can be accomplished to offset the maintenance carbon emissions. Management practices to maximize the net benefits of urban forests on atmospheric carbon dioxide are discussed.

15 Choudhari,N.R., D.M. Mahajan, V.R. Gunale dan M.G. Chaskar Assessment of carbon sequestration potential in an urban managed garden in the pimpri-chinchwad city. National Conference: 10 th & 11 th January p Carbon storage and sequestration by urban Garden trees was calculated to assess the role of urban forests in relation to climate change. In Pimpri-Chinchwad urban Gardens, as important elements of urban residential environments, could have significant sustainability potential (Choudhari et al., 2014). The biomass of standing vegetation was estimated by using direct estimation methods after measuring their diameter and height, Tree Vegetation carbon pool was largest in In all sampled sites we noticed heterogeneous carbon pool. Durga tekadi is major biodiversity hot spots in gardens zone, while this sites sequestrated highest amount of carbon in their biomass was tonnes in hectare, whereas site Mhatoba garden wakad has sequestrated the lowest amount of CO2 (13.75 tonnes) in total 1.81hectares, The total recorded biomass in the garden zone was tonnes and total amount of sequestrated carbon was tonnes in hectares. Total number of individual trees was 4975 in numbers (Choudhari et al., 2014). There were other recorded dominant species are peltophorum pterocarpum (Dc.) Baker, Acacia longifolia Willd.; Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre, Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.; Ficus benjamina L., Grevillea robusta Cunn.

16 Nowak, D.J., E.J. Greenfield, R.E. Hoehn dan E. Lapoint Carbon storage and sequestration by trees in urban and community areas of the United States. Environmental Pollution, 178 (…): Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the United States was quantified to assess the magnitude and role of urban forests in relation to climate change. Urban tree field data from 28 cities and 6 states were used to determine the average carbon density per unit of tree cover. These data were applied to statewide urban tree cover measurements to determine total urban forest carbon storage and annual sequestration by state and nationally. Urban whole tree carbon storage densities average 7.69 kg C m2 of tree cover and sequestration densities average 0.28 kg C m2 of tree cover per year. Total tree carbon storage in U.S. urban areas (c. 2005) is estimated at 643 million tonnes ($50.5 billion value; 95% CI ¼ 597 million and 690 million tonnes) and annual sequestration is estimated at 25.6 million tonnes ($2.0 billion value; 95% CI ¼ 23.7 million to 27.4 million tonnes).

17 . Trees act as a sink for carbon dioxide (CO2) by fixing carbon during photosynthesis and storing carbon as biomass. The net long-term CO2 source/sink dynamics of forests change through time as trees grow, die, and decay. Human influences on forests (e.g., management) can further affect CO2 source/sink dynamics of forests through such factors as fossil fuel emissions and harvesting/utilization of biomass (Nowak et al., 2002). Trees in urban areas (i.e., urban forests) currently store carbon, which can be emitted back to the atmosphere after tree death, and sequester carbon as they grow. Urban trees also influence air temperatures and building energy use, and consequently alter carbon emissions from numerous urban sources (e.g., power plants) (Nowak, 1993). Thus, urban trees influence local climate, carbon cycles, energy use and climate change (Abdollahi et al., 2000; Gill et al., 2007; Lal and Augustine, 2012). 1.Abdollahi, K.K., Z.H.Ning dan A.Appeaning Global Climate Change and the Urban Forest. GCRCC and Franklin Press, Baton Rouge, pp Gill, S.E., J.F.Handley, A.R.Ennos dan S. Pauleit Adapting cities for climate change: the role of the green infrastructure. Built Environment, 33 (1): Lal, R. dan B.Augustine Carbon Sequestration in Urban Ecosystems. Springer, New York, p Nowak, D.J., J.C.Stevens, S.M.Sisinni dan C.J. Luley Effects of urban tree management and species selection on atmospheric carbon dioxide. Journal of Arboriculture, 28 (3):

18 . Carbon storage As part of the carbon cycle, trees transform carbon dioxide to biomass through photosynthesis (Liu dan Li, 2012). This function is beneficial to humans because it counteracts emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), a greenhouse gas. Anthropogenic carbon emissions have caused a 40% increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations in the last century, a change which is known to be causing global warming (IPCC, 2013). IPCC Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. (Assessment Report No. AR5). World Meteorological Organisation and United Nations Environment Program.

19 . Allometric Equations Tree carbon storage can be quantified with allometric equations which relate tree dimensions to tree volume or biomass (Henry et al., 2011; Picard, Saint-André, & Henry, 2012). Initially developed for sustainable management of forest resources, allometric equations are now in demand for global carbon cycle studies of forest carbon storage and carbon emission reduction schemes (Henry et al., 2011). 1.Henry, M., N.Picard, C.Trotta, R.J.Manlay, R.Valentini, M.Bernoux dan L. S. André Estimating Tree Biomass of Sub-Saharan African Forests: a Review of Available Allometric Equations. Silva Fennica, 45(3B), Picard, N., L.S.André dan M.Henry Manual for building tree volume and biomass allometric equations: from field measurement to prediction. (Manual). Montpellier, France: Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (FAO); Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Dévelopment (CIRAD).

20 . A species allometric equation is developed through the destructive analysis of multiple trees of the same species. Tree dimensions such as height and diameter at breast height (DBH) are measured and the tree is cut up and divided into sections (stem, branches, foliage and roots) for weighing to determine its biomass (Beets et al., 2012; McHale et al., 2009; Picard, Saint-André, & Henry, 2012). Using linear regression, a relationship between tree dimensions and tree volume, biomass or carbon content can be derived – this is an allometric equation. 1.Beets, P. N., M.O.Kimberley, G.R.Oliver, S.H.Pearce, J.D.Graham dan A.Brandon Allometric Equations for Estimating Carbon Stocks in Natural Forest in New Zealand. Forests, 3: McHale, M.R., I.C.Burke, M.A.Lefsky, P.J.Peper dan E.G. McPherson Urban forest biomass estimates: is it important to use allometric relationships developed specifically for urban trees?. Urban Ecosystems, 12: Picard, N., L.S.André dan M.Henry Manual for building tree volume and biomass allometric equations: from field measurement to prediction. (Manual). Montpellier, France: Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (FAO); Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Dévelopment (CIRAD).

21 . The development process is time-consuming, thus sample sizes are usually small and lead to a limited range of DBH values for which an equation is valid (Picard, André dan Henry, 2012). Composite equations, which combine equations with valid DBH ranges, are commonly used for carbon storage calculations (Nowak dan Crane, 2002a). The customary power form of an allometric equation is Y = aXb : above-ground tree volume, biomass or carbon content, Y, is related to the DBH measurement or a DBH2- Height composite, X, (Beets et al., 2012; Picard, André dan Henry, 2012). 1.Beets, P. N., M.O.Kimberley, G.R.Oliver, Pearce, S. H., Graham, J. D. dan A. Brandon Allometric Equations for Estimating Carbon Stocks in Natural Forest in New Zealand. Forests, 3: Nowak, D. J. dan D.E.Crane. 2002a. Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the USA. Environmental Pollution, 116(3): Picard, N., L.S.André dan M. Henry Manual for building tree volume and biomass allometric equations: from field measurement to prediction. (Manual). Montpellier, France: Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (FAO); Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Dévelopment (CIRAD).

22 . New Zealand Allometric Equations Recent research in NZ has developed allometric equations for native forest species, from trees in natural forests and in urban environments. Beets et al. (2012) developed allometric relationships for 15 native hardwood species and a mixed-species equation from destructive analysis of trees from natural forests around NZ following thinning operations or windfall. Beets, P. N., M.O.Kimberley, G.R.Oliver, S.H.Pearce, J.D.Graham dan A.Brandon Allometric Equations for Estimating Carbon Stocks in Natural Forest in New Zealand. Forests, 3:

23 . i-Tree Eco The US Forest Service, developed the Urban Forest Effects Model (UFORE) in the late 1990s which was adapted and rebranded as i-Tree Eco in 2006 (i-Tree, 2013a). i-Tree Eco is a comprehensive model that uses environmental data to quantify urban forest structure and a range of forest effects, or ecosystem services (i-Tree, 2013a). The model consists of several back-end databases: field tree data, species information, meteorological data, pollution data and pollutant valuation rates (i-Tree, 2013b). Collectively, these databases can quantify air pollution removal, carbon storage and sequestration, rainfall interception and the dollar valuation of these ecosystem services for a sample of urban trees (Nowak et al., 2008a; Nowak, Crane dan Stevens, 2006). 1.i-Tree. 2013a. i-Tree Eco. Retrieved from 2.Nowak, D. J., D.E.Crane, J.C.Stevens, R.E. Hoehn, J.T. Walton dan J.Bond. 2008a. A ground- based method of assessing urban forest structure and ecosystem services. Arboriculture and Urban Forestry, 34(2), Nowak, D. J., D.E.Crane dan J.C.Stevens Air pollution removal by urban trees and shrubs in the United States. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 4:

24 . i-Tree Eco carbon quantification i-Tree Eco uses forest-derived allometric equations to estimate carbon storage for urban trees (Nowak dan Crane, 2002a). i-Tree Eco assessments use species allometric equations where possible or, where a species equation is not available, a genus- relative equation, or an average of hardwood or conifer equations are applied (Nowak et al., 2002b). There were no NZ native species allometric equations in the i-Tree Eco species database so the average hardwood equation was used. Its formula is not shown here because it is a complex equation that incorporates the carbon storage outputs from numerous hardwood allometric equations in the literature to find an average. For accurate carbon estimates, species-specific allometric equations are favoured over generalised mixed-species equations (Henry et al., 2011). However, considering the process required to develop allometric equations, striving for this level of accuracy is not always practicable. 1.Henry, M., Picard, N., Trotta, C., Manlay, R. J., Valentini, R., M.Bernoux dan L.S. André Estimating Tree Biomass of Sub-Saharan African Forests: a Review of Available Allometric Equations. Silva Fennica, 45(3B: Nowak, D. J. dan D.E.Crane. 2002a. Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the USA. Environmental Pollution, 116(3): Nowak, D. J., D.E.Crane, J.C. Stevens dan M. Ibarra. 2002b. Brooklyn's Urban Forest. ( No. NE-290). Northeastern Research Station: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.

25 Brack C.L Pollution mitigation and carbon sequestration by an urban forest. Environmental Pollution, 116 (1): At the beginning of the 1900s, the Canberra plain was largely treeless. Graziers had carried out extensive clearing of the original trees since the 1820s leaving only scattered remnants and some plantings near homesteads. With the selection of Canberra as the site for the new capital of Australia, extensive tree plantings began in These trees have delivered a number of benefits, including aesthetic values and the amelioration of climatic extremes. Recently, however, it was considered that the benefits might extend to pollution mitigation and the sequestration of carbon. This paper outlines a case study of the value of the Canberra urban forest with particular reference to pollution mitigation. This study uses a tree inventory, modelling and decision support system developed to collect and use data about trees for tree asset management. The decision support system (DISMUT) was developed to assist in the management of about 400,000 trees planted in Canberra. The size of trees during the 5-year Kyoto Commitment Period was estimated using DISMUT and multiplied by estimates of value per square meter of canopy derived from available literature. The planted trees are estimated to have a combined energy reduction, pollution mitigation and carbon sequestration value of US$20-67 million during the period

26 . Munishi,P.K., M. Mhagama, R. Muheto dan S.M. Andrew The Role Of Urban Forestry In Mitigating Climate Change And Performing Environmental Services In Tanzania. Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation, 77 : The possibility of global climate change, due to increasing levels of CO2 concentrations is one of the key environmental concerns today, and the role of terrestrial vegetation management has received attention as a means of mitigating carbon emissions and climate change. Munishi et al. (2008) studied tree dimensions and assessment of plant species composition were used to quantify the potential of urban ecosystems in acting as carbon sink and mitigating climate change through carbon assimilation and storage and the potential of the system to enhance biodiversity conservation taking Morogoro Municipality as a case study. Biomass/carbon models for trees were developed and used to predict biomass/carbon storage based on tree diameters. The model was in the form B = DBH (r2 =0.91, P< 0.01). The carbon content was computed as 50% of the tree biomass. The tree carbon for Morogoro municipality ranged from 4.63±3.39 to 21.18±12.41t km-1 length of ground surface along roads and avenues. Newly established areas seemed to have lower carbon storage potential while areas established earlier have highest carbon storage potential. About 36 different tree species growing/planted in the Morogoro municipal were identified, dominated by Senna siamea, Azadirachta indica, Polyalthia longifolia, Leucaena leucocephala, Pithecelobium dulce and Mangifera indica. Apart from being natural amenity the tree species also act as CO2 sink through photosynthesis and areas of ex-situ conservation of plant diversity. Urban forestry can store large amount of carbon in addition to biodiversity conservation especially where they cover extensive areas like parks, gardens and avenues managed over long periods, as is the case in urban ecosystems. Improved management of urban forests will likely improve the potential for carbon storage by terrestrial vegetation as a means of mitigating CO2 emissions and climate change as well as biodiversity conservation (Munishi et al., 2008).

27 Russo, A., F.J. Escobedo, N. Timilsina, A.O. Schmitt, S. Varela dan S. Zerbe Assessing urban tree carbon storage and sequestration in Bolzano, Italy. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management, 10 (1): Recent climate change, environmental design, and ecological conservation policies require new and existing urban developments to mitigate and offset carbon dioxide emissions and for cities to become carbon neutral. Some North American models and tools are available and can be used to quantify the carbon offset function of urban trees. But, little information on urban tree carbon storage and sequestration exists from the European Southern Alps. Also, the use of these North American models in Europe has never been assessed. Russo et al. (2014) developed a protocol to quantify aboveground carbon (C) storage and sequestration using a subsample of urban trees in Bolzano, Italy, and assessed two existing and available C estimation models. Carbon storage and sequestration were estimated using city-specific dendrometrics and allometric biomass equations primarily from Europe and two other United States models; the UFORE (Urban Forest Effects Model) and the CUFR Tree Carbon Calculator (CTCC). The UFORE model carbon storage estimates were the lowest while the CUFR Tree Carbon Calculator (CTCC) C sequestration estimates were the highest. Results from this study can be used to plan, design, and manage urban forests in northern Italy to maximize C offset potential, provide ecosystem services, and for developing carbon neutral policies.

28 Ahmedin, A.M., S. Bam, K.T.Siraj dan A.J.S. Raju Assessment of biomass and carbon sequestration potentials of standing Pongamia pinnata in Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, India. Bioscience Discovery, 4(2): The significance of forested areas in carbon sequestration is conventional, and well renowned. But, hardly any attempts have been made to study the potential of trees in carbon sequestration from urban areas. Andhra University was selected for the study in Visakhapatnam city with the objectives of quantifying the total carbon sequestration by Pongamia pinata. Stratified random sampling was used for assessing biomass in two site and about 230 P. pinnata trees were taken. Biomass was calculated using Non-destructive allometric models. The biomass carbon content was taken as 55% of the tree biomass. Soil samples were taken from soil profile up to 40 cm depth for deep soils and up to bedrock for shallow soils at an interval of 10 and 20 cm for top and sub-soil respectively. Walkley Black Wet Oxidation method was applied for measuring soil organic carbon. Belowground biomass was estimated by the Root:Shoot ratio relationship. Total biomass and soil carbon was higher in Site-2 than in Site-1. Total carbon sequestration in Site-2 was found 1.59 times higher compared to Site-1 but the mean SOC stored was found higher in Site-1 than in Site-2, i.e.,14.48 tC/ha and tC/ha, respectively (Ahmedin et al., 2013).

29 Biomass Estimation of the Tree The biomass was estimated from allometric relations between the tree diameter at DBH and tree biomass (Mikaelian et al., 1997). For the estimation of aboveground biomass, the model developed by Brown et al (1989) has been used. The equation used for estimation of biomass was: Y = Exp. { In (D2 x H x S)} Where; Exp. {....} means the “raised to the power of {....}”. Y is the above ground biomass (kg), H is the height of the trees (meter), D is the diameter at breast height in cm, and S is the wood density (gm/cm3).The specific gravity of P. pinnata tree was taken as (Rajput et al., 1985). Below ground biomass was estimated 20% of the aboveground biomass (Cairns et al., 1997; Mokany et al., 2006) and 15% of aboveground biomass was considered for litter biomass estimation (Achard et al., 2002). 1.Achard, F., H.D.Eva, H.J.Stibig, P.Mayaux, J. Gallego, T. Richards dan J.P. Malingreau Determination of deforestation rates of the world’s human tropical forests. Science, 297: 999– Brown, S., A.J.R.Gillespie dan A.E.Lugo Biomass estimation methods for tropical forests with applications to forest inventory data. Forest Science, 35: Rajput,S.S., N.K.Shukla dan V.K. Gupta Specific gravity of Indian timbers. Journal of Timber Development Association of India, XXXI(3): Cairns, M.A., S.Brown, E.H.Helmer dan G.A.Baumgardner Root biomass allocation in the world’s upland forests. Forest Science, 111: 1–11. 5.Mokany,K., J.R.Raison dan A.S.Prokushkin Critical analysis of root-shoot rations in terrestrial biomes Glob. Change Biol.12 84–96. 6.Mikaelian,T.M.T. dan M.D.Korzukhin Biomass equations for sixty-five North American tree species. Forest Ecology and Management, 97:1-24.

30 Alison,W Potential Urban Forest Carbon Sequestration and Storage Capacities in Burnside Industrial Park, Nova Scotia. MES Thesis, School of Resource & Environmental Studies Urban and industrial settings represent potential areas for increased carbon (C) sequestration and storage through intensified tree growth. Consisting of an estimated 1270 ha of land once entirely forested, Burnside Industrial Park (BIP) in Dartmouth, Nova Scotia. Alison (2012) examined degree to which intensified urban tree planting within the BIP ecosystem could enhance C sequestration and storage. This was achieved by conducting a geospatial analysis in combination with construction of a C model. Three scenarios urban forest development were examined. If all potential planting spots are filled with trees by 2020, an estimated 26,368 tC, at a sequestration rate of 635 tC/yr, could be achieved by Next, we explored the challenges and opportunities associated with pursuing C offset markets as a means for funding urban forest development within BIP.

31 . Velasco,E., M. Roth, S.H. Tan, M. Quak, S.D.A. Nabarro dan L. Norford The role of vegetation in the CO2 flux from a tropical urban neighbourhood. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 13: 7267–7310. Urban surfaces are usually net sources of CO2. Vegetation can potentially have an important role in reducing the CO2 emitted by anthropogenic activities in cities, particularly when vegetation is extensive and/or evergreen. Negative daytime CO2 fluxes, for example 5 have been observed during the growing season at suburban sites characterized by abundant vegetation and low population density. A direct and accurate estimation of carbon uptake by urban vegetation is difficult due to the particular characteristics of the urban ecosystem and high variability in tree distribution and species. Velasco et al. (2013) investigated the role of urban vegetation in the CO2 flux from a residential neighbourhood in Singapore using two different approaches. CO2 fluxes measured directly by eddy covariance are compared with emissions estimated from emissions factors and activity data. The latter includes contributions from vehicular traffic, household combustion, soil respiration and human breathing. The difference between estimated emissions and measured fluxes should approximate the biogenic flux. In addition, a tree survey was conducted to estimate the annual CO2 sequestration using allometric equations and an alternative model of the metabolic theory of ecology for tropical forests. Palm trees, banana plants and turfgrass were also included in the survey with their annual CO2 uptake obtained from published growth rates. Both approaches agree within 2% and suggest that vegetation captures 8% of the total emitted CO2 in the residential neighbourhood studied. A net uptake of 1.4 ton km−2 day−1 (510 ton km−2 yr−1) was estimated from the difference between the daily CO2 uptake by photosynthesis (3.95 tonkm−2) and release by respiration (2.55 ton km−2). The study shows the importance of urban vegetation at the local scale for climate change mitigation in the tropics.

32 . Dry biomass and CO2 storage estimation for woody trees CO2 storage refers to the accumulation of biomass as trees grow over time. The amount of CO2 stored by an urban tree is proportional to its dry biomass and influenced by management practices (McPherson, 1994). The common method to estimate dry biomass is by allometric equations based on parameters such as GBH, tree height, wood specific density (WSD), tree age and condition, and forest type. The methodology 20 to convert dry biomass into stored CO2 is well established (Aguaron and McPherson, 2012). 1.Aguaron, E. dan G. McPherson Comparison of methods for estimating carbon dioxide storage by Sacramento’s urban forest, in: Carbon Sequestration in Urban Ecosystems, edited by: Lal, R. and Augustin, B., Springer. 2.McPherson, E. G Using urban forests for energy efficiency and carbon storage. J. Forest., 92: 36–41.

33 Velasco et al. (2013) showed that vegetation in residential areas of tropical cities can offset a significant fraction of the anthropogenic CO2 flux emitted within a specific neighbourhood depending on the intensity of the local anthropogenic emission sources and biomass characteristics. The CO2 sequestered by vegetation in the present study, however, cannot be extrapolated to the whole city. Although results are only valid for the particular neighbourhood investigated, they provide valuable information on the importance of urban vegetation for climate change mitigation strategies. For example, the data demonstrate the importance of large trees for GHG management. Tree planting programs should also consider the growth rate and potential carbon uptake when selecting type and species. Priority must be given to woody trees over palms and ornamental plants which sometimes are preferred for aesthetic reasons. Similarly, large trees should not be replaced by young trees and palms, as it is the tendency along secondary roads in Singapore.. Velasco, E., M. Roth, S.H. Tan, M. Quak, S.D.A. Nabarro dan L. Norford The role of vegetation in the CO2 flux from a tropical urban neighbourhood. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 13: 7267–7310.

34 The influence of vegetation on the urban CO2 flux may be even higher if the indirect effects from local cooling through shading and transpiration are included. Local cooling results in lower demand for air conditioning, which can reduce the emission of GHG if the energy used to run the cooling devices is obtained from fossil fuel sources (Akbari, 2002). A complete assessment of the benefits and costs of urban vegetation needs to consider all environmental, economic, social and cultural aspects as suggested by Pataki et al. (2011). Here, we have quantified the reduction in the net CO2 flux by vegetation considering only emissions due to activities occurring within the boundaries of the study domain. External emissions arising from local activities, such as electricity generation, are not considered. 1.Akbari, H Shade trees reduce building energy use and CO2 emissions from power plants, Environ. Pollut., 116:119– Pataki, D. E., M.M.Carreiro, J. Cherrier, N.E. Grulke, V. Jennings, S. Pincetl, R.V. Pouyat, T.H. Whitlow dan W.C.Zipperer Coupling biogeochemical cycles in urban environments: ecosystem services, green solutions, and misconceptions, Front. Ecol. Environ., 9: 27–36.. The role of vegetation in the CO2 flux from a tropical urban neighbourhood. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 13, 7267–7310. E. Velasco1, M. Roth2, S. H. Tan2, M. Quak2, S. D. A. Nabarro3, and L. Norford

35 Singapore has a national per capita emission of 6.8 ton CO2 yr−1 (Velasco and Roth, 2012). When limiting emissions to the Telok Kurau neighbourhood and considering only emissions from combustion sources (i.e. vehicular traffic and households) as is usually the case for emissions inventories at the city scale, per capita emission is only 688 kg yr−1. This suggests that the majority of Singapore’s GHG emissions have their origin outside residential areas. This is consistent with the local emissions inventory, which shows that 81% of the CO2 emissions come from industry and electricity generation (Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources, 2008) which are concentrated in industrial parks. Considering all CO2 sources and sinks within the study region, the per capita CO2 emission is 874 kg yr−1 (human breathing and soil respiration add 147 and 107 kg person−1 yr−1, respectively, but vegetation absorbs 68 kg person−1 yr−1). This value can be compared with the per capita emission of 16 ton yr−1 associated with the production of all consumed goods, including those produced overseas, (Schulz, 2010). The present vegetation in Telok Kurau therefore reduces the carbon footprint of the residents living in this low-rise residential neighbourhood of Singapore by only 0.4 %. 1.Schulz, N. B Delving into the carbon footprints of Singapore – comparing direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions of a small and open economic system. Energy Policy, 38: 4848– Velasco, E. dan M. Roth Review of Singapore’s air quality and greenhouse gas emissions: current situation and opportunities. Jour. Air Waste Manage. Assoc., 62: 625–641.. The role of vegetation in the CO2 flux from a tropical urban neighbourhood. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 13, 7267–7310. E. Velasco1, M. Roth2, S. H. Tan2, M. Quak2, S. D. A. Nabarro3, and L. Norford

36 . McPherson, E. G. dan J.R.Simpson Carbon dioxide reduction through urban forestry: Guidelines for professional and volunteer tree planters. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSWGTR Albany, CA: Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture; 237 p. Carbon dioxide reduction through urban forestry as a tool for utilities, urban foresters and arborists, municipalities, consultants, non-profit organizations and others to determine the effects of urban forests on atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction. The calculation of CO2 reduction that can be made with the use of these Guidelines enables decision makers to incorporate urban forestry into their efforts to protect our global climate. McPherson dan Simpson (1999) reported current and future CO2 reductions through a standardized accounting process; evaluate the cost-effectiveness of urban forestry programs with CO2 reduction measures; compare benefits and costs of alternative urban forestry program designs; and produce educational materials that assess potential CO2 reduction benefits and provide information on tree selection, placement, planting, and stewardship.

37 Harmon, E.H., W.K.Ferrell dan J.F.Franklin Effects on carbon storage of conversion of old growth forests to young forests. Science, 297: Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Sequestration depends on tree growth and mortality, which in turn depends on species composition, age structure, and health of the forest. Newly planted forests accumulate CO2 rapidly for several decades, and then the annual increase of sequestered CO2 declines (Harmon et al., 1990). Old-growth forests can release as much CO2 from the decay of dying trees as they sequester from new growth. When trees are stressed, as during hot, dry weather, they can lose their normal ability to absorb CO2. Trees close their pores as a defensive mechanism to avoid excess water loss. Hence, healthy, vigorous, growing trees will absorb more CO2 than will trees that are diseased or otherwise stressed.

38 . Because of higher tree densities, rural forests sequester about twice as much CO2 as urban forests per unit land area, between 4 to 8 t/ha on average (Birdsey 1992). However, because urban trees tend to grow faster than rural trees, they sequester more CO2 on a per-tree basis (Jo dan McPherson 1995). Data on radial trunk growth were used to calculate annual sequestration for major genera in Chicago (Jo dan McPherson, 1995; Nowak 1994). Sequestration can range from 16 kg/yr (35 lb/yr) for small, slow-growing trees with 8- to 15-cm dbh (3-6 inches diameter at breast height) to 360 kg/yr (800 lb) for larger trees growing at their maximum rate. 1.Birdsey, R Carbon storage and accumulation in United States forest ecosystems. Gen. Tech. Rep. WO-GTR-59. Radnor, PA: Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture; 51 p. 2.Jo, H.K. dan E.G.McPherson Carbon storage and flux in urban residential greenspace. Journal of Environmental Management, 45: Nowak, D.J Atmospheric carbon dioxide reduction by Chicago’s urban forest, chapter. In: McPherson, E.G.; Nowak, D.J.; Rowntree, R.A., eds. Chicago’s urban forest ecosystem: results of the Chicago urban forest climate project. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-GTR-186. Radnor, PA: Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture;

39 Nowak, D.J. dan D. E. Crane Carbon Storage and Sequestration by Urban Trees in the U.S.A. Environmental Pollution, 116: 381 – 389. A very important function of trees and forests both in and out of urban areas is that by sequestering carbon, C, they withhold an even larger amount of CO2 e (equivalent) from the earth's atmosphere. At present, the body of credible climate research identifies CO2 as a major green house gas that as it accumulates in the earth's atmosphere contributes to global warming. Nowak dan Crane (2002) have estimated that urban trees in the U.S. hold about 774 million tons of C, thus withholding 2.84 billion tons of CO2 from the atmosphere. The prevailing view is that this function is performed by standing and live trees. While attention has been devoted to changes in the level of sequestration as a function of changes in the size of the nation's urban forests, no attention has been devoted to the sequestration consequences of what becomes of the downed trees themselves.

40 Tagupa,C., A. Lopez, F. Caperida, G. Pamunag dan A. Luzada CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) SEQUESTRATION CAPACITY OF TAMPILISAN FOREST. E-International Scientific Research Journal. 2(3): Tagupa et al. (2010) estimated the carbon dioxide sequestered and stored in the forest trees of Jose Rizal Memorial State University – Tampilisan Campus reservation. This site contained the trees species Mohagany (Swietenia macrophylla), Gmelina (Gmelina arborea), Mangium (acacia magium) Rubber (Hevea brasilliensis) and natural forest trees (e.g. Dipterocarp species, etc). Results revealed that standard size (sized trees have better CO2 sequestration potential than the sapling and pole). These trees have the biggest merchantable height, trunk diameter and wood density. Among the species considered, Gmelina had the highest amount of CO2 sequestered and stored in stem followed by Mangium, Rubber and Mahogany at standard size. In addition, regression analysis indicated that the rate of CO2 sequestered and stored on trees are related to the growth characteristics as trunk diameter (DBH) and total height, but not with wood density. Moreover, the forest stand of JRMSU – Tampilisan Campus reservation has a total sequestration capacity of kT CO2 (Tagupa et al., 2010).

41 . Forest trees are considered as an important factor in mitigating climate change because of their role in carbon sequestration – the process of removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and ‘storing’ it in plants that use sunlight to turn CO2 into biomass and oxygen (ACIAR, 2008). 1.Cacho, O.J., R.L.Hean, R.M.Wise, O.Cacho, R.Hean, K.Ginoga, R.Wise, D. Djaenudin, M.Lugina, Y. Wulan, B.Subarudi, M.van Noordwijk dan N.Khasanah Economic potential of land – used change and forestry for carbon sequestration and poverty reduction. ACIAR technical reports No. 68, 98 pp.

42 Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Capacity of Tampilisan Forest. Tagupa et al. (2010) analyzed carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration capacity of each of the forest trees in the reservation of JRMSU – Tampilisan campus. Among the trees, Rubber had sequestered the highest amount of CO2 at kT, followed by the natural forest trees, then Mahogany, Mangium and Gmelina at 27.91, 1.87, 1.51 and 0.47 kT, respectively. A total of kT was observed to be the CO2 sequestration capacity of the forest stand in the reservation area of JRMSU – Tampilisan campus. The variation in the amount of CO2 sequestered and stored in the species within the forest stand was affected greatly by the stand density of trees of their total population and the area planted to these trees, aside from other their biomass. The wider the area occupied by Rubber, compared to Mangium, Mahogany and Gmelina which covered only 10, 20, and 10 hectares, respectively. Whereas, the natural forest trees were about 200 hectares (Tagupa et al., 2010). Tagupa,C., A. Lopez dan F. Caperida, G. Pamunag dan A. Luzada CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) SEQUESTRATION CAPACITY OF TAMPILISAN FOREST. E-International Scientific Research Journal. ISSN: , 2(3):

43 Arneth, A., F. M. Kelliher, T.M. McSeveny dan J. N. Byers Net ecosystem productivity, net primary productivity and ecosystem carbon sequestration in a Pinus radiata plantation subject to soil water deficit. Tree Physiol., 18 (12): Tree carbon (C) uptake (net primary productivity excluding fine root turnover, NPP′) in a New Zealand Pinus radiata D. Don plantation (42°52′ S, 172°45′ E) growing in a region subject to summer soil water deficit was investigated jointly with canopy assimilation (A c ) and ecosystem–atmosphere C exchange rate (net ecosystem productivity, NEP) (Arneth et al., 1998). Net primary productivity was derived from biweekly stem diameter growth measurements using allometric relations, established after selective tree harvesting, and a litterfall model. Estimates of A c and NEP were used to drive a biochemically based and environmentally constrained model validated by seasonal eddy covariance measurements. Over three years with variable rainfall, NPP′ varied between 8.8 and 10.6 Mg C ha −1 year −1, whereas A c and NEP were 16.9 to 18.4 Mg C ha −1 year −1 and 5.0–7.2 Mg C ha −1 year −1, respectively. At the end of the growing season, C was mostly allocated to wood, with nearly half (47%) to stems and 27% to coarse roots. On an annual basis, the ratio of NEP to stand stem volume growth rate was 0.24 ± 0.02 Mg C m −3. The conservative nature of this ratio suggests that annual NEP can be estimated from forest yield tables. On a biweekly basis, NPP′ repeatedly lagged A c, suggesting the occurrence of intermediate C storage. Seasonal NPP′/A c thus varied between nearly zero and one. On an annual basis, however, NPP′/A c was 0.54 ± 0.03, indicating a conservative allocation of C to autotrophic respiration. In the water-limited environment, variation in C sequestration rate was largely accounted for by a parameter integrative for changes in soil water content. The combination of mensurational data with canopy and ecosystem C fluxes yielded an estimate of heterotrophic respiration (NPP′ – NEP) approximately 30% of NPP′ and approximately 50% of NEP. The estimation of fine-root turnover rate is discussed.

44 Ellsworth,D.S Seasonal CO 2 assimilation and stomatal limitations in a Pinus taeda canopy. Tree Physiol., 20 (7): Net CO 2 assimilation (A net ) of canopy leaves is the principal process governing carbon storage from the atmosphere in forests, but it has rarely been measured over multiple seasons and multiple years. Ellsworth (2000) measured midday A net in the upper canopy of maturing loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees in the piedmont region of the southeastern USA on 146 sunny days over 36 months. Concurrent data for leaf conductance and photosynthetic CO 2 response curves (A net –C i curves) were used to estimate the relative importance of stomatal limitations to CO 2 assimilation in the field. In fully expanded current-year and 1-year- old needles, midday light-saturated A net was constant over much of the growing season (5–6 μmol CO 2 m −2 s −1 ), except during drought periods. During the winter season (November – March), midday A net of overwintering needles varied in proportion to leaf temperature. Net CO 2 assimilation at light saturation occurred when daytime air temperatures exceeded 5–6 °C, as happened on more than 90% of the sunny winter days. In both age classes of foliage, winter carbon assimilation accounted for approximately 15% of the daily carbon assimilation on sunny days throughout the year, and was relatively insensitive to year-to- year differences in temperature during this season. However, strong stomatal limitations to A net occurred as a result of water stress associated with freezing cycles in winter. During the growing season, drought- induced water stress produced the largest year to year differences in seasonal CO 2 assimilation on sunny days. Seasonal A net was more drought sensitive in current year needles than in 1 year old needles. Relative stomatal limitations to daily integrated A net were approximately 40% over the growing season, and summer drought rather than high temperatures had the largest impact on summer A net and integrated annual CO 2 uptake in the upper crown. Despite significant stomatal limitations, a long duration of near-peak A net in the upper crown, particularly in 1-year-old needles, conferred high seasonal and annual carbon gain (Ellsworth, 2000).

45 Hall, M., B.E. Medlyn, G.Abramowitz, O.Franklin, M.Räntfors, S.Linder dan G.Wallin Which are the most important parameters for modelling carbon assimilation in boreal Norway spruce under elevated [CO 2 ] and temperature conditions?. Tree Physiol., 33(11): Photosynthesis is highly responsive to environmental and physiological variables, including phenology, foliage nitrogen (N) content, atmospheric CO 2 concentration ([CO 2 ]), irradiation (Q), air temperature (T) and vapour pressure deficit (D). Each of these responses is likely to be modified by long-term changes in climatic conditions such as rising air temperature and [CO 2 ]. When modelling photosynthesis under climatic changes, which parameters are then most important to calibrate for future conditions?. Hall et al. (2013) used measurements of shoot carbon assimilation rates and microclimate conditions collected at Flakaliden, northern Sweden. Twelve 40-year-old Norway spruce trees were enclosed in whole-tree chambers and exposed to elevated [CO 2 ] and elevated air temperature, separately and in combination. The treatments imposed were elevated temperature, +2.8 °C in July/August and +5.6 °C in December above ambient, and [CO 2 ] (ambient CO 2 ∼ 370 μ mol mol −1, elevated CO 2 ∼ 700 μ mol mol −1 ). The [CO 2 ] treatment increased annual shoot carbon (C) uptake by 50%. Most important was effects on the light response curve, with a 67% increase in light-saturated photosynthetic rate, and a 52% increase in the initial slope of the light response curve. An interactive effect of light saturated photosynthetic rate was found with foliage N status, but no interactive effect for high temperature and high CO 2. The air temperature treatment increased the annual shoot C uptake by 44%. The most important parameter was the seasonality, with an elongation of the growing season by almost 4 weeks. The temperature response curve was almost flat over much of the temperature range. A shift in temperature optimum had thus an insignificant effect on modelled annual shoot C uptake. The combined temperature and [CO 2 ] treatment resulted in a 74% increase in annual shoot C uptake compared with ambient conditions, with no clear interactive effects on parameter values.

46 Dewar,R.C. dan M.G.R. Cannell Carbon sequestration in the trees, products and soils of forest plantations: an analysis using UK examples. Tree Physiol., 11(1): A carbon-flow model for managed forest plantations was used to estimate carbon storage in UK plantations differing in Yield Class (growth rate), thinning regime and species characteristics. Time-averaged, total carbon storage (at equilibrium) was generally in the range 40–80 Mg C ha −1 in trees, 15–25 Mg C ha −1 in above- and belowground litter, 70–90 Mg C ha −1 in soil organic matter and 20–40 Mg C ha −1 in wood products (assuming product lifetime equalled rotation length). The rate of carbon storage during the first rotation in most plantations was in the range 2–5 Mg C ha −1 year −1 (Dewar dan Cannell, 1992). A sensitivity analysis revealed the following processes to be both uncertain and critical: the fraction of total woody biomass in branches and roots; litter and soil organic matter decomposition rates; and rates of fine root turnover. Other variables, including the time to canopy closure and the possibility of accelerated decomposition after harvest, were less critical. The lifetime of wood products was not critical to total carbon storage because wood products formed only a modest fraction of the total. The average increase in total carbon storage in the tree–soil–product system per unit increase in Yield Class (m 3 ha −1 year −1 ) for unthinned Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr. plantations was 5.6 Mg C ha −1. Increasing the Yield Class from 6 to 24 m 3 ha −1 year −1 increased the rate of carbon storage in the first rotation from 2.5 to 5.6 Mg C ha −1 year −1 in unthinned plantations. Thinning reduced total carbon storage in P. sitchensis plantations by about 15%, and is likely to reduce carbon storage in all plantation types (Dewar dan Cannell, 1992). If the objective is to store carbon rapidly in the short term and achieve high carbon storage in the long term, Populus plantations growing on fertile land (2.7 m spacing, 26-year rotations, Yield Class 12) were the best option examined. If the objective is to achieve high carbon storage in the medium term (50 years) without regard to the initial rate of storage, then plantations of conifers of any species with above-average Yield Classes would suffice. In the long term (100 years), broadleaved plantations of oak and beech store as much carbon as conifer plantations. Mini-rotations (10 years) do not achieve a high carbon storage (Dewar dan Cannell, 1992).

47 Ibrom,A., P.G. Jarvis, R.Clement, K.Morgenstern, A.Oltchev, B.E. Medlyn, Y.P.Wang, L.Wingate, J.B. Moncrieff dan G.Gravenhorst A comparative analysis of simulated and observed photosynthetic CO 2 uptake in two coniferous forest canopies. Tree Physiol., 26 (7): Gross canopy photosynthesis (P g ) can be simulated with canopy models or retrieved from turbulent carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) flux measurements above the forest canopy. We compare the two estimates and illustrate our findings with two case studies. We used the three-dimensional canopy model MAESTRA to simulate P g of two spruce forests differing in age and structure. Model parameter acquisition and model sensitivity to selected model parameters are described, and modeled results are compared with independent flux estimates. Despite higher photon fluxes at the site, an older German Norway spruce (Picea abies L. (Karst.)) canopy took up 25% less CO 2 from the atmosphere than a young Scottish Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) plantation (Ibrom et al., 2006). The average magnitudes of P g and the differences between the two canopies were satisfactorily represented by the model. The main reasons for the different uptake rates were a slightly smaller quantum yield and lower absorptance of the Norway spruce stand because of a more clumped canopy structure. The model did not represent the scatter in the turbulent CO 2 flux densities, which was of the same order of magnitude as the non-photosynthetically-active-radiation-induced biophysical variability in the simulated P g. Analysis of residuals identified only small systematic differences between the modeled flux estimates and turbulent flux measurements at high vapor pressure saturation deficits (Ibrom et al., 2006)..

48 Baldocchi,D.D. and C. A. Vogel Energy and CO 2 flux densities above and below a temperate broad-leaved forest and a boreal pine forest. Tree Physiol., 16 (1-2): Fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapor and energy were measured above and below a temperate broad- leaved forest and a boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiania Lamb.) forest by the eddy covariance method. The aim of the work was to examine differences between the biological and physical processes that control the fluxes of mass and energy over these disparate forest stand types (Baldocchi dan Vogel, 1996). Carbon and latent heat flux (LE) densities over the temperate broad-leaved forest were about three times larger than those observed over the boreal forest. Available energy was the key variable modulating LE over the temperate broad-leaved forest, whereas LE over the boreal jack pine stand was sensitive to variations in water vapor pressure deficits (VPDs) and available energy. It was also noted that VPDs had different impacts on transpiration rates of the two forest stands. Increasing VPDs forced a negative feedback on jack pine transpiration, whereas transpiration rates of the well-watered broad-leaved forest responded favorably to increasing VPDs (Baldocchi dan Vogel, 1996). Carbon dioxide flux densities over the broad-leaved forest stand were more sensitive to changes in absorbed photosynthetic photon flux density than those over the boreal forest. The efficiency of CO 2 uptake over the jack pine stand was reduced, in part, because the low leaf area of the stand caused a sizable fraction of available quanta to be absorbed by nonphotosynthetic organs, such as limbs and trunks. Over both forest stands, variations in photosynthetic photon flux density of photosynthetically active radiation (Q P ) explained only 50 to 60% of the variance of CO 2 exchange rates (Baldocchi dan Vogel, 1996). Consequently, caution should be exercised when scaling carbon fluxes to regional scales based on unmodified, satellite-derived indices. The more open nature of the boreal jack pine forest caused water vapor, CO 2 and heat fluxes at the forest floor to be a significant component of whole canopy mass and energy exchange rates. About 20 to 30% of net canopy mass and energy exchange occurred at the forest floor. Much smaller rates of mass and energy exchange occurred under the temperate broad-leaved forest.

49 Goulden,M.L. dan P. M. Crill Automated measurements of CO 2 exchange at the moss surface of a black spruce forest. Tree Physiol., 17 (8-9): Goulden dan Crill (1997) used an automated, multiplexing gas-exchange system to measure the net exchange of CO 2 at the surfaces of three shady feather moss and three exposed sphagnum moss sites in a black spruce forest during 35 days at the end of the 1995 growing season. Midday gross photosynthesis was 0.5 to 1.0 μmol m −2 s −1 by feather moss and 0.5 to 2.5 μmol m −2 s −1 by sphagnum moss. Photosynthesis by sphagnum moss was reduced by approximately 70% at 0 °C, and reached a maximum rate at 8 °C. Nighttime CO 2 efflux, the sum of soil and moss respiration was 1 to 2.5 μmol m −2 s −1 above feather moss and 0.5 to 1.5 μmol m −2 s −1 above sphagnum moss at moss temperatures of 0 to 15 °C. The higher rates of respiration at the feather moss sites probably reflected a greater belowground input of carbon from black spruce, and the lower rates of photosynthesis were probably associated with shading by the black spruce canopy. Photosynthesis by moss accounted for 10 to 50% of whole-forest gross CO 2 uptake measured simultaneously by eddy covariance. Respiration at the moss surface was 50 to 90% of whole-forest respiration, with a decreasing fraction on warm nights apparently because of a disproportionate rise in aboveground respiration (Goulden dan Crill, 1997).

50 .


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