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Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 15 Chapter 15 The Family.

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Presentation on theme: "Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 15 Chapter 15 The Family."— Presentation transcript:

1 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 15 Chapter 15 The Family

2 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 15 The Family as a System Family Systems Theory –A “whole” consisting of interrelated parts –Each affects and is affected by the others Nuclear family: mother, father, children Extended family household Ecological systems approach –Family as system within a system Family as a changing system

3 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 15 Figure 15.2

4 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 15 More Family Diversity More single adults, empty nesters included Postponed marriage Decline in child-bearing More divorce, remarriages –Reconstituted families More single-parent families, child poverty More multigenerational (beanpole) families Fewer caregivers for aging adults

5 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 15 Trends Decline of marriage and family –Negative effects Divorce, single parent family, poverty Purpose of marriage debate –Meet emotional needs of adults? –Raise children? Postponed marriage improves success rate More equality of sexes in family roles

6 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 15 Infancy: Relationships Fathers are capable of sensitive parenting –A more playful parent role Mothers spend more time with them Divorce means less fathering Fathers warmth and affection promotes –Social competence, achievement –Fewer psychological disorders Indirect effects: how parents get along

7 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 15 Parenting Styles Two dimensions of parenting – Acceptance/Responsiveness (AC) –Demandingness/Control (DC) Baumrind’s parenting types –Authoritarian: AC=high, DC=low –Authoritative: AC=high, DC=high –Permissive: AC=low, DC=high –Neglectful: AC=low, DC=low

8 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 15 Figure 15.1

9 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 15 Outcomes of Parenting Styles Children of authoritative parents –Adjusted, responsible, high achievement Children of authoritarian parents –Moody, unhappy, aimless Children of permissive parents –Low: self-control, independence, achievers Children of neglectful/uninvolved parents –Behavior problems, antisocial

10 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 15

11 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 15 Effects of Social Class Lower-class parents –Stress obedience to authority –Restrictive and authoritarian –Use reasoning less –Show less warmth/affection Middle-class parents –Stress individual initiative, achievement

12 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 15 Models of Influence on Family Parent effects model –Parental influence and style important Child effects model –Nature of child stressed Transactional model –Reciprocal influences

13 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 15 Sibling Relationships Firstborn stress at new sibling –Temporary behavior problems –Sibling rivalry –Less conflict by adolescence –Typically ambivalent about sibling Overall, mostly positive effects of having a sibling –Emotional support, teacher to younger

14 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 15 The Adolescent Close relationships with parents Conflicts mostly over minor issues Change in balance of power Authoritative parent most effective Autonomy, independence achieved

15 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 15 Establishing Marriage and Family 90% of adults choose to marry in the US – Honeymoon: happy but short Problems: Loss of enthusiasm –Usually exist beforehand –Negativity common New parenthood –Stressful, joyful –Coping skills, resources important

16 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 15 Child Rearing and Launching A heavier workload More stress Marital happiness declines Best if both parents share home workload The empty nest –Marital happiness increases after the children leave home

17 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 15 Grandparenthood Average age: 47 Grand-parenting styles –Remote (29%): distant –Companionate (55%): frequent enjoyable visits –Involved (16%): child care, advise, like substitute parents Most find it gratifying Parent/grandparent relationship important

18 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 15 Marriage Relationships Marriage brings stability –Happier, healthier, than nonmarrieds –Lonelier if divorced or widowed –Better off financially Widowhood: by age 65 –73% men still living with their wives –59% women widowed or living alone

19 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 15 Sibling and Parent-Child Relationships Siblings: longest lasting relationship we have –If close in childhood, also when adult –Not close in childhood, not close as adults Parent-child remain close –Modified extended family Caring for aging parents –“Middle generation squeeze” –Filial responsibility common

20 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 15

21 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 15 Diversity in Family Life Cohabitation: on the rise –Higher divorce rate Childless married couples –Marital satisfaction higher Dual-career families: spillover effects –Both positive and negative Gay and lesbian families: more egalitarian –Children generally well adjusted

22 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 15 Divorce High-risk couples –married 7 years –Teen-age marriages, short courtship –Pregnant before marriage –Low SES Post-divorce crisis –1-2 years –At risk for depression

23 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 15 Children of Divorce Often angry, fearful, depressed, or guilty Custodial mother overwhelmed Behavior problems Peer relationships suffer/change Sometimes negative effects are lasting 1-2 year adjustment

24 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 15 Family Violence Child abuse: much unreported –Sexual abuse Spouse abuse –Most common worldwide Elder abuse and neglect –Cognitive impairment a risk factor

25 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 15 The Abuser Typical child abuser –Young, single, poor, unemployed mother Cycle of abuse Often a battered woman Low self-esteem Unrealistic expectations

26 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 15 The Abused Target child –Hyperactive, difficult –Often disabled or sickly Parent feels powerless Parent feels threatened

27 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 15 The Context of Abuse Life changes Poverty A violent society Lack of social support

28 Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider Chapter 15 Effects of Family Violence Physical damage to abused –Brain damage – shaken baby syndrome Child behavior problems common Social and cognitive skills deficient –Academic problems common Lack of normal empathy – young children –Emotional development disturbed Problematic for normal development


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