Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15 Islam and Judaism in the Middle Ages. Questions to be addressed in this chapter 1.What is Islam? 2.In what ways did Islamic philosophy influence."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 15 Islam and Judaism in the Middle Ages
Questions to be addressed in this chapter 1.What is Islam? 2.In what ways did Islamic philosophy influence Christian thought in the Middle Ages? 3.What were some of the central tenets of Jewish thought in the Middle Ages, and how did they influence Christian ideas about God’s nature and existence? 4.What were some of the major issues involved in Christian encounters with these other faiths?
What is Islam? Muhammad Ibn Abdullah born in Mecca c. 570. In 610 Muhammad withdraws to cave and receives revelations, which continue until his death in 632. In 630 Muhammad unites warring tribes and returns to conquer Mecca.
The Five Pillars of Islam (p. 255) 1.Bearing of witness. This is where a Muslim publicly and with all sincerity declares that “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.” 2.Prayer. An activity which is to be performed by Muslims five times daily. 3.Giving of Alms. Muslims believe that everything belongs to God, and so they should provide out of their surplus for those in need. 4.Fasting. For the month of Ramadan, Muslims are to abstain from food and drink from the first light of dawn to sunset. 5.The Pilgrimage. If possible, all Muslims must make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their lifetime.
Avicenna and Averroës By 700 CE the Muslim Empire could boast cultural and intellectual sophistication beyond that of Western Christianity. Avicenna (Ibn-Sina 980-1037) was influenced by Aristotle and Plotinus, and he developed important metaphysical concepts that influenced Christian thought in the Middle Ages. Averroës (Ibn Rushd 1126-1198) advocated the theory of double truth, by which faith and reason are seen as different levels of meaning and not in conflict.
Jewish influences Maimonides (Moses ben Maimon 1135-1204) was a rationalist who sought to integrate Jewish faith with classical Greek thought. Jewish mysticism was a reaction to rationalists and culminated in the Kabbalah. It offers commentary and mystical interpretations of the Torah.
Christian encounters with Islam and Judaism Muslims and Jews charged Christians with heresy in the Middle Ages because of their doctrine of the Trinity. The city of Jerusalem was occupied by Muslims, and so theological debate was fueled by militaristic conflict.
Summary of main points 1.Islam is a monotheistic religion, founded by Muhammad in the sixth century, which is based on the Qur’an and which emphasizes the Five Pillars. 2.Two of the greatest Islamic thinkers of the Middle Ages, Averroës and Avicenna, developed philosophical methods of integrating religion and philosophy. 3.There were two great strands of Jewish thought in the Middle Ages which had some influence on later Christian theology and practice: a rationalism based on Greek philosophy and promulgated by Moses Maimonides, and an esoteric mysticism rooted in various texts of the Kabbalah. 4.In the Middle Ages Christians were confronted with radically different religious beliefs, and these encounters—both intellectual and political—required new apologists to defend the orthodox faith against new heresies and non-Christian religion.