Presentation on theme: "بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم فقه الخلاف The Etiquettes of Differing."— Presentation transcript:
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم فقه الخلاف The Etiquettes of Differing
Chapter 1: Destined to Differ Chapter 2: Differences of Variety Chapter 3: Differences of Opposites Chapter 4: Coming Full Circle
Chapter 1: Destined to Differ وَمَا كَانَ النَّاسُ إِلَّا أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً فَاخْتَلَفُوا ۚ وَلَوْلَا كَلِمَةٌ سَبَقَتْ مِن رَّبِّكَ لَقُضِيَ بَيْنَهُمْ فِيمَا فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ And mankind was not but one community [united in religion], [but] then they differed. And if not for a word that preceded from your Lord, it would have been judged between them [immediately] concerning that over which they differ. [Soorat Yoonus, verse 19]
Chapter 1: Destined to Differ وَلَوْ شَاءَ رَبُّكَ لَجَعَلَ النَّاسَ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً ۖ وَلَا يَزَالُونَ مُخْتَلِفِينَ ۞ إِلَّا مَن رَّحِمَ رَبُّكَ ۚ وَلِذَٰلِكَ خَلَقَهُمْ… And if your Lord had willed, He could have made mankind one community; but they will not cease to differ. Except whom your Lord has given mercy, and for that He created them. [Soorat Hood, verse 118-119]
Chapter 1: Destined to Differ The prophet said: Verily, the Jews have divided into 71 sects, and the Christians have divided into 72 sects, and this Ummah will divide into 73 sects. They are all in the Fire except one; the Jamaaah. [Abu Dawud (4596), at-Tirmidhi (2640), Ibn Majah (3991), Ahmad, & Abu Yala] In the narration of al-Haakim (1/128): What I am upon and my companions. The prophet said: Indeed, whoever lives of you (after me) will see much differing, so adhere to my Sunnah, and the Sunnah of the rightly guided caliphs after me. Bite onto it with your molar teeth, and beware of the newly invented matters, for every innovated matter is a misguidance. [Authenticated by at-Tirmidhi]
Chapter 1: Destined to Differ Are We to Surrender to Fate? We flee from what Allah destined to what Allah destined! We were commanded to follow the shareeah & believe in fate. It could even reach disbelief to abandon shareeah & blame fate. Fate is hidden from us, and being destined to differ does not necessitate all places and times. We were commanded to strive towards unity: وَاعْتَصِمُوا بِحَبْلِ اللَّـهِ جَمِيعًا وَلَا تَفَرَّقُوا And hold firmly to the rope of Allah altogether and do not become divided. [Soorat Aali Imraan: verse 103] وَلَا تَكُونُوا كَالَّذِينَ تَفَرَّقُوا وَاخْتَلَفُوا مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ And do not become like the ones who became divided and differed after the clear proofs came to them. [verse 105]
Chapter 2: Differences of Variety فَكَفَّارَتُهُ إِطْعَامُ عَشَرَةِ مَسَاكِينَ مِنْ أَوْسَطِ مَا تُطْعِمُونَ أَهْلِيكُمْ أَوْ كِسْوَتُهُمْ أَوْ تَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ ۖ فَمَن لَّمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ ثَلَاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ So its expiation is the feeding of ten needy people from the average of that which you feed your (own) families or clothing them or the freeing of a slave. But whoever cannot find (or afford) it, then fasting 3 days is (required). [Soorat al-Maaidah, verse 89] The prophet said: He who spends a pair in the way of Allah will be called from the gates of Jannah: O slave of Allah! This is better [for you]. – If he was of the people of Salaah, he will be called from the Gate of Salaah, and if he was from the people of Jihad, he will be called from the Gate of Jihad, and if he was of the people of Sadaqah, he will be called from the Gate of Sadaqah, and if he was from the people of Sawm, he will be called from the Gate of ar-Rayyaan. Abu Bakr (radyAllaahu anhu) said: O messenger of Allah, it will suffice anyone to be called from any of these gates, but will anyone be invited to all of these gates? He replied: Yes, and I hope that you will be one of them. [Agreed Upon]
Chapter 2: Differences of Variety Definition: Differences wherein no view contradicts the others. Wisdom Behind This: 1 - Displaying Allahs mercy, for peoples strengths and zeal vary. 2 – A glue for this Ummah, for we complete one another. Pitfalls Related to This: 1 – Being preoccupied with a task or duty at the expense of other obligations. 2 – Belittling or mocking the other acts/sciences. 3 – Basing loyalty on names of personalities/movements.
Chapter 3: Differences of Opposites Definition: Differences wherein every view opposes the other and deems it incorrect or invalid. A] Between Religions & Creeds Uncontested between the Muslims. Validity of ones Islam is contingent upon it. Ibn Qudaamah (rahimahullaah) says: As for what al-Jaahidh mentions, this is absolutely false, and disbelief in Allah, the Most High, and a responding back to Him and His messenger, for we know without doubt that the prophet commanded the Jews and Christians with embracing Islam and following him, and dispraised them for their persistence… and we know that those who know yet are stubborn are few, and most simply imitate the religion of their forefathers, and dont know of the miracle of the messenger and his truthfulness. And the explicit verses in the Quran regarding this are plenty... [Rawdat an-Naadhir, p. 194-195]
Chapter 3: Differences of Opposites ذَٰلِكَ ظَنُّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا ۚ فَوَيْلٌ لِّلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنَ النَّارِ That is the assumption of those who disbelieve, so woe to those who disbelieve from the Fire. [Soorat Saad, verse 27] إِنْ هُمْ إِلَّا يَظُنُّونَ They are only assuming. [Soorat al-Jaathiyah, verse 24] الَّذِينَ ضَلَّ سَعْيُهُمْ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَهُمْ يَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُمْ يُحْسِنُونَ صُنْعًا ۞ أُولَـٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا بِآيَاتِ رَبِّهِمْ وَلِقَائِهِ Those whose effort is lost in the worldly life, while they think they are doing well in work. Those are the ones who disbelieve in the verses of their Lord and in meeting Him. [Soorat al-Kahf, verses 104-105]
Chapter 3: Differences of Opposites B] Between the Muslims Exists; the truth is only 1 from amidst the scholarly views. This applies equally to belief/aqeedah and practice/fiqh. Established by the Quran, Sunnah, Ijmaa of Sahaabah, and all the great Imams. وَدَاوُودَ وَسُلَيْمَانَ إِذْ يَحْكُمَانِ فِي الْحَرْثِ إِذْ نَفَشَتْ فِيهِ غَنَمُ الْقَوْمِ وَكُنَّا لِحُكْمِهِمْ شَاهِدِينَ ۞ فَفَهَّمْنَاهَا سُلَيْمَانَ ۚ وَكُلًّا آتَيْنَا حُكْمًا وَعِلْمًا And [mention] David and Solomon, when they judged concerning the field when the sheep of a people overran it [at night], and We were witness to their judgment. And We gave understanding of the case to Solomon, and to each [of them] We gave judgment and knowledge. [Soorat al-Anbiyaa, verses 78-79] The prophet said: If the judge performs Ijtihaad (i.e. exerts his capacity) and is correct, then for him is two rewards, and if he is mistaken, then for him is a reward. [Agreed Upon]
Chapter 3: Differences of Opposites اختلاف التضاد Differences of Opposites اختلاف غير سائغ Illegitimate/intolerable Differences اختلاف سائغ Legitimate/Tolerable Differences
Chapter 3: Differences of Opposites 1] Legitimate/Tolerable Differences Definition: Differences that dont oppose a decisive text from the Quran or Sunnah, or a previously established consensus, or a clear analogy. This applies equally to belief/aqeedah and practice/fiqh. Causes: 1 – The shareeah didnt appoint decisive evidences for every matter. [Why?] 2 – Understandings vary and perceptions differ, whereby someone can realize something and not another. […Sulayman] 3 – Capacities to travel, investigate, or research vary as well, and each is obligated with his/her own capacity. 4 – Methods of learning vary in different places, and Allah disposed the slaves upon leaning to what theyve learned first.
Chapter 3: Differences of Opposites 1] Legitimate/Tolerable Differences Examples in Belief/Aqeedah: The prophet seeing his Lord. The tafseer of certain verses in the Quran. The infallibility of the messengers. The prophethood of al-Khadir, or Maryam. The disbelievers/hypocrites seeing Allah in the Hereafter. Leaving Islam via the abandonment of 1 of its pillars. Examples in Practice/Fiqh: Rinsing Mouth/Nose Hands on chest/side after Rukoo Reciting al-Fatihah behind Imam Hands/Knees first in Sujood? Jilsat al-Istiraahah Must a woman cover her face? Local/Intil Moon-Sighting Including Photos in Prohibition Nafl during Makrooh times Meat sold by Jews/Christians
Chapter 3: Differences of Opposites 1] Legitimate/Tolerable Differences Absolutely Necessary to Understand: A matter containing legitimate differences of opinion does not imply the permissibility of each person choosing what suits them of those views. Rather, the scholars unanimously agree on this being Fisq. Each is obligated to exert their capacity: - A Mujtahid is obligated to deduce for himself and adopt that result, even if greater scholars have said otherwise. [Ijma] - A Muqallid is obligated to seek out the most knowledgeable and trustworthy of those accessible to him, and abide by what they determine to be the strongest view. [Ijma] [Alluding vs. Enforcing] Analyzing: Ikhtilaaf being a mercy. Opposing the Sunnah using scholarly views is not part of legitimate differences of opinion.
Chapter 3: Differences of Opposites 2] Illegitimate/Intolerable Differences Definition: Differences that oppose a decisive text from the Quran or Sunnah, or a previously established consensus, or a clear analogy. This applies equally to belief/aqeedah and practice/fiqh. وَاعْتَصِمُوا بِحَبْلِ اللَّـهِ جَمِيعًا وَلَا تَفَرَّقُوا And hold firmly the rope of Allah altogether and do not become divided. وَلَا تَكُونُوا كَالَّذِينَ تَفَرَّقُوا وَاخْتَلَفُوا مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ And do not become like the ones who became divided and differed after the clear proofs came to them. [Soorat Aali Imraan, verse 103-105] إِنَّ الَّذِينَ فَرَّقُوا دِينَهُمْ وَكَانُوا شِيَعًا لَّسْتَ مِنْهُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ Indeed, those who have divided their religion and become sects - you [Oh Muhammad] are not [associated] with them in anything. [Soorat al-Anaam, verse 159]
Chapter 3: Differences of Opposites 2] Illegitimate/Intolerable Differences Causes: 1 – Oppression & Competing for Worldly Leadership وَمَا اخْتَلَفَ فِيهِ إِلَّا الَّذِينَ أُوتُوهُ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَتْهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ بَغْيًا بَيْنَهُمْ And none differed over the Scripture except those who were given it - after the clear proofs came to them - out of jealous animosity among themselves. [Soorat al-Baqarah: 213] 2 – Absence of Knowledge -> Rise of Innovations Indeed, Allah does not take back knowledge after giving it to you by snatching it from the slaves, but takes it back by taking the scholars. Once He has taken the scholars, the people take up ignorant leaders, who are asked, and pass verdicts without knowledge, so they are misguided and misguide [others]. [Agreed Upon] Indeed, whoever lives of you (after me) will see much differing, so adhere to my Sunnah, and the Sunnah of the rightly guided caliphs after me. Bite onto it with your molar teeth, and beware of the newly invented matters, for every innovated matter is a misguidance. [Authenticated by at-Tirmidhi]
Chapter 3: Differences of Opposites 2] Illegitimate/Intolerable Differences Causes: 3 – Blind Loyalty to Names/Personalities. You make the call of Jaahiliyyah while Im still between you?! Leave it; for it is rotten! [Saheeh Muslim] وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتُ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَاءُ بَعْضٍ ۚ يَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَيُطِيعُونَ اللَّـهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۚ أُولَـٰئِكَ سَيَرْحَمُهُمُ اللَّـهُ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ The believing men and believing women are allies of one another. They enjoin what the right, forbid the wrong, establish prayer, give Zakah, and obey Allah and His Messenger. Those - Allah will have mercy upon them. Indeed, Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise. [at-Tawbah, verse 71] وَتَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَالتَّقْوَىٰ ۖ وَلَا تَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ And cooperate in righteousness and piety, but do not cooperate in sin and transgression. [Soorat al-Maaidah, verse 2]
Chapter 3: Differences of Opposites 2] Illegitimate/Intolerable Differences Examples that entail Kufr: Atheists/Pantheists Extreme Qadriyyah/Jabriyyah Extreme Raafidah Those Dismissive of Shareeah Universalists Examples that entail Kufr/Bidah: Mutazilah Khawaarij Raafidah Qadriyyah Sufis Examples that entail Bidah: Ashairah Matureediyyah Murjiah Mufaddilah Shiites Examples in Practice/Fiqh: Mutah Marriage Marriage w/o a Wali Drawing Animates Ringed Gold for Women Disregarding Pros/Cons in Denouncing Evil Shaving the Beard Coming to a standstill in Rukoo/Sujood Obligation to Fast the Day of Doubt Congratulating on Kafir Festivals Disliked to Fast 6 of Shawal
Chapter 3: Differences of Opposites 2] Illegitimate/Intolerable Differences Our Scholars that Held False Views Mistakes resultant from Ijtihaad never result in defamation – when they come from those known for their virtue. Scholars of Sunnah & Defenders of Deviance can never equate. adh-Dhahabi: When water reaches 2 Qullas, it remains pure. This doesnt necessitate our approval/silence about their error. Remember: The gauge is opposing the clear text or consensus! No one, past or present, can say: How invalid when so and so… At the same time, we allow no one to violate their sanctity. Necessary Counterparts For Application ** The permissibility to denounce. ** How does one classify a difference as legitimate/illegitimate?
Coming Full Circle The Differences 1.Variety – Impermissible to denounce or strive towards removing, should be appreciated & invested while avoiding certain pitfalls. 2.Opposing – Legitimate/Tolerable – Obligatory to tolerate what our righteous predecessors tolerated, while understanding its definition and verifying each matter is of this category, via the principles of Ahl as-Sunnah. Illegitimate/Intolerable - Obligatory to treat by denouncing innovations and false views, uniting upon the methodology of Ahl as-Sunnah, which necessitates having detailed understanding of this manhaj in matters of creed, action, dawah, and method of change.
Coming Full Circle Consensus (Non-Negotiable) 1.A Muqallid does not possess knowledge, and knowledge is knowing the truth with its evidence. [Ibn Abd al-Barr] 2.Whoever the Sunnah of the messenger of Allah becomes clear to, it becomes impermissible for him to leave it for the view of anyone, irrespective of who they are. [Narrated by al-Bayhaqi via Imam ash-Shafii] 3.Fatwa Shopping, or touring between the scholars for a convenient view, deems a person Faasiq. [Ibn Abd al-Barr in al-Jami] 4.The Salaf disagreeing on a set number of views, and not accusing one another of Kufr/Fisq/Bidah, indicates their consensus on the permissibility of differing in this matter, and that it isnt a decisive issue. [Ibn Taymiyyah, al-Ghazali] 5.The Salaf disagreeing on a set number of views necessitates the impossibility of correctness being found contradictory to them all. 6.Impermissible for a Mujtahid to imitate a superior Mujtahid that views other than what his Ijtihaad lead him to. [Ibn Hazm in al-Ihkaam]