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Salah al-Din Yusuf Ibn Ayyub (Saladin)

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1 Salah al-Din Yusuf Ibn Ayyub (Saladin)
C.E Robbie Crandell

2 Basic Facts about Saladin:
He was and orthodox Sunni Muslim He was born in Mesopotamia, specifically in Kurdistan Saladin is a bastardized version of his original Muslim name. (Which is Salah al-Din Yusuf Ibn Ayyub)

3 Timeline of Saladin's Life
King Richard the Lionheart gains control of Tyre (1191 C.E) Saladin conquers Aleppo (1186 C.E) Saladin dies on March 4, 1193 C.E In Damascus Saladin conquers Fatimid rulers of Egypt (1171 C.E) Saladin is born, spends life in Balbek and Damascus (1137 C.E) Saladin conquers Damascus (1174 C.E) The crusaders do battle against Saladin for two years but fail to capture Jerusalem ( C.E)

4 The Birth of Saladin Saladin was the son in a very well-off Kurdish family. This was the Dark Ages in middle Europe, with the Turkish Empire to the northeast of him and the rising Germanic kingdoms to the northwest, across the Mediterranean Sea. The later Crusades were just about to happen.

5 The Vizier of Egypt Saladin's military career started when he was enlisted to aid his uncle, who was a prominent commander under Nur al-Din, the leader of Damascus and Aleppo. There was a three way struggle in order to occupy Cairo because of its wealth and strategic location within Egypt. It involved Shawar, the current vizier of the Egyptian caliph, the Christian king Amalric I of Jerusalem, and Shirkuh, Saladins uncle. Saladin, not trusting Shawar, lured him into an ambush and killed him. This allowed his uncle to become the vizier; however his uncle had a sudden death, allowing Saladin to become vizier to the last Fatimid caliph.

6 A Sunni Ruler It only took Saladin a few more years to become sole ruler of Egypt. After the death of the Fatimid caliph, he essentially held all power in Egypt. He still took orders from Nur al-Din. Nur al-Din soon died however, and Saladin asserted his way to the Turkish throne. He conquered Damascus and other Syrian towns, while Egypt continued to be his main base of operations. Saladin was a very orthodox Sunni, and he believed the Fatimid caliph had failed his duties, and had begun to establish Egypt as a center for orthodox belief.

7 Saladin the Knight Saladin has been much romanticized in history. Some descriptions of him tell of strong, bloodthirsty man with a wily beard. But historical accounts have told us that he was interested greatly in theology, and been described as a short man with a neat bear and an almost frail body. But no matter his appearance, what made him appealing to the European people was that he strongly enforced chivalry. Despite fierce opposition from the Christians, he achieved a great reputation as chivalrous knight. His relationship with King Richard the Lionheart was mutual, along with being militaristic rivals.

8 The Rise of Cairo Saladin was an innovative and contemporary leader. He brought an entirely different concept of what a city should be to Cairo. This city had a great deal of cultural freedom and very few royal or private enclaves. He wanted a city that belonged to the people, while he remained absolute ruler. Between the years of 1176 and 1177 he began to build one of Cairo’s most famous monuments: The Citadel. (Pictured to the right)

9 The Riches of the Fatimid's
Saladin had transformed Cairo, and eliminated the Fatimid influence. He had sold many of it’s treasures, including a 2400 karat ruby. He used this money to pay his Turkish troops. But even then, he was still incredibly wealthy. He replaced the Fatimid's extravagant bureaucracy with a feudal system. All this wealth allowed him to win countless battles in Palestine. At the Battle of Hattin he captured Jerusalem; but more importantly he had struck an annihilating blow to the Crusader kingdoms. He marched thousands of Christian prisoners 400 miles back to Cairo, where they were forced to work improving the cities fortifications and construction of the Citadel.

10 The Truce of Saladin And Richard
After the Battle of Hattin King Richard I (King Richard the Lionheart) he was determined to take back Jerusalem. He fought the Battle of Arsur and won against the Muslims, but his army was weakened and suffering. Soon Richard appealed to Saladin, asking him for fresh fruit and water. Saladin complied, because as a Muslim he was required to help those in need and as well it allowed his messengers to spy on Richards army. Richards army could not possibly take Jerusalem, so they formulated a truce. The truce entailed that Christians were permitted to visit Jerusalem with no tax or tribute, and that they have free access to holy places and remain in possession of the coast from Jaffa to Tyre.

11 Saladin’s Final Days Saladin left Cairo in He left to fight the crusaders in Syria, but he would never return to his pride and joy. He died in Damascus in He did not die in vain however, he had liberated almost all of Palestine, eradicating the armies of England, France, Burgandy, Flanders, Sicily, Austria and essentially toppled to power of the papacy. Saladin achieved absolutely incredible fame and fortune, while altering entire cultures.

12 The Citadel in Cairo The Citadel in Cairo, a fortress constructed by Saladin, can still be seen today. The Bir Yusuf was a well that was drilled straight into the bedrock of the Nile river 285 feet deep. The well supplied the citadel with constant supply of freshwater, which is of utter importance during a siege.

13 Contributions to Society
Saladin achieve greatly in his lifetime. He built the Citadel in Cairo, which still stands today and represents a great change in society. Saladin introduced a world view to the Egyptians, but at the same time preserved the rich cultural heritage of the Egyptians. Saladin also constructed the madrasa, half college and half mosque to teach Islamic law and the ideology of the religion. Saladin created a very solid Islamic presence in Egypt and Palestine, establishing them to this day strong Islamic communities.

14 Contributions to Society (Con’t)
An important clinic in the Citadel has been lost to time, but it has had elite doctors and pharmacists, special rooms, beds, servants to look after the sick, free food and medicine, and a special ward for sick women. He also built a mental asylum, but instead of mistreating these mentally disadvantaged individuals he treated them humanely and acquired doctors to try to figure out what was wrong with them. This openness and humanity is incredibly rare in the dark ages.

15 This map shows the empire of Saladin circa 1171-1193 C
This map shows the empire of Saladin circa C.E, as well as the crusader states, or principalities. (Arrow is pointing to Cairo)

16 Contributions to Society (Con’t)
Saladin was respected all throughout the Islamic world as well as the European world. It is odd though, because if Saladin continued to conquer the crusader states, he may have eventually attempted to conquer Europe, and in effect threatening the very infrastructure of Christian Europe. He could have possibly altered the entire course of history, converting original Christian pilgrims to found the New World (the America’s).

17 Contributions to Society (Con’t)
As mentioned before, Saladin replaced the old system of bureaucracy with the new feudalistic system. This was very important, because Saladin began to bring the Islamic people out of civil dispute. The foundations laid down by Saladin in the twelfth century paved way for many other successful Islamic leaders.

18 Conclusion Saladin was a revolutionary leader. He brought light to the dark ages, through expansion of the Islamic empires, the education of his people and the havoc he wrought upon the Christians during the Crusades.

19 Works Cited "Saladin (Salah al-Din Yusuf Ibn Ayyub)." Egypt Travel, Tours, Vacations, Ancient Egypt from Tour Egypt. Web. 17 Dec "Pics." Index of /. Web. 17 Dec History Learning Site. Web. 16 Dec "Saladin." Middle Ages. Web. 17 Dec "The Citadel in Cairo." Egypt Travel, Tours, Vacations, Ancient Egypt from Tour Egypt. Web. 17 Dec "The Legend of Saladin in Western Literature and Historiography." The Edwin Mellen Press. Web. 17 Dec "Image of Citadel." Devilcat - IT Consultancy. Web. 17 Dec "Saladin." Encyclopædia Britannica Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 17 Dec "Saladin." Middle East: MidEastWeb. Web. 18 Dec "Saladin." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 17 Dec "THE MOST MISQUOTED AYAHS OF THE QURAN SINCE THE EPISODE OF 911 IN AMERICA:." Siraat-e-Mustaqeem. Web. 18 Dec

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