Despite being allies during WWII, the United States was still fearful of world-wide communism and a communist revolution at home.
Despite being allies during WWII, the Soviet Union was still fearful that the United States and other non-Communist countries would try and destroy them. The Soviet Union was also fearful of being attacked by Germany again.
Tensions begin to rise: Two weeks after Yalta, Soviets pressure Romania into creating a Communist government, violating the Declaration of Liberated Europe. April 1945 – Soviets create strong Communist government in Poland, free elections never happen.
Because the Soviet troops had liberated Eastern Europe from Nazi control, they remained there and imposed their form of government on those countries. Those countries became known as Satellite Nations
Competing Goals and Concerns. Soviets concerned about security. Germany must remain weak, and border countries under Soviet control. Belief in communist system. Feared capitalist countries trying to destroy communism Fear of spread of Communism and overthrow of government. America has strong economic concerns. WWII caused by Depression. Trade reductions caused Depression. Economic growth and trade was key to peace. Democratic governments made countries more peaceful and stable.
Section 2 Essential Question: How did President Truman attempt to deter Communism?
April 12, 1945 – Roosevelt dies. New President is Harry S. Truman Truman is a strong anti- communist. Believes appeasement by British led to WWII, does not want to make same mistake. “We must stand up to the Russians.”
To stop the spread of Communism our chief foreign policy goal was containment. This would require a long term commitment.
The Truman Doctrine: …to aid “free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.” This was a pledge to fight the spread of Communism.
Secretary of State George C. Marshall proposed the European Recovery Program, or the Marshall Plan. 13 billion dollars in aid was provided to the countries of Western Europe to help them rebuild their economies.
Spring of 1948, France, Great Britain and the U.S. merge their zones into one, officially creating the Federal Republic of Germany and unofficially creating West Germany. They also combine their zones in Berlin, making West Berlin a part of the new German Republic. The Soviets responded by creating the German Democratic Republic, also known as East Germany.
June 1948, the Soviets, angered by not having received reparations from West Germany, cut off all road and rail traffic to West Berlin. They wanted West Germany to pay reparations, or for the U.S. to abandon West Berlin, the United States did neither. June of 1948 until May 12, 1949 the United States flew 2 million tons of food, medicine, coal, and other supplies into West Berlin. This became known as the Berlin Airlift.
NATO – The North Atlantic Treaty Organization is created in 1949. This was a military alliance between the U.S., Canada, Great Britain, France, Italy, Belgium, Denmark, Portugal, the Netherlands, Norway, Luxemburg, and Iceland.
The Chinese Revolution- 1949 Communist led by Mao Zedong Nationalist led by Chiang Kai-shek Fighting since 1920’s but worked together against Japanese. When WWII ended civil war continued.
The U.S. gave 2 billion dollars in aid to the Nationalist government to prevent a Communist takeover but it didn’t work. The Nationalist government fled to the island of Formosa (Taiwan) and in October of 1949, the Communist created the Peoples Republic of China
The U.S. continued to recognize the Nationalist government in Taiwan and would not allow the Communist government of China to join the United Nations.
In September of 1949 the Soviet Union announced it had successfully tested an atomic bomb. It achieved this from information gained by its spies in the United States.
1950 – The Communist governments in China and the Soviet Union sign a treaty of friendship and alliance, creating fear in the U.S.
With the Communist takeover in China, the U.S. put great emphasis in getting Japan’s economy up and running again.
The Korean War June 1950 – July 1953 over 36,000 U.S. soldiers killed many more Koreans and Chinese are killed.
The U.S. and the U.S.S.R. entered Korea at the end of WWII. Korea was divided along the 38 th parallel. The Soviets created a Communist government in the North and the U.S. created a Democratic government in the South. Reunification talks broke down.
On June 25, 1950, with help from Soviet military aid, North Korean forces invade South Korea. President Truman sees this as a test of the containment policy and sends the military into action. American troops stationed in Japan are sent to Korea. Truman also called on the United Nations to act against the aggression.
After surviving near defeat, U.S. and South Korean forces, Under the leadership of General Douglas MacArthur, push the North Korean forces back across the 38 th parallel and close to the Chinese border.
China feared the approaching U.S. and U.N. troops and warned them to halt their advance. The U.S. continued to pursue to North Koreans close to the Chinese and the Chinese responded by sending hundreds of thousands of troops across the border.
The Chinese pushed the U.N., U.S. and S.K. forces back across the 38 th parallel. By the fall of 1951, a stalemate developed near the 38 th parallel with neither side gaining much ground. The war would last another 2 years though.
When the Chinese attacked, General MacArthur urged the president to attack Chinese cities with atomic weapons. Truman was committed to a limited war and did no want to expand the conflict into China. Truman eventually fired MacArthur for publicly criticizing him.
The Korean War expanded the Cold War into Asia, it demonstrated our commitment to use force to stop the spread of Communism, it triggered a military buildup in the U.S., and it led to our giving aid to the French who were fighting Communists in Vietnam.
A New Red Scare – * Igor Gouzenko defects * fear of Communist subversion * loyalty review program for federal employees. (loyalty was questioned because of books read, films watched, group affiliation, travel overseas, etc.)
House Un- American Activities Committee (HUAC) Used by the FBI to investigate Communists and Communist sympathizers.
Hollywood was targeted because of its powerful influence over American culture. Many actors, writers, directors and producers were investigated and many had their careers ruined because of mere speculation. (Blacklisted)
Alger Hiss and the Rosenbergs Hiss was a minor spy. Julius Rosenberg was a major spy. Doubt remains about Ethel Rosenberg. Julius and Ethel were executed in 1953.
McCarthyism – (to make vague and unfounded charges against someone with the result of casting doubt on them and damaging their reputation)
Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin used this tactic to get elected to the U.S. Senate. He made a name for himself by making unsubstantiated accusations of Communist ties against government officials.
McCarthy used his position in the Senate to investigate and accuse innocent Americans, ruining many reputations and careers.
In 1954, when McCarthy went looking for spies in the U.S. Army, the American people had finally had enough. McCarthy was censured by the Senate, disgraced and humiliated. He died in 1957.
Fallout Shelters, Movies, Television and Music The Five Stars – Atom Bomb Baby
R.A.F.T. Role: (Sen. Joe McCarthy, a Hollywood director, a news reporter, a student learning to “duck and cover”, etc.) Audience: (depends on your role) Format: (your choice, ex: news report, diary entry, letter to the editor, letter to Congress, letter to your parents, etc.) Topic: the Red Scare in the United States.