Presentation on theme: "Access to citizenship & its impact on immigrant integration (ACIT) Social and Living Integration: CITINT Kristen Jeffers & Derek Hutcheson Co-financed."— Presentation transcript:
Access to citizenship & its impact on immigrant integration (ACIT) Social and Living Integration: CITINT Kristen Jeffers & Derek Hutcheson Co-financed by the European Fund for the Integration of Third- Country Nationals
Previous Research USA: Contradictory results - Hispanics have lower housing costs than Whites (Krivo, 1995; Boehm and Schlottmann, 2008), but other groups have higher costs (Elmelech 2004, Schill et al 2004). Immigrants spend a higher % of income on housing in USA (McConnell and Akresh, 2009): – Lower human capital – Lower incomes – Urban concentration – Region of origin differences Constraints of market – early ownership low (Nygaard 2011) + dual labour markets (Dustman et al., 2010) Source: EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (SILC), 2008/2010
Average Share of Monthly Income Spent on Housing Costs (%) Natives Naturalized Immigrants Non-citizen Immigrants EU-1519.523.128.5 EU-1218.119.622.6 EU-2718.821.726.1
Average Monthly Housing Expense First-generation v. Natives, 2010 (% difference) First- generationNaturalizedNon-citizen EU-15 18.104.22.168 EU-12 9.9-1.218.5 EU-27 12.15.317.0
Average Housing Expense & Length of Residence Natives v. Foreign-born (2010, % difference) Citizenship 'Premium’ (2010, % difference) Residence < 10 years Residence >10 years Residence < 10 years Residence >10 years EU-1513.822.214.171.124 EU-125.34.819.118.3 EU-2710.610.411.111.0
Conclusions Generally, differences between natives, naturalised citizens and non-citizens are as expected from previous research. Higher housing cost burden due to lower wages AND higher costs. Foreign-born paying more for comparable housing and sub-standard quality. Citizenship ‘premium’?