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Assessment for Learning Level 1 Presenters Today: Karen Lippy & Robin Henrikson 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Assessment for Learning Level 1 Presenters Today: Karen Lippy & Robin Henrikson 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Assessment for Learning Level 1 Presenters Today: Karen Lippy & Robin Henrikson 1

2 Introductions Who is here? When did you take the Introduction to Assessment for Learning? One big idea you learned from Intro to AfL or one question you may still have. 2

3 Sharing Learning Expectations Anchor your understanding of the 5 Key Strategies of Assessment for Learning. Understand the purpose for and use of learning progressions. Understand the purpose for and use of hinge questions at critical junctures. Produce a learning progression with hinge questions for use in your classroom. Deepen your understanding of sharing learning expectations, peer assessment, self-assessment and feedback techniques. 3

4 Meeting Norms We are ALL learners. In order to learn we must practice! We will model and practice AfL techniques during our presentation. We encourage a climate that fosters self and peer assessment. 4

5 What is the difference between strategies and techniques? Strategy Technique 5

6 Pre Assessment-Whiteboards (Chart Paper): Eliciting Evidence Opportunities for students to design their own tests and rubrics Traffic lights dots on their paper Comment-only grading Peer and Self Assessment Feedback Basketball rather than serial table-tennis Sharing Learning Expectations Explicit reference to rubrics 6

7 Why Assessment for Learning? Practice in a classroom is formative to the extent that evidence about student achievement is elicited, interpreted, and used by teachers, learners, or their peers, to make decisions about the next steps in instruction that are likely to be better, or better founded, than the decisions they would have taken in the absence of the evidence that was elicited. ~Black and Wiliam (2009) 7

8 20 years of research has found that when classrooms are regularly engaged in effective formative assessment... Students make significant learning gains – especially lower achieving students Teachers tend to be more reflective about their practice and more in touch with their students learning The process can improve student achievement more than other learning interventions including one-on-one tutoring, reduced class size or cooperative learning Implementing Formative Assessment/Assessment for Learning results in 8 extra months of learning per year at a cost of approximately $3k Black and Wiliam (1998) and others (e.g., Shepard et al., 2005) Benefits of Assessment for Learning 8

9 Learning Progressions The reason we are digging into learning progressions with such zeal is that they can provide the framework for the sorts of formative assessment activities that will take place in the classroom.- Popham Building a learning progression will allow you to strategically and intentionally insert AfL techniques into your lessons in order to make instructional decisions. 9

10 A Comprehensive Framework for Formative Assessment Three central processes: 1.Establishing where learners are in their learning 2.Establishing where they are going 3.Establishing how to get there ~Wiliam and Thompson (2007) 10

11 Learning Progression: A learning progression is a sequenced set of subskills and enabling knowledge that, it is believed, students must master en route to mastering a more remote curricular aim. (Popham 2008) A Learning Progression Model: 11

12 What is a Learning Progression & What it Isnt…… 12

13 Discussion Points What is a Learning Progression? What a Learning Progression isnt. 13

14 Key Idea! Keep a learning progression sufficiently lean so that it is likely to be used. The only building blocks to include are those for which you plan to collect assessment evidence. – Popham 14

15 Key Idea! Enabling Knowledge or Subskill When does it matter and when doesnt it matter? 15

16 Building a Learning Progression 16

17 Lets Get Started! 17

18 Determining the Target What will the learner do differently after mastering this target curricular aim? How will you know when students achieves mastery? 18

19 Number & Grain Size 19

20 Assessment for Learning Read each targets. Decide if they would make a good learning progression target. TOO BIG Just Right too small 20

21 Math Target 6 th Solve Single- and multi-step word problems involving operations with fractions and decimals and verify the solutions. 21

22 Math Target 3 rd Sketch a line segment. 22

23 Science 9 th Students know that: Earth is a system that contains a fixed amount of each stable chemical element existing in different chemical forms. Each element on Earth moves among reservoirs in the solid Earth, ocean, and atmosphere as part of biogeochemical cycles driven by energy from the Earths interior and from the Sun. 23

24 Math 8 th Analyze and compare mathematical strategies for solving problems, select and use one or more of the strategies to solve a problem, and communicate the answer to the question in a problem using appropriate representations, including symbols and informal and formal mathematical language. 24

25 Science 4 th -5 th Students know that energy can be transferred from one place to another. 25

26 Science 4 th - 5 th Students are expected to sort plants and animals according to their structures (e.g. presence of hair, feathers, or scales on their skin) and behaviors (e.g. grazing, hunting or diving for food). 26

27 So what does a learning progression look like? 27

28 enabling knowledge or subskill target formative assessment for learning 28

29 29 Knowing how to create a "good" question to use in a survey. Survey a "representative" population Choosing a correct graph to display the information (bar graph, line plot, etc) based on the type of data collected (numerical, categorical, etc ). Taking raw data and organizing it into a data table or organized list Correctly include all necessary components on the graph: title that represents the graph, x & y axis labeled with units, appropriate scale, graph is clear and easy to read Collect and use information to construct a graph. Share learning target with success criteria Basketball questioning: Give a scenario then ask is it representative or not and why? Question cards: Show a graph and ask numerical or categorical? Exit Pass: Three ways to organize data Mathematics Learning Progression Whiteboards: Given data, students will construct graphs using all necessary components

30 All Insects have characteristics that perform certain functions. Insects share some common features, yet vary in other way. Insects go through changes in their life cycle. Insects show similarities and differences in their life cycle. Insects have characteristics that help them survive in a wide variety of places. Insects have unique structures, behaviors, and basic needs. They are all related, yet have lots of variations and complex life cycles. Given a list of structures, students can match their associated functions. Students can complete a T- chart comparing and contrasting a list of features. Students can correctly sequence an insects metamorphic changes within its life cycle. Students can identify the differences between complete and incomplete metamorphic life cycles. Science Learning Progression Given a list of insect features, students are able to identify how each helps the insect survive. 30

31 Identify and write student - friendly learning target s aligned to the standards. Identify all enabling knowledge & subskills needed to reach learning target. Determine which enabling knowledge & subskills are measurable. Arrange enabling knowledge & subskills in the best instructional sequence for most students. Create a learning progression for classroom use. Student produces a standards- based student- friendly learning target for instructor approval. Given a list of possible building blocks from a model learning progression, students will identify those that will be needed to reach the learning target. Student will brainstorm assessment measures for their list of building blocks. Learning Progressions Learning Progression Student will be able to place building blocks from a model learning progression into an instructional sequence. 31

32 A Sound Construction Process 32

33 Step 1: Acquire a thorough understanding of the target curricular aim. 33

34 1st Critical Juncture: Assessment for Learning Write a student-friendly learning target to start your learning progression. At your table, review each others learning targets: Is the target a manageable size? Is the target in student-friendly language? When everyones target has been reviewed, place your traffic light cup at green. A facilitator will come by to approve all your targets. 34

35 Step 2: Identify all requisite precursory subskills and bodies of enabling knowledge. Write your subskills and Enabling knowledge this way! 35

36 Knowing how to create a "good" question to use in a survey. Calculate averages. Deciding the kind of data you collected (numerical, categorical etc) in order to choose a correct graph to display the information ie: bar graph, line plot, etc Taking raw data and organizing it into a data table or organized list Correctly include all necessary components on the graph: title that represents the graph, x & y axis labeled with units, appropriate scale, graph is clear and easy to read Collect and use information to construct a graph. Perform basic mathematical functions. Survey a "representative" population How to draw a trend line and calculate slope. 36

37 2 nd Critical Juncture: Assessment for Learning Can you identify building blocks that a student would need to know to meet the target?.... Insects have unique structures, behaviors, and basic needs. They are all related, yet have lots of variations and complex life cycles. 37

38 Insects have unique structures, behaviors, and basic needs. They are all related, yet have lots of variations and complex life cycles. Insects share some common features, yet vary in other ways. Building Block- True or False? 38

39 Insects have unique structures, behaviors, and basic needs. They are all related, yet have lots of variations and complex life cycles. Insects belong to the Animal Kingdom. Building Block- True or False? 39

40 Insects have unique structures, behaviors, and basic needs. They are all related, yet have lots of variations and complex life cycles. All Insects have characteristics that perform certain functions. Building Block- True or False? 40

41 Step 3: Determine whether its possible to measure students status with respect to each preliminarily identified building block. 41

42 3 rd Critical Juncture: Assessment for Learning Complete the Assessment Brainstorming worksheet for your remaining building blocks. When finished share with a facilitator. Assessment Brainstorm Building Block DescriptionPossible Assessments 42

43 Step 4: Arrange all building blocks in a structurally defensible sequence. 43

44 4th Critical Juncture: Assessment for Learning What order do you think these building blocks should be taught to help student reach this target? Knowing how to create a "good" question to use in a survey. Survey a "representative" population Choosing a correct graph to display the information (bar graph, line plot, etc) based on the type of data collected (numerical, categorical, etc). Taking raw data and organizing it into a data table or organized list Correctly include all necessary components on the graph: title that represents the graph, x & y axis labeled with units, appropriate scale, graph is clear and easy to read Collect and use information to construct a graph. 44

45 Knowing how to create a "good" question to use in a survey. Survey a "representative" population Taking raw data and organizing it into a data table or organized list Correctly include all necessary components on the graph: title that represents the graph, x & y axis labeled with units, appropriate scale, graph is clear and easy to read Collect and use information to construct a graph. 45 Choosing a correct graph to display the information (bar graph, line plot, etc) based on the type of data collected (numerical, categorical, etc).

46 Step 4: Arrange all your building blocks in a structurally defensible sequence. When you have an order, trade your sequence with another person at your table and review. Dialogue Prompt: Do you agree with their sequence? Why or Why not? 46

47 Learning Target Performance Assessment Use your draft learning progression to complete the My Learning Progression template. My Learning Progression 47

48 Part Two 48

49 Assessing Critical Junctures 49

50 Why Assess at Critical Junctures? Why Not Just Assess the Target? 50

51 What is Critical to Assess? My Learning Progression 51

52 How to Assess? To be effective, the critical juncture assessment should be: Diagnostic of student understanding Quick Inform the next step 52

53 Some options to consider: Personal Communication Performance Assessment Extended Written Response Selected Responses What are some strengths & limitations of using each of these at critical junctures in instruction? 53

54 Personal Communication- Can it be: Diagnostic of student understanding? Quick? Inform the next step? 54

55 Performance Assessment-Can it be: Diagnostic of student understanding? Quick? Inform the next step? 55

56 Extended Response-Can it be: Diagnostic of student understanding? Quick? Inform the next step? 56

57 Selected Response-Can it be: Diagnostic of student understanding? Quick? Inform the next step? 57

58 We will focus on determining ways to elicit evidence of student learning that are diagnostic, quick and will inform your next steps. 58

59 Eliciting Evidence Diagnostically Students choose from a likely set of student responses which should be developed to reveal their level of thinking. The options should include best answer and other answers representing incorrect or incomplete student understanding. 59

60 Why not just ask a Question? Questioning typically involves a three-turn exchange in which the teacher asks a question, a student answers and a teacher evaluates the answer. In too many classrooms, teachers try to get students to accept the right answer, instead of engaging them in a conversation that elicits their ideas and uses those ideas as a starting point. 60

61 From Assessment for Learning Introduction Engineering effective classroom discussions, questions, and learning tasks that elicit evidence of learning Elicit Evidence 61

62 Techniques For Questioning Key idea: questioning should – cause thinking – provide data that informs teaching Improving teacher questioning – generating questions with colleagues – closed v open – low-order v high-order – appropriate wait-time – basketball rather than serial table-tennis – No hands up (except to ask a question) – class polls to review current attitudes towards an issue – Hot Seat questioning All-student response systems – ABCD cards, Mini white-boards, Exit passes Dylan Wiliam Washington Educational Research Association workshop June

63 A hinge question is based on the important concept in a lesson that is critical for students to understand before you move on in the lesson. The question should fall about midway during the lesson. Every student must respond to the question within two minutes. You must be able to collect and interpret the responses from all students in 30 seconds Eliciting evidence technique: Hinge Questions Dylan Wiliam Washington Educational Research Association workshop June

64 In other words: diagnostic, quick, and inform next steps 64

65 Hinge Questions 65

66 Mathematics 1 BCDA In which of the following diagrams, is one quarter of the area shaded? 66

67 Mathematics 2 What is the median for the following data set? A.22 B.38 and 44 C.41 D.46 E.77 F.This data set has no median 67

68 Mathematics 3 What can you say about the means of the following two data sets? Set 1: Set 2: A.The two sets have the same mean. B.The two sets have different means. C.It depends on whether you choose to count the zero. 68

69 Mathematics 4 Which of the shapes below contains a dotted line that is also a diagonal? 69

70 Science 1 You look outside and notice a very gentle rain. Suddenly, it starts raining harder. What happened? A.A cloud bumped into the cloud that was only making a little rain. B.A bigger hole opened in the cloud, releasing more rain. C.A different cloud, with more rain, moved into the area. D.The wind started to push more water out of the clouds. 70

71 Science 2 Jenna put a glass of cold water outside on a warm day. After a while, she could see small droplets on the outside of the glass. Why was this? A.The air molecules around the glass condensed to form droplets of liquid B.The water vapor in the air near the cold glass condensed to form droplets of liquid water C.Water soaked through invisible holes in the glass to form droplets of water on the outside of the glass D.The cold glass causes oxygen in the air to become water 71

72 Science 3 How could you increase the temperature of boiling water? A.Add more heat. B.Stir it constantly. C.Add more water. D.You cant increase the temperature of boiling water. 72

73 Science 4 What can we do to preserve the ozone layer? A.Reduce the amount of carbon dioxide produced by cars and factories B.Reduce the greenhouse effect C.Stop cutting down the rainforests D.Limit the numbers of cars that can be used when the level of ozone is high E.Properly dispose of air-conditioners and fridges 73

74 English 1 Where would be the best place to begin a new paragraph? No rules are carved in stone dictating how long a paragraph should be. However, for argumentative essays, a good rule of thumb is that, if your paragraph is shorter than five or six good, substantial sentences, then you should reexamine it to make sure that you've developed the ideas fully. A Do not look at that rule of thumb, however, as hard and fast. It is simply a general guideline that may not fit some paragraphs. B A paragraph should be long enough to do justice to the main idea of the paragraph. Sometimes a paragraph may be short; sometimes it will be long. C On the other hand, if your paragraph runs on to a page or longer, you should probably reexamine its coherence to make sure that you are sticking to only one main topic. Perhaps you can find subtopics that merit their own paragraphs. D Think more about the unit, coherence, and development of a paragraph than the basic length. E If you are worried that a paragraph is too sort, then in probably lacks sufficient development. If you are worried that a paragraph is too long, then you may have rambled on to topics other than the one stated in your topic sentence. 74

75 English 2 Where is the verb in this sentence? The dog ran across the road ABCD 75

76 English 3 Which of these is the best thesis statement? A.The typical TV show has 9 violent incidents B.The essay I am going to write is about violence on TV C.There is a lot of violence on TV D.The amount of violence on TV should be reduced E.Some programs are more violent than others F.Violence is included in programs to boost ratings G.Violence on TV is interesting H.I dont like the violence on TV 76

77 History Why are historians concerned with bias when analyzing sources? A.People can never be trusted to tell the truth B.People deliberately leave out important details C.People are only able to provide meaningful information if they experienced an event firsthand D.People interpret the same event in different ways, according to their experience E.People are unaware of the motivations for their actions F.People get confused about sequences of events 77

78 World Languages Is the verb être regular in French? 78

79 World Languages Which of the following is the correct translation for I give the book to him? A.Yo lo doy el libro. B.Yo doy le el libro. C.Yo le doy el libro. D.Yo doy lo el libro. E.Yo doy el libro le. F.Yo doy el libro lo. 79

80 Constructing Hinge Questions 80

81 Hinge Questions- Eliciting Evidence A question must make students choose from a likely set of student responses which should be developed to reveal their level of thinking. The options should include best answer and other answers representing incorrect or incomplete student understanding. 81

82 Hinge Question For each example…… If it is a good hinge question If it isnt a good hinge question If you are not sure 82

83 Wilson & Draney, 2004 The ball sitting on the table is not moving. It is not moving because: A. no forces are pushing or pulling on the ball. B. gravity is pulling down, but the table is in the way. C. the table pushes up with the same force that gravity pulls down D. gravity is holding it onto the table. E. there is a force inside the ball keeping it from rolling off the table 83

84 Explain why the ball sitting on the table is not moving. 84

85 Draw a picture of one quarter. 85

86 In which of these right-angled triangles is a 2 + b 2 = c 2 ? A a c b C b c a E c b a B a b c D b a c F c a b 86

87 Hinge Questions- Eliciting Evidence A question must make students choose from a likely set of student responses which should be developed to reveal their level of thinking. The options should include best answer and other answers representing incorrect or incomplete student understanding. 87

88 Lets try…. Knowing how to create a "good" question to use in a survey. All Insects have characteristics that perform certain functions. Identify and write student - friendly learning targets aligned to the standards. 88

89 Share 89

90 90

91 Time to revisit your learning progression and write your own hinge questions or similar assessment for learning! My Learning Progression 91

92 Options- Make sure at least one is A. A.Hinge question- Dylan Wiliam model B.Exit Pass or White Board C.Various FACTS- Some good for elicitation include: – 4,8,9,14,21,30,31,38,43,50,51,54,65,66,67,75 Ask for critical feedback from peers and facilitators! 92

93 You are in charge! Everyday classroom assessment is unique to our classroom context. It depends more on the skills, knowledge, and priorities you and your students have than on any particular protocol or strategy. (Atkin and Cooey 2003, p.xi.) 93

94 Reflection How can learning progressions be incorporated into your regular practice? Think about a moment in your class where you can see yourself applying a hinge question within the next two weeks of instruction? 94

95 Purposes and Stages of Classroom Assessment Type of Classroom Assessment PurposeLink to Stage in Instructional Sequence Formative (pre-instruction)Diagnostic- to find out students existing ideas Elicitation Stage- Used prior to developing instruction or during the instructional sequence when new ideas are encountered. FormativeTo monitor student learning and/or to provide feedback to students on their learning Exploration and Concept Development Stage- Used continuously throughout the instructional sequence. SummativeTo measure the extent to which students have achieved a learning goal Application Stage- Used primarily at the end of an instructional sequence. 95


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