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1 BAHAN KAJIAN MK. MANAJEMEN KESUBURAN TANAH UNSUR MIKRO www.marno.lecture.ub.ac.id.

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Presentation on theme: "1 BAHAN KAJIAN MK. MANAJEMEN KESUBURAN TANAH UNSUR MIKRO www.marno.lecture.ub.ac.id."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 BAHAN KAJIAN MK. MANAJEMEN KESUBURAN TANAH UNSUR MIKRO

2 UNSUR MIKRO Unsur mikro adalah unsur esensial bagi pertumbuhan tanaman, tetapi dibutuhkan dalam jumlah lebih sedikit dibandingkan dengan unsur hara makro primer N, P, dan K. The UNSUR MIKRO are boron (B), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), Mo (Mo), zinc (Zn), and chloride (Cl). While chloride is a UNSUR MIKRO, deficiencies rarely occur in nature, so discussions on supplying UNSUR MIKRO fertilizers are confined to the other six UNSUR MIKRO. Deficiencies of UNSUR MIKRO have been increasing in some crops. Some reasons are higher crop yields which increase plant nutrient demands, use of high analyses NPK fertilizers containing lower quantities of UNSUR MIKRO contaminants, and decreased use of farmyard manure on many agricultural soils. UNSUR MIKRO deficiencies have been verified in many soils through increased use of soil testing and plant analyses.

3 UNSUR MIKRO sama pentingnya dnegan unsur makro dalam nutrisi tanaman. However, the amounts of UNSUR MIKRO required for optimum nutrition are much lower. UNSUR MIKRO deficiencies are widespread because of increased nutrient demands from the more intensive cropping practices. Soil tests and plant analyses are excellent diagnostic tools to monitor the UNSUR MIKRO status of soils and crops. Visual deficiency symptoms of these nutrients also are well recognized in most economic crops. UNSUR MIKRO recommendations are based on soil and plant tissue analyses, the type of crop and expected yield, management level, and research results.

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7 Kandungan unsur MIKRO dalam tanah dan jaringan tanaman

8 B = BORON Fungsi utama B adalah berhubungan dengan pembentukan dinding sel, sehingga tanaman yang defisien B menjadi kerdil. Sugar transport in plants, flower retention and pollen formation and germination also are affected by boron. Seed and grain production are reduced with low boron supply. Boron deficiency symptoms first appear at the growing points. This results in a stunted appearance (rosetting), barren ears due to poor pollination, hollow stems and fruit (hollow heart) and brittle, discolored leaves and loss of fruiting bodies. Boron deficiencies are mainly found in acid, sandy soils in regions of high rainfall, and those with low soil organic matter. Borate ions are mobile in soil and can be leached from the root zone. Boron deficiencies are more pronounced during drouth periods when root activity is restricted.

9 Cu = Tembaga Cu dibutuhkan dalam metabolisme karbohydrat dan nitrogen, so inadequate copper results in stunting of plants. Copper also is required for lignin synthesis which is needed for cell wall strength and prevention of wilting. Deficiency symptoms of copper are dieback of stems and twigs, yellowing of leaves, stunted growth and pale green leaves that wither easily. Copper deficiencies are mainly reported on organic soils (peats and mucks), and on sandy soils which are low in organic matter. Serapan Cu menurun kalau pH tanah meningkat. Peningkatan ketersediaan P dan Fe dalam tanah dapat menurunkan serapan Cu oleh tanaman.

10 Fe = BESI Fe terlibat dalam produksi khlorofil, dan khlorosis Fe mudah muncul pada tanaman yang tumbuh di tanah-tanah kapur. Iron also is a component of many enzymes associated with energy transfer, nitrogen reduction and fixation, and lignin formation. Iron is associated with sulfur in plants to form compounds that catalyze other reactions. Iron deficiencies are mainly manifested by yellow leaves due to low levels of chlorophyll. Leaf yellowing first appears on the younger upper leaves in interveinal tissues. Severe iron deficiencies cause leaves to turn completely yellow or almost white, and then brown as leaves die. Iron deficiencies are found mainly on calcareous (high pH) soils, although some acid, sandy soils low in organic matter also may be iron-deficient. Cool, wet weather enhances iron deficiencies, especially on soils with marginal levels of available iron. Poorly aerated or compacted soils also reduce iron uptake by plants. Uptake of iron decreases with increased soil pH, and is adversely affected by high levels of available phosphorus, manganese and zinc in soils.

11 Mn = Mangan Mn dibutuhkan dalam photosynthesis, metabolisme nitrogen dan untuk pembentukan senyawa lain yg dibutuhkan untuk metabolisme tanaman. Interveinal chlorosis is a characteristic manganese-deficiency symptom. In very severe manganese deficiencies, brown necrotic spots appear on leaves, resulting in premature leaf drop. Delayed maturity is another deficiency symptom in some species. Whitish-gray spots on leaves of some cereal crops and shortened internodes in cotton are other manganese-deficiency symptoms. Manganese deficiencies mainly occur on organic soils, high-pH soils, sandy soils low in organic matter, and on over-limed soils. Soil manganese may be less available in dry, well-aerated soils, but can become more available under wet soil conditions when manganese is reduced to the plant-available form. Conversely, manganese toxicity can result in some acidic, high-manganese soils. Uptake of manganese decreases with increased soil pH and is adversely affected by high levels of available iron in soils.

12 Mo = Mo Mo terlibat dalam sistem ensim untuk fiksasi N oleh bakteri simbiotik dalam akar legume. Nitrogen metabolism, protein synthesis and sulfur metabolism are also affected by Mo. Mo has a significant effect on pollen formation, so fruit and grain formation are affected in Mo-deficient plants. Because Mo requirements are so low, most plant species do not exhibit Mo-deficiency symptoms. These deficiency symptoms in legumes are mainly exhibited as nitrogen-deficiency symptoms because of the primary role of Mo in nitrogen fixation. Unlike the other UNSUR MIKRO, Mo-deficiency symptoms are not confined mainly to the youngest leaves because Mo is mobile in plants. The characteristic Mo-deficiency symptom in some vegetable crops is irregular leaf blade formation known as whiptail, but interveinal mottling and marginal chlorosis of older leaves also have been observed. Mo deficiencies are found mainly on acid, sandy soils in humid regions. Mo uptake by plants increases with increased soil pH. Mo deficiencies in legumes may be corrected by liming acid soils rather than by Mo applications. However, seed treatment with Mo sources may be more economical than liming in some areas.

13 Zn = SENG Zn menjadi komponen esensial dari berbagai ensim untuk produksi energi, sintesis protein, dan regulasi pertumbuhan tanaman. Zinc-deficient plants also exhibit delayed maturity. Zinc is not mobile in plants so zinc-deficiency symptoms occur mainly in new growth. Poor mobility in plants suggests the need for a constant supply of available zinc for optimum growth. The most visible zinc-deficiency symptoms are short internodes (rosetting) and a decrease in leaf size. Chlorotic bands along the midribs of corn, mottled leaves of dry bean and chlorosis of rice are characteristic zinc-deficiency symptoms. Loss of lower bolls of cotton and narrow, yellow leaves in the new growth of citrus also have been diagnosed as zinc deficiencies. Delayed maturity also is a symptom of zinc-deficient plants. Defisiensi Zn terutama dijumpai pada tanah-tanah berpasir yang miskin bahan organik dan pada tanah-tanah organik. Zinc deficiencies occur more often during cold, wet spring weather and are related to reduced root growth and activity as well as lower microbial activity decreases zinc release from soil organic matter. Zinc uptake by plants decreases with increased soil pH. Uptake of zinc also is adversely affected by high levels of available phosphorus and iron in soils.

14 Cl = Khlor Cl merupakan anion mobile dalam tubuh tanaman, most of its functions relate to salt effects (stomatal opening) and electrical charge balance in physiological functions in plants. Chloride also indirectly affects plant growth by stomatal regulation of water loss. Wilting and restricted, highly branched root systems are the main chloride- deficiency symptoms, which are found mainly in cereal crops. Most soils contain sufficient levels of chloride for adequate plant nutrition. However, reported chloride deficiencies have been reported on sandy soils in high rainfall areas or those derived from low-chloride parent materials. In addition, chloride is applied to soils with KCl, the dominant potassium fertilizer. The role of chloride in decreasing the incidence of various diseases in small grains is perhaps more important than its nutritional role from a practical viewpoint.

15 RESPON TANAMAN TERHADAP UNSUR MIKRO

16 SUMBER PUPUK UNSUR MIKRO

17 Lima macam sumber unsur mikro : 1.Produk Pupuk Organik 2. Khelat sintetik 3. Senyawa organik kompleks alamiah 4. Produk gelas frits (frits). 5. Pupuk An-organik

18 PUPUK MIKRO An-organik Pupuk mikro anorganik dapat berupa: oxides and carbonates, and metallic salts such as sulfates, chlorides, and nitrates. The sulfates are the most common of the metallic salts and are sold in crystalline or granular form. An ammoniated ZnSO4 solution also is used in polyphosphate starter fertilizers. Oxides of manganese and zinc also are commonly used, and are sold as fine powders and in granular form. Because oxides such as ZnO and MnO are water insoluble, their immediate effectiveness for crops is rather low in granular form. The available divalent form of manganese in MnO will oxidize to the unavailable tetravalent form of manganese, so there is very little residual availability of manganese fertilizers for succeeding crops. Agronomic effectiveness of granular MnO may be rather low. Since manganese in MnO2 already is in the unavailable form, it should not be used as a manganese fertilizer.

19 PUPUK MIKRO An-organik Oxysulfates are oxides, usually industrial by-products, which have been partially acidulated with sulfuric acid, and generally are sold in granular form. The percentage of water-soluble manganese or zinc in oxysulfates is directly related to the degree of acidulation by sulfuric acid. Research results have shown that about 35 to 50 percent of the total zinc in granular zincoxysulfate should be in water-soluble form to be immediately effective for crops. Similar results would be expected for manganese-oxysulfate. Pupuk mikro anorganik biasanya harganya lebih murah, tetapi tidak selalu lebih efektif bagi pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman.

20 Khelat Sintetik Khelat sintetik ini dibentuk dengan jalan menggabungkan agen-agen khelat dengan logam mikro melalui ikatan koordinasi. Stability of the metal-chelate bond affects availability to plants of the UNSUR MIKRO metals --- copper, iron, manganese, and zinc. An effective chelate is one in which the rate of substitution of the chelated UNSUR MIKRO for other cations in the soil is quite low, thus maintaining the applied UNSUR MIKRO in chelated form. Relative effectiveness for crops per unit of UNSUR MIKRO as soil- applied chelates may be from two to five times greater than that of inorganic sources, while chelates costs per unit of UNSUR MIKRO may be five to 100 times higher.

21 SENYAWA ORGANIK KOMPLEKS ALAMIAH These complexes are made by reacting metallic salts with some organic by-products of the wood pulp industry or related industries. Beberapa tipe senyawa organik kompleks ini adalah : lignosulfonates, polyflavonoids dan phenols. The types of chemical bonding of the metals to the organic components are not well understood. Some bonds may be coordinate as in the chelates, but other types of chemical bonds also may be present. While natural organic complexes are less costly per unit of UNSUR MIKRO, they usually are less effective than synthetic chelates. They also are more readily decomposed by microorganisms in soil. These sources are more suitable for foliar sprays and mixing with fluid fertilizers.

22 Frits Fritted glassy products (frits) in which solubility is controlled by particle size and changes in matrix composition. Kandungan UNSUR MIKRO beragam %, and more than one UNSUR MIKRO may be included in a fritted product. Fritted UNSUR MIKRO generally are used only on sandy soils in regions of high rainfall were leaching occurs. This class of materials is more appropriate for maintenance programs than for correcting severe UNSUR MIKRO deficiencies. Therefore, frits only have a small share of the UNSUR MIKRO market.

23 Aplikasi dengan pupuk campuran The most common method of UNSUR MIKRO application for crops is soil application. Recommended application rates usually are less than 10 lb/acre (on an elemental basis), so uniform application of UNSUR MIKRO sources separately in the field is difficult. Therefore, both granular and fluid NPK fertilizers are commonly used as carriers of UNSUR MIKRO. Including UNSUR MIKRO with mixed fertilizers is a convenient method of application and allows more uniform distribution with conventional application equipment. Costs also are reduced by eliminating a separate application. Four methods of applying UNSUR MIKRO with mixed fertilizers are: 1.Pencampuran selama pembuatan pupuk 2.Blending dengan pupuk granuler 3. Penyelimutan pada pupuk granuler 4.Pencampuran dengan uppuk cairan

24 Pencampuran dengan Pupuk Granuler Incorporation during manufacture results in uniform distribution of UNSUR MIKRO throughout granular NPK fertilizers. Because the UNSUR MIKRO source is in contact with the mixed fertilizer components under conditions of high temperature and moisture, the rate of chemical reactions which may reduce the plant availability of some UNSUR MIKRO is increased. For example, acid decomposition of ZnEDTA or any synthetic chelate may occur if they are mixed with phosphoric acid before ammoniation during manufacture, which results in reduced plant availability of the UNSUR MIKRO. Immediate plant availability of applied zinc in granular ammoniated phosphates also decreases with the level of water-soluble zinc in these products.

25 Blending dengan Pupuk Granuler Bulk blending of UNSUR MIKRO with granular NPK fertilizers is a common practice in the world. The main advantage is that fertilizer grades can be produced which will provide the recommended UNSUR MIKRO rates for a given field at the usual fertilizer application rates. The main disadvantage is that segregation of nutrients can occur during the blending operation and with subsequent handling. Segregation results in non-uniform application, which is critical with UNSUR MIKRO since their application rates are quite low. Segregation can be minimized by properly matching particle sizes of UNSUR MIKRO sources with those of the NPK components of the blend. Mechanical devices to minimize coning and segregation of the materials during handling and storage are available. Blending of various sized fertilizer particles results in nonuniform application because of segregation in the applicator during transport and spreading operations.

26 Penyelimutan Pupuk Granuler Coating powdered UNSUR MIKRO onto granular NPK fertilizers decreases the possibility of segregation, which is the main disadvantage of bulk blending UNSUR MIKRO with mixed fertilizers. Fertilizer solutions are preferred as binding agents because the fertilizer grade is not decreased so much as with use of water, oils and waxes. Some binding materials are unsatisfactory because they do not maintain the UNSUR MIKRO coatings during bagging, storage, and handling. This results in segregation of the UNSUR MIKRO sources from the granular NPK components. Agronomic effectiveness of UNSUR MIKRO coated onto soluble granular NPK fertilizers should be similar to that with incorporation during manufacture. This method of UNSUR MIKRO application is not commonly used because of the extra costs associated with coating.

27 PUPUK CAIR Mixing UNSUR MIKRO with fluid fertilizers has become a popular method of application, especially Clear liquids are commonly used as starter fertilizers for row crops and some UNSUR MIKRO, especially zinc sources, are easily applied with these fluids. Solubility of some UNSUR MIKRO sources is higher in polyphosphate fertilizers such as than in orthophosphate clear liquids. UNSUR MIKRO also may be applied with nitrogen solutions such as UAN, but solubility of many sources is rather low. Compatibility tests should be made before tank mixing operations of UNSUR MIKRO with fluid fertilizers are attempted; otherwise, problems could occur when incompatible sources are mixed. Suspension fertilizers also are used as UNSUR MIKRO carriers. Oxides also can be applied with suspensions since complete solution is not required.

28 Penyemprotan Daun = Foliar Sprays Foliar sprays are widely used to apply UNSUR MIKRO, especially iron and manganese, for many crops. Soluble inorganic salts generally are as effective as synthetic chelates in foliar sprays, so the inorganic salts usually are chosen because of lower costs. Advantages of foliar sprays are: (1) application rates are much lower than for soil application; (2) a uniform application is easily obtained; and (3) response to the applied nutrient is almost immediate so deficiencies can be corrected during the growing season. Low residue foliar sprays of manganese and zinc have been used to correct deficiencies of citrus and other fruit crops, but sprays which will discolor the fruit should be avoided. Disadvantages of foliar sprays are: (1) leaf burn may result if salt concentrations of the spray are too high; (2) nutrient demand often is high when the plants are small and leaf surface is insufficient for foliar absorption; (3) maximum yields may not be possible if spraying is delayed until deficiency symptoms appear; and (4) there is little residual effect from foliar sprays. Application costs will be higher if more than one spray is needed, unless they can be combined with pesticide spray applications.

29 DOSIS UNSUR MIKRO Boron Rekomendasi dosis aplikasi Boron agak rendah (0.5 to 2 lb/acre), but should be carefully followed because the range between boron deficiency and toxicity in most plants is narrow. Uniform application of boron in the field is very important for the above reason. Boronated NPK fertilizers (those containing boron sources incorporated at the factory) will insure a more uniform application than most bulk blended fertilizers. Aplikasi daun (Foliar sprays) also insure a rather uniform application, but costs generally are higher.

30 Pengaruh pH tanah terhadap ketersediaan Boron dan Hasil Kapas

31 Hasil penelitian di Arkansas, hasil kapas meningkat sebesar 490 dan 584 lb/acre pada pemupukan B sebesar 0.3 dan 0.5 lb/acre. Without applied boron, cotton yields decreased with increasing soil pH. Yields were increased at all soil pH levels when boron was applied at a rate of 0.5 lb/acre. Soil tests should be included in boron fertilization programs, first to assess the level of available boron and later to determine possible residual effects (buildup). The most common soil test for boron is the hot-water-soluble test. This test is more difficult to conduct than most other UNSUR MIKRO soil tests, but most boron response data have been correlated with it.

32 DOSIS UNSUR MIKRO Cu = Copper Rekomendasi dosis aplikasi Cu berkisar lb/acre as CuSO4 or finely ground CuO. Residual effects of applied copper are very marked, with responses being noted up to eight years after application. Because of these residual effects, soil tests are essential to monitor possible copper accumulations to toxic levels in soils where copper fertilizers are being applied. Plant analyses also can be used to monitor copper levels in plant tissues. Copper applications should be decreased or discontinued when available levels increase beyond the deficiency range.

33 DOSIS UNSUR MIKRO Fe = Iron Aplikasi tanah pupuk mikro Fe biasanya tidak efektif bagi tanaman, so foliar sprays are the recommended application method. Spray applications of a 3 to 4% FeSO4 solution at 20 to 40 gallons/acre are used to correct iron deficiencies. The application rate should be high enough to wet the foliage. More than one foliar application may be required for correction of iron chlorosis. Inclusion of a sticker-spreader agent in the spray is suggested to improve adherence of the spray to the plant foliage for increased iron absorption by the plant.

34 23/9/ DOSIS UNSUR MIKRO Manganese Rekomendasi dosis aplikasi Mn berkisar lb/acre Mn, biasanya dalam bentuk MnSO4. Application rates of MnO would be similar if applied as a fine powder or in NPK fertilizers. Band application of manganese sources with acid-forming fertilizers results in a more efficient use of applied manganese because the rate of oxidation of applied manganese to the unavailable tetravalent form (as in MnO2) is decreased. There are no residual effects of applied manganese for the same reason, so annual applications are needed. Foliar spray applications of MnSO4 also are used and require lower rates than soil applications.

35 Respon Kedelai terhadap Pupuk Mn

36 Respons Kapas terhadap Pupuk Mn

37 DOSIS UNSUR MIKRO Mo Rekomendasi dosis aplikasi Mo, are much lower than those for the other UNSUR MIKRO, and uniform application is very important. Broadcast application of molybdenized phosphate fertilizers prior to planting or to pastures has been used to correct Mo deficiencies. Soluble Mo sources also can be sprayed on the soil surface before tillage to obtain a uniform application.

38 Response Kedelai terhadap Mo

39 Aplikasi Pupuk Mo Perlakuan benih merupakan metode aplikasi pupuk mikro Mo yang paling lazim dilakukan. Mo sources are coated onto the seed with a sticking agent and/or conditioner. This method insures a uniform application and sufficient amounts of Mo can be seed coated to provide sufficient Mo. Data in the following table show the effectiveness for soybean of seed- coated Mo at a rate of one ounce of Mo/acre. Soybean yields without applied Mo increased with increases in soil pH, but not as high as those with seedapplied Mo at each soil pH level

40 DOSIS UNSUR MIKRO Zinc Rekomendasi dosis aplikasi Zn berkisar lb/acre. Band or broadcast applications are used, but foliar applications also are effective. Band applications of zinc sources with starter fertilizers is a common practice for row crops. Foliar sprays of a 0.5% ZnSO4 solution applied at a rate of 20 to 30 gallons/acre also will supply sufficient zinc, but several applications may be necessary. Residual effects of applied zinc are substantial, with responses found at least 5 years after application. Because of these residual effects, soil test levels of available zinc generally increase after several applications. Many states have reduced their recommended zinc application rates because of these residual effects. Crop response to several zinc sources each banded with a starter fertilizer at zinc rates up to 3 lb/acre for corn in Nebraska is shown below. Results show that ZnEDTA was much more effective at the lower zinc rates, but all zinc sources were about equally effective at the highest zinc rate.

41 Response Jagung terhadap Pupuk Zn

42 Kapan UNSUR MIKRO dibutuhkan Lahan Pertanian ? Boron Uji tanah untuk Boron (B) masih jarang dilakukan. A general boron recommendation is made for cotton, broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage. Two pounds of boron per acre are recommended for alfalfa, broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage. One-half pound of boron per acre is recommended for cotton when the pH is above 6.0 or anywhere lime is used. A pound of boron per acre is recommended for burley or dark tobacco anywhere deficiency symptoms have been noted previously or where plant analysis results show a need for boron.

43 Kapan UNSUR MIKRO dibutuhkan Lahan Pertanian ? Iron Uji tanah Fe banyak dilakukan dalam usahatani tanaman hias : azaleas, hydrangeas, etc. Iron sulfate is a commonly used and locally available source for iron. Chelated iron sources are often more appropriate for established plantings when soil pH is very much above the desired range. Such use is not based upon soil test results but upon plant appearance (unthrifty and usually chlorotic [yellowing] condition). If soil is tested prior to plant establishment, then a more desirable approach is to avoid an iron deficiency by lowering the soil pH using elemental sulfur or other acidifying amendments well ahead of planting. The soil test lab report gives specific instructions for amount of elemental sulfur (the most economical soil-acidifying material) to use. Lowering of soil pH or attempted correction of iron deficiency after establishment of shrubs or small fruits is a salvage operation that usually does not achieve the desired result.

44 Kapan UNSUR MIKRO dibutuhkan Lahan Pertanian ? Manganese Manganese (Mn) is recommended only for soybeans when soil pH is above 7.0 and soil test manganese is below 16 pounds per acre. The recommendation is to apply 20 pounds of manganese per acre broadcast just prior to planting. NOTE: Manganese should not be confused with magnesium nor should it be requested when manganese toxicity (low soil pH) is the problem.

45 Kapan UNSUR MIKRO dibutuhkan Lahan Pertanian ? Mo Aplikasi pupuk Mo melalui Perlakuan-benih lazim digunakan dlaam usahatani kedelai. Treat seed with 0.2 ounce actual Mo per bushel when the soil pH is 6.5 or below. This can be accomplished by applying either 0.5 ounce of sodium molybdate per bushel of seed or following the product label for specific liquid hopper-box-applied sources containing fungicides. Research has shown very favorable results to seed application of Mo down to a soil pH of about 5.8.

46 Kapan UNSUR MIKRO dibutuhkan Lahan Pertanian ? Zinc A general zinc (Zn) recommendation is made for corn and snap beans on soils from those counties where zinc deficiencies commonly occur. However, when zinc is tested on a soil sample from any county for corn or snap beans, the zinc recommendation is based on the result of the soil test as follows: If the Zn results are two pounds per acre or less, five pounds of elemental zinc per acre will be recommended for corn or two pounds per acre for snap beans. Also, a general zinc recommendation of two pounds of zinc sulfate per 1000 square feet is made for pecan trees. Unless deficiency symptoms persist, this should be considered as a one-time application. When a zinc soil test is requested for crops other than corn or snap beans, the results are always reported as sufficient. Zinc sulfate is the commonly used and locally available source for Zn.

47 23/9/ SIKLUS UNSUR MIKRO Metals exist in one of four forms in the soil: mineral, organic, sorbed (bound to soil), or dissolved. The majority of metals in soil are bound in minerals and organic matter, and are unavailable to plants. Sorbed metals represent the third largest pool, and are generally very tightly bound to soil surfaces. Although mineral, organic, and sorbed metals are not immediately plant available, they can slowly release metals into solution. Dissolved metal concentrations are usually very low, especially at soil pH levels typical for Montana and Wyoming. The concentration of plant available metals can be estimated with an organic extractant such as DTPA. The total concentrations of metals in soil (determined by extracting with strong acids) are generally orders of magnitude higher than plant available metals (Table 1). Most notably, the available Fe concentration represents less than 0.1% of the average total Fe concentration in soils. The processes that determine the amount of metals available in solution are: plant uptake, sorption/desorption, precipitation/dissolution, mineralization/ immobilization, erosion, and crop removal.

48 SIKLUS UNSUR MIKRO LOGAM

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52 FAKTOR KETERSEDIAAN UNSUR MIKRO Ketersediaan unsur mikro sangat dipengaruhi oleh pH tanah. Mo exhibits the opposite effect, with increased availability at higher pH. Cl availability is independent of pH. Factors other than pH that affect UNSUR MIKRO availability are discussed below.

53 Ketersediaan unsur mikro dalam tanah sangat dipengaruhi oleh pH tanah

54 FAKTOR KETERSEDIAAN COPPER High C:N organic material or residues can cause Cu deficiency due to uptake by microorganisms, sorption, and inhibited root development, likely caused by low available N concentrations. Sandy soils generally have a higher likelihood of Cu deficiency than finer-textured soils.

55 FAKTOR KETERSEDIAAN IRON Most Fe deficiencies occur on calcareous, high pH soils. In addition, periods of saturation in poorly aerated soils can enhance Fe deficiency, possibly due to reduced nutrient absorption under these conditions. Fe deficiency is also more common on soils low in OM, especially where land leveling has removed the upper organic rich soils and exposed calcareous subsoil. Chelators in OM will increase Fe availability.

56 Pengaruh pH dan Eh tanah terhadap ketersediaan Fe dalam tanah

57 Penyerapan Fe oleh akar tanaman

58 FAKTOR KETERSEDIAAN MANGANESE Penambahan bahan organik dapat meningkatkan Mn tersedia, meskipun tanah-tanah yang secara alami kaya BOT kadangkala menunjukkan defisiensi Mn. This apparent discrepancy is due to the relative availability of Mn in recently added organic amendments compared to older materials where decomposition has slowed considerably. Dry weather increases Mn deficiency likely due to precipitation of unavailable Mn oxides. Saturated conditions cause some Mn minerals to dissolve and become available to plants.

59 FAKTOR KETERSEDIAAN ZINC Bahan organik dapat meningkatkan ketersediaan Zn karena mekanisme khlesai dan mineralisasi, but at very high levels, can decrease Zn availability due to sorption and precipitation of organic- Zn solids. For example, Zn deficiency can occur in peat soils due to these second two reactions. High concentrations of available soil P have been found to cause Zn deficiencies in both sugar beets and dry beans (Halvorson and Bergman, 1983).

60 FAKTOR KETERSEDIAAN BORON Aplikasi bahan organik dapat meningkatkan serapan B likely due to both chelation and mineralization. Fine soils retain and release B better than coarse soils. Soils high in K may increase B deficiencies, although the reason for this effect is unknown (Havlin et al., 1999). Any drought conditions can increase B deficiencies, likely due to slower diffusion.

61 FAKTOR KETERSEDIAAN CHLORIDE Cl deficiencies can be attributed to indigenous soils being very low in Cl levels, little Cl being deposited from the atmosphere, and until recently, limited application of potash (KCl). Cl mudah tercuci dari dalam tanah, dan defisiensi Cl dapat terjadi di daerah-daerah dengan curah hujan tinggi. Wheat is one of the crops that have had confirmed Cl deficiencies.

62 FAKTOR KETERSEDIAAN Mo Tanah-tanah yang kaya oksidaoksida Fe dan/atau Al akan mengikat kuat Mo, sehingga mereduksi ketersediaan Mo bagi tanaman. Higher levels of phosphate increase Mo availability because P and Mo are so similar that P will compete for the same sorption sites as Mo, resulting in Mo desorption.

63 UJI UNTUK UNSUR MIKRO How do you know if your field or crop is deficient in one of the UNSUR MIKRO, and therefore, if UNSUR MIKRO fertilization would be expected to result in a yield response? Gejala defisiensi sering digunakan untuk diagnosis defisiensi unsur mikro. Akan tetapi, seringkali tanaman mengalami ‘hidden hunger’, mereka sebenarnya defisien hara mikro, tetapi belum menunjukkan gejala defisiensi yang spesifik. In addition, many of the UNSUR MIKRO deficiencies look similar, making testing of soil or plant tissue essential for determining if a response to a UNSUR MIKRO fertilizer is likely or not.

64 Uji Tanah untuk UNSUR MIKRO Pengambilan Contoh Tanah (Soil sampling) Once the soils are collected, they are delivered to a laboratory for testing. UNSUR MIKRO availability in soils is tested with a variety of methods, although some tests have become more standard than others. Metals are typically measured with diethylenetr iaminepetaacetic acid (DTPA), a chelator designed to extract the most readily available metals. DTPA is buffered with triethanolamine (TEA) to maintain a pH near 8, because pH can greatly affect metal solubility as pointed out earlier. Chloride is measured in a water extract, and a hot water extraction is the most typical for B. Soil test results should be compared with UNSUR MIKRO fertilizer guidelines for your state. Decisions on UNSUR MIKRO fertilization should depend on knowledge of growth responses to UNSUR MIKRO fertilization in the local area. In addition, as pointed out earlier, fertilizer solubilities and forms may greatly affect the amount of fertilizer needed to produce a growth response.

65 23/9/ Rekomendasi pemupukan UNSUR MIKRO berdasarkan Analisis Tanah

66 Uji Jaringan Tanaman untuk UNSUR MIKRO An alternative to soil testing is to sample plant tissue for UNSUR MIKRO, and compare the tissue concentrations to a sufficiency range for a particular crop. A sufficiency range for small grains of ppm Zn contained in the four uppermost leaves from the top of the plant. There is a few published fertilizer recommendations for a specific UNSUR MIKRO tissue test. Due to the variability within a plant, and the variability within a growing season, tissue testing is less accepted than soil sampling for determining fertilizer requirements, yet can represent a reasonable tool to identify deficiencies.

67 RESPON PERTUMBUHAN thd UNSUR MIKRO Boron Deficiencies of B in alfalfa have been identified in Western Montana. Conversely, studies conducted in the Western Triangle (Ledger, Montana) on alfalfa found no significant growth responses to B fertilization even on a soil with a soil test B of only 0.41 ppm (Jackson and Miller, 1998). A study of 33 sites in the three prairie provinces of Canada found no correlation between the relative yield of canola seed and hot water-extractable B (Goh and Karamonos, 2002). In addition, foliar, broadcast, and incorporation of B at four of these sites produced no significant yield increases, and a significant yield decrease at one of these sites that had only 0.5 ppm water-soluble B. The conclusion of the study was that responses to B fertilizer are likely rare on Canadian prairie soils.

68 RESPON PERTUMBUHAN thd UNSUR MIKRO Chloride A soil near Poplar, Montana that had an average of 0.64 ppm Cl in the upper 3 feet was fertilized with 0 and 40 lb/acre Cl (as KCl) and planted with durum wheat. The Cl fertilizer decreased spot severity from 87% to 6% in the flag leaf, and increased yield by 22% (Table 3). Previous work on winter wheat found that grain yield increased 16% when 20 lb Cl/acre was applied to a soil containing approximately 1.5 ppm Cl in the upper 2 feet (Engel et al., 1998). In both studies, K 2SO4 was applied as the check treatment to make certain that K was not causing the yield increase. Results from studies on both winter and spring wheat suggest a critical plant tissue Cl concentration between 1,000 and 4,000 ppm (Engel et al., 1998). It was determined that soil Cl plus fertilizer Cl should be between 8.5 and 36 lb/ac to reach these minimum and maximum critical concentrations. Chloride has also been found to prevent plant diseases such as root rot and spot blotch in small grains in North Dakota (Havlin et al., 1999).

69 RESPON PERTUMBUHAN thd UNSUR MIKRO Copper A study conducted at the Western Tiangle Agricultrual Research Center in Conrad, Montana, on a soil with 1.2 ppm extractable Cu, found no yield increases in 9 of 10 spring wheat and durum varieties (Jackson and Christiaens, 1995). Yield responses to Cu are not expected in most Montana soils based on a study that found that 100% of 301 producer soils in Montana tested adequate (>0.2 ppm) in DTPA Cu (Haby and Sims, 1979). Studies in Alberta have found Cu fertilization has resulted in wheat yield increases of up to three-fold in soils having extractable Cu concentrations <0.4 ppm (Goh and Karamanos, 2001).

70 RESPON PERTUMBUHAN thd UNSUR MIKRO BESI Iron deficiency is observed in the Great Plains, especially in corn and legumes grown on high pH, calcareous soils. Deficiencies are indicated by ‘interveinal chlorosis’, which means that the veins remain green, yet the leaves between the veins are yellow. A study on a pH 8.6 soil with 2.9 ppm DTPA Fe in Nebraska assessed the effect of Fe fertilizers on sweet corn yields for both chlorosis-tolerant and non-tolerant hybrids. The study found that the average yield of tolerant hybrids was approximately sixfold higher than the yield of non-tolerant hybrids from In addition, Fe fertilizer placed in seed rows (2 inches to the side and 2 inches below the seed) was able to overcome most of the difference between hybrids, although yield decreased at the highest Fe treatment (30 lb Fe/ac), likely due to a salt effect. Similar yields were obtained using either a liquid Fe suspension or dry granules.

71 RESPON PERTUMBUHAN thd UNSUR MIKRO ZINC Dry beans grown in the Lower Yellowstone Valley of Montana have been noted to have Zn deficiencies, especially when grown in soil with high available P concentrations. Foliar and soil applications of Zn were applied to an irrigated silty clay in the valley that had greater than 60 ppm soil test P and less than 1.2 ppm DTPA Zn. Average grain yield over a three year period was increased by approximately 300 lb/ac with a foliar application of 1 lb Zn/ac as ZnSO4, and by up to 700 lb/ac when soil was fertilized with ZnEDTA (a chelated form of Zn) at 5 lb Zn/ac. The yield response was highly probable on soils with > 25 ppm soil test P and < 1.5 ppm DTPA Zn. To overcome Zn deficiencies, they recommended using ZnSO4 (due to cost) either as a 0.5% solution at 20 to 30 gal/ac for a foliar application or 10 lb Zn/ac broadcast or incorporated before seeding. Based on the low mobility of Zn, banding and direct seed applications should be effective application methods.

72 RESPON PERTUMBUHAN thd UNSUR MIKRO ZINC A 5 lb Zn/ac starter fertilizer, placed 2 inches to the side and 2 inches below the seed, increased navy bean yield by approximately 12% near Powell, Wyoming (Blaylock, 1996). In addition, the damage percentages of harvested bean seed were 14.7% for the check treatment and 8.8% for the 5 lb Zn/ac treatment. Fertilizing a loamy sand in Colorado that had low available Zn (0.48 ppm) with 3 ppm Zn increased corn yield by approximately 4 – 30% depending on the form of Zn fertilizer (Westfall et al., 2001). The fertilizers with higher concentrations of water-soluble Zn (ZnSO4, ZnEDTA, and a combined ZnSO4-paper waste) resulted in significantly higher yields than the lowest water-soluble Zn fertilizer (Zn sucrate). Therefore, if fertilizing with Zn, make certain to compare price per percent water-soluble Zn.

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75 The effect of Fe fertilization on corn yield in a high pH, low Fe soil for both chlorosis-tolerant and non-tolerant hybrids (modified from Stevens et al., 2001).

76 Increase in yield due to Zn fertilization on a low Zn ( 60 ppm) soil in Montana (data from Halvorson and Bergman, 1983). ZnMNS is a zinc, manganese, nitrogen, and sulfur mix.

77 PUPUK MIKRO PUPUK MIKRO are generally supplied as either liquid foliar applications or dry product for application to the soil. Foliar applications are often more effective per pound of UNSUR MIKRO because a higher percentage of the applied nutrient is generally absorbed by the plant. Due to the cost of mixing and transporting liquids, however, foliar applications are more expensive per pound of UNSUR MIKRO. Therefore, the decision regarding whether to purchase foliar or dry product formulations will generally be driven by ease of application and economics.

78 PUPUK MIKRO yang ada Chelated forms of metal UNSUR MIKRO, such as ZnEDTA, are generally much more expensive than non-chelated forms, but are also much more effective per lb of Zn. In choosing a fertilizer, target those with medium-high solubilities, and compare cost per percentage of UNSUR MIKRO. Perhitungan dosis PUPUK MIKRO untuk menentukan jumlah UNSUR MIKRO fertilizer to apply is very similar to determining the amount of N fertilizer to apply. First, use historical data, your experience, or soil test data combined with research- based fertilizer guidelines to determine the pounds of UNSUR MIKRO to add per acre. In irrigated areas of Montana and Wyoming, irrigation water should be tested and the results considered before UNSUR MIKRO fertilizers are prescribed. This is particularly important for irrigated fields using re-used return flows. Second, choose a fertilizer based on availability and the criteria outlined above. Third, calculate the fertilizer requirement based on the percentage of UNSUR MIKRO.

79 23/9/ Contoh perhitungan

80 23/9/ Pupuk Sumber UNSUR MIKRO

81 UNSUR MIKRO are no less essential to plant growth than the macronutrients; they are simply needed in smaller amounts. The metal UNSUR MIKRO are held strongly by the soil, especially at pH levels above 7. The anion UNSUR MIKRO are held less strongly; with the exception of Mo. In areas where UNSUR MIKRO deficiencies occur, the ability to identify these deficiencies either visually, with soil testing, or with plant tissue testing is necessary to determine if UNSUR MIKRO fertilizers are needed. The most common UNSUR MIKRO deficiencies are believed to be boron, chloride, iron and zinc. UNSUR MIKRO deficiencies can usually be overcome with fertilizers, although additions of organic matter, such as manure, will often increase UNSUR MIKRO availability. Due to the poor mobility of most UNSUR MIKRO, placement near the seed, foliar applications, and using ‘chelated’ UNSUR MIKRO have proven most successful at producing growth responses.

82 REKOMENDASI PUPUK MIKRO untuk SAYURAN The elements zinc, manganese, copper, boron, iron, and Mo are required by vegetables in very small amounts, and are accordingly termed ‘UNSUR MIKRO’. A UNSUR MIKRO deficiency can be just as limiting and reduce yields just as much as a deficiency of any major nutrients. In addition, when present in the soil in excessive amounts, some UNSUR MIKRO (most commonly boron and manganese, but sometimes zinc and copper) can have adverse effects on vegetables. Subsequently, while a deficiency of a UNSUR MIKRO can reduce yields, overuse or incorrect UNSUR MIKRO application can be harmful to vegetable growth as well.

83 REKOMENDASI PUPUK MIKRO untuk SAYURAN Respon Tanaman Vegetables show a wide range of response to UNSUR MIKRO, and a UNSUR MIKRO deficiency is highly crop-specific. If the soil is low or deficient in a certain UNSUR MIKRO, response to application of that UNSUR MIKRO would likely occur if the crop has a high requirement for that UNSUR MIKRO; response would probably occur if the crop has a medium requirement; and response would likely not occur if the crop has a low requirement. For example, boron is the most widely deficient UNSUR MIKRO in vegetables. Under conditions of low boron supply in the soil, crops like beets, broccoli, and cauliflower, which have a high requirement for boron, would likely show a growth response to boron fertilization, while crops such as beans, cucumbers, and peas, which have relatively low requirements for boron would be unresponsive to added boron fertilizer.

84 REKOMENDASI PUPUK MIKRO untuk SAYURAN Deficiency Situations Pada umumnya defisiensi UNSUR MIKRO dipengaruhi oleh lima kondisi : (1) strongly weathered soils; 2) coarse textured soils (i.e. sands); 3) high soil pH; 4) highly organic soils (i.e. peats and mucks); 5) soils inherently low in organic matter or are low in organic matter because of processes that have removed the topsoil. UNSUR MIKRO fertilization should be used when verified deficiencies exists, or when certain crops have a high nutrient requirement, such as boron for beets. Because most UNSUR MIKRO soil tests have relatively low reliability (except soil B), UNSUR MIKRO plant analysis will probably provide a better estimator of UNSUR MIKRO need than soil tests.

85 REKOMENDASI PUPUK MIKRO untuk SAYURAN METODE APLIKASI Petani mempunyai beragam pilihan untuk melakukan pemupukan unsur mikro, termasuk metode aplikasi (broadcast, band, foliar) dan formulasi pupuk mikro (inorganic, chelate). Band application is generally more effective than broadcast application in calcareous soils by reducing fertilizer contact with soil particles. In general, foliar application will correct UNSUR MIKRO deficiency problems most rapidly. However, this effect may be short-lived, particularly for severe deficiencies, and additional applications may be necessary. To avoid plant injury with foliar application, care must be taken not to exceed recommendation rates. This precaution is especially true with chelates, where relatively low levels of UNSUR MIKRO are required when applied directly to foliage.

86 Kebutuhan Zn dari Tanaman

87 Kebutuhan Mn dari Tanaman

88 Kebutuhan B dari Tanaman

89 Kebutuhan Fe dari Tanaman

90 Kebutuhan Cu dari Tanaman

91 Kebutuhan Mo dari Tanaman

92 KHELATE UNSUR MIKRO UNSUR MIKRO diaplikasikan ke tanah hanya apabila terjadi gejala defisiensi. Uji tanah atau jaringan daun akan menentukan derajat defisiensi unsur. Dosis aplikasi pupuk mikro ke tanah adalah maksimum. Chelating agents such as EDTA (ethylene diamine tetraacetate) are large organic structures that form a complex with UNSUR MIKRO. This complex forms a larger chelated ion which reduces the ability of the UNSUR MIKRO to react with the soil, making the UNSUR MIKRO more available for plant uptake. The chelating agent keeps the UNSUR MIKRO in solution even when the soil pH is higher than desired for a specific crop. Plants are able to absorb chelates very easily and there is less chance of burning roots than if sulphates are used.

93 Khelate unsur mikro EDTA Ethylene diamine tetra-acetate or EDTA is the most economical of the commonly used chelating agents. It is used to chelate Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Mg and is very effective in the acid-neutral pH range DTPA Diethylene triamine pentaacetate or DTPA is a special chelating agent, generally used only with iron and effective over a larger pH range, particularly somewhat alkaline conditions This is important in hydroponic growing systems. EDDHA Ethylene diamine dihydroxyphenyl acetate or EDDHA is particularly good at chelating Iron over a very wide pH range, going as high as 8.5. Cut flower growers sometimes apply a portion of their iron requirement in the form of EDDHA.

94 Copper Chelate 14% Copper (Cu) 63.4% EDTA Chelating Agent Ketersediaan Cu sangat dipengaruhi oleh pH tanah, jumlah bahan organik dan adanya kation logam lainnya, seperti Fe dan Mg. Copper Chelate can be applied as a soil or foliar application to correct copper deficiency in ornamentals, turf, field crops and fruit trees growing in alkaline or acid soils.

95 Iron Chelate 7% Iron (Fe) 48.6% DTPA Chelating Agent Khelat besi ini menjadi sumber Fe bagi tanaman hortikultura dan tanaman pertanian, terutama pada kondisi tanah agak alkalin. It can be used for correcting a deficiency or as a constant feed, in hydroponics, substrate culture, soil or soilless media. Applikasinya dapat melalui daun atau media tumbuh.

96 Iron Chelate 13.2% Iron (Fe) 68% EDTA Chelating Agent Defisiensi Fe menjadi masalah serius pada kondisi tanah-tanah dengan pH tinggi. Iron Chelate can be used to correct iron deficiency in ornamentals, turf and fruit trees. This product contains 13.2% chelated iron and can be applied as a foliar spray or soil drench to crops such as chrysanthemums, gardenia, hydrangea, rose, azalea, holly, rhododendron, turf and fruit trees. Woody Plants: 0.5 kg/100 m2 as a drench 1 kg/1000 L as a spray (1 lb./1000 ft2 or 1 lb./100 gal. water) Herbaceous Plants: 0.5 kg/100 m2 as a drench 250 to 500 g/1000 L water as a spray (1 lb./1000 ft2 or 1/4-1/2 lb./100 gal. water)

97 Manganese Chelate 13% Manganese (Mn) 68.1% EDTA Chelating Agent Manganese deficiency results in reduced photosynthetic activity. Kondisi tanah dnegan pH tinggi, miskin BOT atau tanah-tanah berpasir akan mereduksi ketersediaan Mn. Manganese Chelate can be used to correct deficiencies in ornamentals, turf, field crops and fruit trees.

98 Zinc Chelate 14% Zinc (Zn) 61.7% EDTA Chelating Agent Zn mempunyai peranan sangat penting dalam pemanfaatan unsur hara lainnya. Defisienai umumnya terjadi pada tanah-tanah berpasir, tanah-tanah miskin bahan organik dan tanah-tanah yang telah dipupuk fosfat dosis tinggi. Depending on the crop, zinc deficiencies can be corrected by soil or foliar applications.

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100 23/9/ UNSUR MIKRO dalam PRODUKSI KENTANG

101 UNSUR MIKRO yang dibutuhkan tanaman kentanh : Boron (B), Chlorine (Cl), Cobalt (Co), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Mo (Mo), Selenium (Se), Sodium (Na), dan Seng (Zn). The availability of these nutrients in the soil depends on the soil and the environment. For example, Zn is a relatively immobile nutrient that is concentrated in the soil organic matter near the soil surface. Cool, wet weather reduces the availability of Zn, possibly resulting in a deficiency. Ketersediaan UNSUR MIKRO umumnya menurun kalau pH tanah meningkat. Availability of B, Cu and Zn declines rapidly as soil pH rises above 7. Therefore, deficiencies can occur in soils with high pH. Also, sandy soils are more likely to show UNSUR MIKRO deficiencies than clay soils.

102 Gejala Defisiensi Boron, zinc dan copper Tanaman Kentang

103 Pengelolaan kesuburan tanah untuk tanaman kentang mensuplai unsur hara yang dibutuhkan tanaman. Defisiensi UNSUR MIKRO pada tanaman kentang telah banyak dilaporkan dan dikaji di berbagai daerah. Research have been conducted to evaluate the response of potato to added UNSUR MIKRO under any local conditions. Small plot studies were carried out at CSIDC to examine the effects of soil and foliar applied B, Cu, and Zn on the productivity and quality of seed and consumption (table or processing) grade potatoes.

104 Tanaman kentang untuk produksi bibit merrespon aplikasi UNSUR MIKRO secara berbeda dengan tanaman kentang untuk konsumsi, karena ia dipanen lebih awal dan ukuran umbinya lebih kecil dibandingkan umbi untuk konsumsi. Trials were conducted on an irrigated sandy loam soil with no previous history of UNSUR MIKRO use. The concentrations of UNSUR MIKRO used in these studies were based upon commercial recommendations. Soil applications included, 1.6 kg B/ha (1.44 lb/ac) in the form of granular Borate, 10 kg Cu/ha (9 lb/ac) in the form of Copper chelate, and 10 kg Zn/ha (9 lb/ac) in the form of Zinc sulphate broadcast on to the seedbed prior to planting. The foliar treatments included 0.3 kg B/ha (0.27 lb/ac), 0.5 kg Cu/ha (0.45 lb/ac), and 0.5 kg Zn/ha (0.45 lb/ac) applied as a foliar spray at the time of early tuber bulking. The sources of the foliar UNSUR MIKRO applications included commercial formulations of liquid Boron, Copper chelate, and Zinc EDTA.

105 Pengaruh pH Tanah terhadap Ketersediaan B, Cu dan Zn.

106 HASIL APLIKASI PUPUK MIKRO LEWAT DAUN Neither soil-applied nor foliar-applied B, Cu or Zn affected seed or consumption grade yields, specific gravity, or fry colour of processing cultivars. The lack of any significant yield or quality responses to UNSUR MIKRO supplements is likely due to the presence of adequate levels of UNSUR MIKRO in the soil. For example, soil testing to 30 cm (12 in) in the spring of 1997 showed that the soil contained 4.4 kg B/ha (4.0 lb/ac), 3.4 kg Cu/ha (3.1 lb/ac), and 2.4 kg Zn/ha (2.2 lb/ac). Recommended soil levels for potato production are 1.1 kg B/ha (1.0 lb/ac), 0.4 kg Cu/ha (0.4 lb/ac), and 1.1 kg Zn/ha (1.0 lb/ac).

107 Pengelolaan hara-pupuk menjadi bagian kritis dalam suatu ushataani kentang yang berhasil. The use of UNSUR MIKRO supplements should be based on soil tests, tissue tests and close visual examination of the potato crop for deficiency symptoms. Growers should carefully follow recommendations for UNSUR MIKRO to avoid unnecessary costs and possible toxic effects or deleterious interactions with other nutrients. Selection of an effective application method depends on the UNSUR MIKRO needed, local soil conditions, and the stage in the growing season at which a deficiency is detected.

108 Diagnosa Defisiensi Hara Gejala Defisiensi yang Umum A first step in diagnosing nutrient deficiencies is to describe what the symptoms look like. Each deficiency symptom must be related to some function of the nutrient in the plant. Symptoms of nutrient deficiencies are generally grouped into five categories: 1)Pertumbuhan kerdil; 2)khlorosis; 3)interveinal chlorosis; 4) warna merah-keunguan 5) nekrosis. Stunting is a common symptom for many deficient nutrients due to their varied roles in the plant.

109 23/9/ Unsur hara tidak mobil

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