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Al-Qaeda Ontogeny of the prototypic RIF terrorist organization Michael A. Bozarth, Ph.D. Department of Psychology University at Buffalo www.PsychologyofTerrorism.com.

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Presentation on theme: "Al-Qaeda Ontogeny of the prototypic RIF terrorist organization Michael A. Bozarth, Ph.D. Department of Psychology University at Buffalo www.PsychologyofTerrorism.com."— Presentation transcript:

1 al-Qaeda Ontogeny of the prototypic RIF terrorist organization Michael A. Bozarth, Ph.D. Department of Psychology University at Buffalo

2 Copyright 2006 Michael A. Bozarth, Ph.D. Designated name: International Front for Jihad against the Jews and CrusadersDesignated name: International Front for Jihad against the Jews and Crusaders Familiar name: al-Qaeda (The Base)Familiar name: al-Qaeda (The Base)

3 Copyright 2006 Michael A. Bozarth, Ph.D. Radical Islamic fundamentalist (RIF) terrorist organizations did not begin with and will not end with al-QaedaRadical Islamic fundamentalist (RIF) terrorist organizations did not begin with and will not end with al-Qaeda Evolved from earlier organizationsEvolved from earlier organizations Morphed into movementMorphed into movement

4 Copyright 2006 Michael A. Bozarth, Ph.D. Evolution Muslim Brotherhood in EgyptMuslim Brotherhood in Egypt Egyptian Islamic JihadEgyptian Islamic Jihad Maktab Khadamat al-Mujahidin al-Arab (MAK)Maktab Khadamat al-Mujahidin al-Arab (MAK) International Front for Jihad against the Jews and Crusadersal-QaedaInternational Front for Jihad against the Jews and Crusadersal-Qaeda

5 Copyright 2006 Michael A. Bozarth, Ph.D. Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt Formed in 1928 by Hassan al Banna ( )Formed in 1928 by Hassan al Banna ( ) Anti-colonial advocating expulsion of British influences in EgyptAnti-colonial advocating expulsion of British influences in Egypt Strong fundamentalist orientationStrong fundamentalist orientation Generally nonviolent except for the secret apparatusGenerally nonviolent except for the secret apparatus

6 Copyright 2006 Michael A. Bozarth, Ph.D. Egyptian Islamic Jihad Formed in the 1970s by militant faction of the Muslim BrotherhoodFormed in the 1970s by militant faction of the Muslim Brotherhood Advocated terrorist tactics to achieve goals including formation of Islamic stateAdvocated terrorist tactics to achieve goals including formation of Islamic state Spawned parallel organizations in other Muslim countriesSpawned parallel organizations in other Muslim countries Ayman al-Zawahiri assumed control in the 1980sAyman al-Zawahiri assumed control in the 1980s

7 Copyright 2006 Michael A. Bozarth, Ph.D. Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt vs. Egyptian Islamic Jihad Muslim BrotherhoodMuslim Brotherhood Primary objective: Muslim unity and expulsion of foreign influences (considerable RIF elements)Primary objective: Muslim unity and expulsion of foreign influences (considerable RIF elements) fundamentalism a secondary objectivefundamentalism a secondary objective Generally nonviolent approach to changeGenerally nonviolent approach to change Egyptian Islamic JihadEgyptian Islamic Jihad Primary objective: expulsion of foreign influences and establishment of an Islamic state (RIF core) fundamentalism a primary objective Generally violent approach to change

8 Copyright 2006 Michael A. Bozarth, Ph.D. Maktab Khadamat al-Mujahidin al-Arab (MAK) Formed in the 1980s by Osama bin Laden and to recruit and train foreign fighters to combat the Soviet invasion in AfghanistanFormed in the 1980s by Osama bin Laden and Abdullah al-Azzam to recruit and train foreign fighters to combat the Soviet invasion in Afghanistan Encouraged and indirectly supported by the U.S. during the Cold WarEncouraged and indirectly supported by the U.S. during the Cold War Had strong fundamentalists elements with a desire to influence the social-political system of post-war AfghanistanHad strong fundamentalists elements with a desire to influence the social-political system of post-war Afghanistan

9 Copyright 2006 Michael A. Bozarth, Ph.D. MAK Split Conflicting agendas after Soviet withdrawal from AfghanistanConflicting agendas after Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan Protection of Muslim populations in troubled spots throughout the world (Protection of Muslim populations in troubled spots throughout the world (Azzam objective) Overthrow of despotic Arab regimens, especially Egypt and Saudi Arabia (bin Laden objective)Overthrow of despotic Arab regimens, especially Egypt and Saudi Arabia (bin Laden objective)

10 Copyright 2006 Michael A. Bozarth, Ph.D. MAK Merger with Egyptian Islamic Jihad Leadership Azzam was assassinated in 1989 leaving bin Laden in controlAzzam was assassinated in 1989 leaving bin Laden in control Zawahiri functionally merged Egyptian Islamic Jihad with former MAK membersZawahiri functionally merged Egyptian Islamic Jihad with former MAK members Al-Qaeda emergesAl-Qaeda emerges bin Ladenfinancial aspectsbin Ladenfinancial aspects Zawahiriideological and operational aspectsZawahiriideological and operational aspects

11 Copyright 2006 Michael A. Bozarth, Ph.D. Conflict with bin Laden Escalates Offers to raise a mujahidin army to defend Saudi Arabia from a potential invasion from Iraq in 1990Offers to raise a mujahidin army to defend Saudi Arabia from a potential invasion from Iraq in 1990 Saudi Arabia declines his offer opting instead to accept the assistance of the U.S. and allow American troops (including women soldiers) in Saudi ArabiaSaudi Arabia declines his offer opting instead to accept the assistance of the U.S. and allow American troops (including women soldiers) in Saudi Arabia Moves to Sudan by invitation of the Sudanese government in 1991Moves to Sudan by invitation of the Sudanese government in 1991 Supports several small to medium attacks against Western interestsSupports several small to medium attacks against Western interests Moves to Afghanistan in 1996 by invitation of the TalibanMoves to Afghanistan in 1996 by invitation of the Taliban Cruise missiles fired at al-Qaeda training camp in Afghanistan to kill bin Laden in 1998Cruise missiles fired at al-Qaeda training camp in Afghanistan to kill bin Laden in 1998

12 Copyright 2006 Michael A. Bozarth, Ph.D. International Front for Jihad against the Jews and Crusaders The ruling to kill the Americans and their alliescivilians and militaryis an individual duty for every Muslim who can do it in any country in which it is possible to do it. The ruling to kill the Americans and their alliescivilians and militaryis an individual duty for every Muslim who can do it in any country in which it is possible to do it. Fatwa issued by Osama bin Laden & Ayman al-Zawahiri on 23 February 1998

13 Copyright 2006 Michael A. Bozarth, Ph.D. September 11, 2001

14 Copyright 2006 Michael A. Bozarth, Ph.D. The Iraq Connection Abu Musab al-Zarqawi is believed to have formed Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad in Afghanistan during the 1980sAbu Musab al-Zarqawi is believed to have formed Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad in Afghanistan during the 1980s May have received some funds from al-Qaeda but operated independentlyMay have received some funds from al-Qaeda but operated independently Original objective was to overthrow the Jordanian government and establish an Islamic stateOriginal objective was to overthrow the Jordanian government and establish an Islamic state Expanded urban guerilla warfare in Iraq to include terrorist tactics also targeting IraqisExpanded urban guerilla warfare in Iraq to include terrorist tactics also targeting Iraqis Officially merged with al-Qaeda 21 October 2004 (finally providing an al-Qaeda connection to Iraq)Officially merged with al-Qaeda 21 October 2004 (finally providing an al-Qaeda connection to Iraq)

15 Copyright 2006 Michael A. Bozarth, Ph.D. New Role for al-Qaeda Various RIF factions aggressively compete with each other for control, only uniting provisionally to fight the common enemiesVarious RIF factions aggressively compete with each other for control, only uniting provisionally to fight the common enemies Al-Qaeda evolved into the symbolic focus of a united RIF terrorist movementAl-Qaeda evolved into the symbolic focus of a united RIF terrorist movement As demonstrated by Zarqawi, Sadr, and others, the leadership of al-Qaeda is not essential for continued RIF terrorist activitiesAs demonstrated by Zarqawi, Sadr, and others, the leadership of al-Qaeda is not essential for continued RIF terrorist activities

16 Copyright 2006 Michael A. Bozarth, Ph.D. Essam al-Eryan and Abdel Moneim Abul Fotouh, senior members of the Muslim Brotherhoods Guidance Office in Cairo urged an immediate release in a statement posted 18 January We... appeal to the kidnappers of the American journalist Jill Carroll to release her as lives of innocent civilians – Iraqi or foreign – should be well guarded, they wrote. Jill... and her colleagues have come to Iraq to report the events to the world, reminding everyone of the hardships faced by the Iraqi people under occupation. Once more, we call upon our brothers in the Iraqi resistance not to target media workers. This contradicts the principles of our religion and doesn't help the cause of liberating the country. Source: csmonitor.com (March 2006) Parent Movement Less Militant Than Offspring?

17 Copyright 2006 Michael A. Bozarth, Ph.D. Jill Carroll Released

18 Copyright 2006 Michael A. Bozarth, Ph.D. Timeline of the Evolution of the Modern International Terrorist Threat 1979: Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and subsequent occupation.1979: Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and subsequent occupation. 1984: Radical preacher Abdullah Azzam set up an organisation called Maktab al-Khidmat (MAK) Bureau of Services to disseminate propaganda about jihad in Afghanistan. Usama bin Laden (UbL) joins.1984: Radical preacher Abdullah Azzam set up an organisation called Maktab al-Khidmat (MAK) Bureau of Services to disseminate propaganda about jihad in Afghanistan. Usama bin Laden (UbL) joins. 1989: Withdrawal of Soviet forces from Afghanistan. UbL returns to Saudi Arabia. Decision by MAK to continue to support further jihadist causes. Thinking around the base or foundation (translation: Al Qaida) for further operations articulated. Timeline adapted from the British Home Office Report on the 07 July 2005 London Bombings, printed by order of the House of Commons, 11 May 2006.

19 Copyright 2006 Michael A. Bozarth, Ph.D : UbL disagreement over focus of the cause and starts to form Al Qaida. November 1989, Azzam assassinated. Early 1990s: Violence in a number of regions worldwide, including Afghanistan, Egypt, Algeria, Libya, Chechnya, Bosnia, Tajikistan, East Africa, Yemen and Philippines. Groups that would later be a significant international terrorist threat formed eg Libyan Islamic Fighting Group, Abu Sayyaf group in the Philippines. Extremist support networks created in the UK and Europe. Aug 1990: Iraq invades Kuwait. Saudi Government agrees to allow US troops to be stationed in the Kingdom for 1st Gulf War. UbL fiercely opposed. 1991: UbL leaves for Sudan. Al Qaida (AQ) changes from being predominantly paramilitary organisation into a terrorist group, focussing on the US.

20 Copyright 2006 Michael A. Bozarth, Ph.D. 1992: AQ publishes a fatwa calling for jihad against western occupation of Islamic lands. 1990s: Radical young men from the UK go to support jihad overseas eg Richard Reid, the shoe bomber, left for Pakistan/Afghanistan in : Somalia: two IED (improvised explosive device) attacks against hotels where US troops were staying. January 1993, Black Hawk down incident. 1993: First World Trade Centre attack. 1994: Taliban established. 1995: Start of 4-month GIA (Armed Islamic Group) campaign in France. Mid-1996: Relocation of AQ leadership and many other extremists to Afghanistan.

21 Copyright 2006 Michael A. Bozarth, Ph.D. Jun 1996: Truck bomb at housing complex in Saudi Arabia. Aug 1996: UbL publishes fatwa Declaration of War against the Americans occupying the Land of the Two Holy Places [Saudi Arabia]. Nov 1997: Islamic gunmen attack tourists in Luxor, Egypt. Feb 1998: UbLs second fatwa calling for jihad to kill the Americans and their allies – civilian and military. Aug 1998: US Embassies in Tanzania and Kenya damaged in AQ truck bomb attacks. Many dead and injured. Dec 1998: Yemen: kidnapping of 16 tourists, including 12 Britons. Aug 1999: Russia: start of 2-month series of bombings.

22 Copyright 2006 Michael A. Bozarth, Ph.D. Dec 1999: Indian airlines flight hijacked. Oct 2000: suicide bombers directed by AQ attacked USS Cole in Aden, Yemen. Nov 2000: 2 British citizens of Bangladeshi origin arrested in Birmingham, UK on suspicion of preparing a large quantity of home made explosives. Jan 2001 India: The Red Fort in New Delhi attacked by Kashmiri militants. Sept 2001: AQ operatives crashed hijacked airliners into the World Trade Centre and Pentagon. Late Early 2002: Coalition action expelled the Taliban, AQ and other extremist groups from main Afghanistan, dismantling training camps etc. Freezing of assets and targeting of support networks.

23 Copyright 2006 Michael A. Bozarth, Ph.D. Oct 2001: Kashmir, India assembly attacked by militants. Dec 2001: militants attacked Indian Parliament in New Delhi. Dec 2001: disrupted plans to attack US, Australian and British Missions in Singapore. Dec 2001: Richard Reids attempted shoe bomb attack on US airliner. Jan 2002: Kidnapping and execution of US journalist Daniel Pearl in Pakistan. Apr 2002: attack on Western tourists at synagogue in Tunisia. May 2002: attack against a bus transporting French Naval engineers in Karachi, Pakistan. Jun 2002: attack against the US Consulate in Karachi, Pakistan. Jun 2002: : disrupted attacks on Strait of Gibraltar, Morocco.

24 Copyright 2006 Michael A. Bozarth, Ph.D. Oct 2002: : water-borne attack on MV Limburg in Yemen. Oct 2002: attack on nightclub in Bali, Indonesia. Oct 2002: Chechen terrorists occupy Moscow theatre, taking hundreds hostage. Nov 2002: attack on hotel and Israeli charter aircraft in Mombasa, Kenya : Ricin plot (UK). Feb 2003: Coalition action and removal of Saddam Hussain in Iraq. May 2003: attack on residential compounds and US/Saudi office in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. May 2003: attacks on various (including Jewish) targets in Casablanca, Morocco.

25 Copyright 2006 Michael A. Bozarth, Ph.D. Aug 2003: simultaneous bomb blasts in Mumbai, India. Aug 2003: attack on Marriott Hotel in Jakarta, Indonesia. Nov 2003: attack on residential compound in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Nov 2003: multiple attacks on Jewish and British targets in Istanbul, Turkey. Dec 2003: two assassination attempts on President Musharraf in Pakistan. Feb 2004: bomb on Superferry 14 in Manila, Philippines. Mar 2004: multiple attacks on Madrid, Spain train network.

26 Copyright 2006 Michael A. Bozarth, Ph.D. Apr 2004: Al Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) suicide attack in Saudi Arabia. May 2004: multiple attacks in Al Khobar, Saudi Arabia. May- Sept 2004: assassination of Westerners in Saudi Arabia. Aug - Sept 2004: Chechen terrorists down 2 passenger aircraft in Russia, mount suicide bombing on the Moscow metro and take over 1,000 hostage at a school in North Ossetia. Sept 2004: attack on Australian Embassy in Jakarta, Indonesia.

27 Copyright 2006 Michael A. Bozarth, Ph.D. Oct 2004: attack on Israeli tourists at a hotel and campsites in Egypt. Dec 2004: Further AQ attacks in Saudi Arabia. Feb 2005: simultaneous Valentines Day bombings in the Philippines. Mar 2005: suicide car bomb against Western theatre in Qatar. April 2005: IED detonated in Cairo, Egypt bazaar, suicide attacks against tourists. July 2005: bombings in London, UK. 52 commuters killed along with 4 suicide bombers, 700 others injured


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