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Chapter 15 The Family.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15 The Family."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 15 The Family

2 The Family as a System Family Systems Theory A “whole” consisting of interrelated parts Each affects and is affected by the others Nuclear family: mother, father, children Extended family household Ecological systems approach Family as system within a system Family as a changing system

3 Figure A model of the relationship among family economic stress, patterns of parenting, and adolescent adjustment. Figure 15.2

4 More Family Diversity More single adults, empty nesters included Postponed marriage Decline in child-bearing More divorce, remarriages Reconstituted families More single-parent families, child poverty More multigenerational (beanpole) families Fewer caregivers for aging adults

5 Trends Decline of marriage and family Negative effects Divorce, single parent family, poverty Purpose of marriage debate Meet emotional needs of adults? Raise children? Postponed marriage improves success rate More equality of sexes in family roles

6 Infancy: Relationships
Fathers are capable of sensitive parenting A more playful parent role Mothers spend more time with them Divorce means less fathering Fathers warmth and affection promotes Social competence, achievement Fewer psychological disorders Indirect effects: how parents get along

7 Parenting Styles Two dimensions of parenting Acceptance/Responsiveness (AC) Demandingness/Control (DC) Baumrind’s parenting types Authoritarian: AC=high, DC=low Authoritative: AC=high, DC=high Permissive: AC=low, DC=high Neglectful: AC=low, DC=low

8 Figure The acceptance/responsiveness and demandingness/control dimensions of parenting. Which combination best describes your parents’ approach? Figure 15.1

9 Outcomes of Parenting Styles
Children of authoritative parents Adjusted, responsible, high achievement Children of authoritarian parents Moody, unhappy, aimless Children of permissive parents Low: self-control, independence, achievers Children of neglectful/uninvolved parents Behavior problems, antisocial


11 Effects of Social Class
Lower-class parents Stress obedience to authority Restrictive and authoritarian Use reasoning less Show less warmth/affection Middle-class parents Stress individual initiative, achievement

12 Models of Influence on Family
Parent effects model Parental influence and style important Child effects model Nature of child stressed Transactional model Reciprocal influences

13 Sibling Relationships
Firstborn stress at new sibling Temporary behavior problems Sibling rivalry Less conflict by adolescence Typically ambivalent about sibling Overall, mostly positive effects of having a sibling Emotional support, teacher to younger

14 The Adolescent Close relationships with parents Conflicts mostly over minor issues Change in balance of power Authoritative parent most effective Autonomy, independence achieved

15 Establishing Marriage and Family
90% of adults choose to marry in the US Honeymoon: happy but short Problems: Loss of enthusiasm Usually exist beforehand Negativity common New parenthood Stressful, joyful Coping skills, resources important

16 Child Rearing and Launching
A heavier workload More stress Marital happiness declines Best if both parents share home workload The empty nest Marital happiness increases after the children leave home

17 Grandparenthood Average age: 47 Grand-parenting styles Remote (29%): distant Companionate (55%): frequent enjoyable visits Involved (16%): child care, advise, like substitute parents Most find it gratifying Parent/grandparent relationship important

18 Marriage Relationships
Marriage brings stability Happier, healthier, than nonmarrieds Lonelier if divorced or widowed Better off financially Widowhood: by age 65 73% men still living with their wives 59% women widowed or living alone

19 Sibling and Parent-Child Relationships
Siblings: longest lasting relationship we have If close in childhood, also when adult Not close in childhood, not close as adults Parent-child remain close Modified extended family Caring for aging parents “Middle generation squeeze” Filial responsibility common


21 Diversity in Family Life
Cohabitation: on the rise Higher divorce rate Childless married couples Marital satisfaction higher Dual-career families: spillover effects Both positive and negative Gay and lesbian families: more egalitarian Children generally well adjusted

22 Divorce High-risk couples married 7 years Teen-age marriages, short courtship Pregnant before marriage Low SES Post-divorce crisis 1-2 years At risk for depression

23 Children of Divorce Often angry, fearful, depressed, or guilty Custodial mother overwhelmed Behavior problems Peer relationships suffer/change Sometimes negative effects are lasting 1-2 year adjustment

24 Family Violence Child abuse: much unreported Sexual abuse Spouse abuse Most common worldwide Elder abuse and neglect Cognitive impairment a risk factor

25 The Abuser Typical child abuser Young, single, poor, unemployed mother Cycle of abuse Often a battered woman Low self-esteem Unrealistic expectations

26 The Abused Target child Hyperactive, difficult Often disabled or sickly Parent feels powerless Parent feels threatened

27 The Context of Abuse Life changes Poverty A violent society Lack of social support

28 Effects of Family Violence
Physical damage to abused Brain damage – shaken baby syndrome Child behavior problems common Social and cognitive skills deficient Academic problems common Lack of normal empathy – young children Emotional development disturbed Problematic for normal development

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