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Enhancing Literacy Skills in Immersion Classrooms Laura Terrill

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1 Enhancing Literacy Skills in Immersion Classrooms Laura Terrill

2 Three Modes of Communication Presentational

3 Writing is Thinking

4 Everyone has the capacity to write, writing can be taught, and teachers can help students become better writers. People learn to write by writing. - NCTE Beliefs about the teaching of writing November, 2004

5 ACTFL Integrated Performance Assessment Interpretive Communication Students listen to, view and / or read an authentic text and answer information as well as interpretive questions to assess comprehension. The teacher provides students with feedback on performance. Interpersonal Communication After receiving feedback students engage in communication about a particular topic which relates to the interpretive text. Presentational Communication Students engage in the presentational mode by sharing their research/ideas/opinions. Samples presentational formats: speeches, drama, skits, videos, radio broadcasts, posters, brochures, essays, websites, etc.

6 Vertical Articulation

7 ACTFL Performance Guidelines for K-12 Learners NoviceUse short, memorized phrases; Understood by those who are very used to interacting with language learners; Rely on visuals to enhance comprehensibility IntermediateFormulate written presentations using a range of sentences and strings of sentences primarily in present time but also, with preparation, in past and future time Pre-AdvancedReport, narrate and describe, using connected sentences, paragraph-length and longer forms of discourse, on topics of personal, school and community interest

8 Novice Learner Range ACTFL Performance Guidelines Presentational Comprehen- sibility Use short, memorized phrases; Understood by those who are very used to interacting with language learners; Rely on visuals to enhance comprehensibility Language Control Demonstrate some accuracy when using memorized language; Show interference from native language when attempting to communicate information which goes beyond memorized Vocabulary Use Use a limited number of words and phrases in familiar categories; Rely on native language when expressing personal meaning in unfamiliar categories Communication Strategies Make corrections by rewriting when appropriate forms are modeled by the teacher Cultural Awareness Imitate the use of culturally appropriate language as modeled by the teacher

9 Intermediate Learner Range ACTFL Performance Guidelines Presentational Comprehen- sibility Express their own thoughts, describe and narrate, using sentences and strings of sentences on familiar topics; Sufficient accuracy that readers understand most of what is presented Language Control Written presentations on familiar topics in present time but also with preparation in past and future time; Inaccuracies and interference when attempting to present less familiar material Vocabulary Use Demonstrate control of expanding number of familiar words and phrases and limited number of idiomatic expressions; Supplement basic vocabulary with use of dictionary; May sometimes use false cognates Communication Strategies Occasional use of reference sources and efforts at self-corrections to avoid errors; Use circumlocution to avoid linguistic challenges Cultural Awareness Use some culturally appropriate vocabulary and idiomatic expressions; Demonstrate some cultural knowledge

10 Pre-Advanced Learner Range ACTFL Performance Guidelines Presentational Comprehen- sibility Report, narrate and describe, using connected sentences, paragraph-length and longer on topics of personal, school, community and global interest; Reader may on occasion need to make a special effort to understand the message Language Control Accurately formulate presentations in present time; May show some inaccuracies when dealing with multiple time frames or other complex structures; Successfully communicate personal meaning Vocabulary Use Demonstrate control of an extensive vocabulary from a variety of topics; Supplement basic vocabulary with resources; May use more precise terms when dealing with researched topics Communication Strategies Demonstrate conscious effort at correct formulation and self- correction; Sustain length and continuity using strategies such as simplification, reformulation and circumlocution Cultural Awareness Demonstrate increased use of culturally appropriate vocabulary and idiomatic expressions; Use language increasingly reflective of authentic cultural practices and perspectives

11 Cinderella Level I Cinderella is a girl. She isnt happy. She works a lot. Her mother doesnt like Cinderella. She has two sisters. They dont like Cinderella. There is a ball. Cinderella doesnt go to the ball.... Level II Cinderella is a poor young girl. She has two sisters who are not nice. And her mother doesnt like her much. One day the family is going to go to the ball at the kings castle. Cinderella cant go because she doesnt have a pretty dress.... Level III Once upon a time there was family of two sisters and their mother. They had a step-sister, Cinderella. The mother loved her two ugly and mean daughters, but she didnt like Cinderella, who was beautiful and nice. One day, the king invited all the young girls to meet his son, the prince. But Cinderella, who didnt have anything nice to wear, couldnt go....

12 Level IV Once upon a time there was a family composed of a mother and her two mean and ugly daughters. In the small house lived Cinderella, the step-sister, who had to do all the household chores. Because of her great charm and beauty, Cinderella was hated by her step-mother and two step-sisters who were jealous. One day, there was an invitation sent by the king, who was giving a grand ball at the castle in honor of his son. All the young girls of the kingdom were invited; except Cinderella who, not having anything to wear for such a rich ball, could not attend.... Level V Once upon a time there was a girl named Cinderella whose step- mother made her work all day long. But her two vain and lazy step-sisters would only walk around in their beautiful dresses making fun of Cinderella who was always dressed for doing household chores. One day, a letter arrived from the king who was making preparations for a grand ball at which his son would choose his future bride from among all the young girls of the kingdom. Cinderella really wanted to attend but couldnt because all she had were the old charwoman clothes she was wearing.

13 You are writing a letter to introduce yourself to your new neighbors. Describe your family and where you live. Mention several activities that you and your family do. Tell where you lived before coming to St. Louis. Tell what it was like as you prepared to move. What did you do? How did you feel? What made it hard to move? Why did you want to move? Describe what you will do in future years in the United States. Where will you work? Where will you travel? What will you do to help you continue to learn English? ELL Adult Samples

14 I am from Israel. My name is Amalia. I am a married woman and have 3 kids. My son live in Florida and my girls in Israel. We usely like to travel to new places, to see moves and to go to Conserts. We move to St. Louis because my husbend get ajob in Boying Company. In the beging I feel happy to start a new life and my children encorg us to do that but When the day came it was hard to leve my girls in Israel and fly to U.S. Now after two years We miss the girls but we are close to my son. We travel a lot in U.S. to West Cost and to the East, meet new people and enjoy the new life. I help to improve my English with reading books watch T.V. and study English.

15 I like to introduce myself to all of you. My name is Jennifer. Im so happy to study in parkway esl school. It was out of my suspect before my arriving here. I have been here for almost six monthes. There are three people in my family. My husband. I and my son. Were new immigration in U.S.A. But America is not strange to us. We had been here for one yoar in 1990 to I came from Taiwan. I was born and grew up in south of Taiwan. I used to live Kalshining city about fourty eight years. When I decided to move here. I was so worried about, what St. Louis look like? Im no sure if I come to here that everything will be all right? Maybe Im afraid to drive. The most difficult thing is langurage problem. I cant sleep very well for a long time. Because I worried so much. I called my friend who had became a u.s. citizen two years ago. Im looking forward to getting more opinions from her. I made a list what should I do or what should I need to bring. The important thing is economic problem. I need to arrange all of my property. I need to give up my life living in Taiwan. But my husband had a strong feeling to send my son to America. He like to support my son to creat a different and challenge new life for his future. This is a motivation for us to move here. I hope that I can speak and listen better in the furture.

16 6 + 1 Traits of Writing Ruth Culham Ideas Sentence Fluency Organization Word Choice Voice Conventions + Presentation

17 Ideas Ideas make up the content of the piece. Writers move from the general to the specific. They describe the bits and pieces of life, the ordinary, in extraordinary ways…They have something to say in their writing that no one else does. Their ideas come alive! Ruth Culham

18 Lists Reasons not to lie Ways to spend $100 Things to do besides watch TV Things that make you smile Things you might find at the beach

19 Expand an Outline Ask 3 to 5 questions to get more information about the following outline. I went to Florida. I visited my relatives. We walked on the beach. We ate at a restaurant. I had a good time.

20 Ask the Questions Write the Story


22 Une carte postale arrive 72 ans plus tard Mardi 1 septembre, 06h16 Cette carte postale est arrivée à la poste de Monaco la semaine dernière, en provenance du centre de tri de Nice. Arrivée le 25 août 2009, la carte avait été postée le… 11 août 1937! Postée à Saint-Etienne-de-Tinée, dans les Alpes-Maritimes, par M. Achierdi, cette carte postale était destinée à Fernande, sa fiancée. Une fiancée décédé en 1969…………

23 Teammates Consult Discuss with your group. Then, pick up a pen and write an answer in your own words. Should the United States have given a state dinner for the Chinas President? Why or why not?

24 Dialogue Journals: Interactive Writing to Develop Language and Literacy Joy Kreeft Peyton A dialogue journal is a written conversation in which a student and teacher communicate regularly. Students write about topics that are important to them in the written genre that is appropriate. They are not constrained by teacher- or curriculum-established topics. Teachers do not overtly correct errors. Dialogue journals focus on meaning rather than form and on real topics and issues of interest to the student.

25 Dialogue Journal Prompts Its awful when I cant… When Im bored… What I like most about myself… Something strange I saw…. I couldnt sleep… What does it mean to be (lazy)? I went to the end of the rainbow and found… I have a dream… When I see (red), I think… I am happy when… Next year I want to… Lead ins….Topic words…… Homework A fast food restaurant Snow Hero Zoo Money Vacation Car Friend Animal Jewelry

26 30 Ideas for Teaching Writing National Writing Project 1.Use the shared events of students' lives to inspire writing. 2.Establish an dialogue between students from different schools who are reading the same book. 3.Use writing to improve relations among students. 4.Help student writers draw rich chunks of writing from endless sprawl. 5.Work with words relevant to students' lives to help them build vocabulary. 6.Help students analyze text by asking them to imagine dialogue between authors. 7.Spotlight language and use group brainstorming to help students create poetry.

27 Sentence Fluency Ruth Culham Fluent writing is graceful, varied, rhythmic almost musical. Its easy to read aloud. Sentences are well built. They move. They are varied in structure and length. Each one seems to flow right out of the one before.

28 Its summer. Its hot. I love to swim. I like the beach. I like to play volleyball. Summer Write 5 sentences about summer…..

29 Teach transitions but also and thenstill, always at first as, like howeverfor example oftenin this way latersuddenly perhapsbecause by the wayespecially on the contraryin any case and finally brieflynow

30 Building Blocks Rosita made tortillas________ _______ where ? with whom? __________ __________ _________. when ? at what time? why?

31 Organization Ruth Culham Herding cats…..The art of getting those ideas together, heading them out on the trail with a great sendoff; creating sequence, transitions, and a fine sense of pacing along the way; and, at the end of the drive, rounding them up…..


33 Summarize Students trace hand on paper. They write the most important topic on the palm of the hand. They write 5 facts about the topic on each finger. Students pair with a partner to share their summary.

34 An unusual meal….. Write a topic sentence with at least 10 words. Write a closing sentence with at least 10 words. Sentence 2 Sentence 3 Sentence 4

35 Word Choice Ruth Culham Word choice is about the use of rich, colorful, precise language that communicates….. in good descriptive writing, strong word choice clarifies and expands ideas. In persuasive writing, it moves you to a new vision of things. In narrative writing, it creates images in your mind that are so real, you feel like you are part of the story itself.

36 Cinquain Poetry Subject noun, noun adjective, adjective, adjective short sentence or phrase about the subject restate the subject Paris museums, monuments dynamic, exciting, alive a cultural tapestry this City of Lights.

37 Brevette Poetry subject (noun) verb (ongoing action, stretched out when typed) object (noun) students t a k e tests teachers g r a d e papers summers g i v e relief

38 Loop Poetry In Loop Poetry there are no restrictions on the number of stanzas nor on the syllable count for each line. In each stanza, the last word of the first line becomes the first word of line two, last word of line 2 becomes the first word of line 3, last word of line 3 becomes the first word of line 4. This is followed for each stanza. What a joy to travel Travel to see places Places that are different Different people to meet. Who am I now? Now I have changed Changed by experiences Experiences that are memories.

39 Les Etats-Unis ont surmonté les démons du passé (Le Monde) La Chance de lAmérique…(Libération) Expand a Headline

40 1.Diamonds are forever (DeBeers) 2.Just do it (Nike) 3.The pause that refreshes (Coca-Cola) 4.We try harder (Avis) 5.Good to the last drop (Maxwell House) 6.Breakfast of champions (Wheaties) 7.Does she... or doesn't she? (Clairol) 8.Where's the beef? (Wendy's) 9.Look Ma, no cavities! (Crest toothpaste) 10.Loose lips sink ships (public service) Expand a Slogan

41 Picture This Use an image, show for 1 minute, cover, each student writes words, phrases and sentences to describe. Segment image into 6 quadrants, show each quadrant for 1 minute, allow students to write out of context description Finally show entire image again for one minute Traits of Wrting - Ruth Culham



44 RoleAudienceFormatTopic German government citizens of Guernica letter apology for what was done Francopeople of Spainspeech protestation of innocence Museum curatorPicasso newspaper interview questions about the painting and likely answers SoldierCommandertelegramreasons for defeat MotherDiaryjournal entry what happened and personal thoughts about war ???? R.A.F.T.S. persuade, analyze, create, predict, compare, defend, evaluate

45 Voice Ruth Culham Voice…..the sense that a real person is speaking to you and cares about the message. It is the heart and soul of the writing the magic, the wit, the feeling…..

46 What Peace Means to Me Said Mohamed, 4th grade I came from Somalia. There was a war there. People were getting hurt. Bombs were dropping. I could hear guns. At night they woke me up. Two of my brothers were fighting in the war. One brother was nineteen and one brother was twenty-six. They both got killed. One night the bad guys came into our house. We ran out the back. They stole my moms jewelry. My uncle wanted to stay and fight, but my dad told him, No! We went to Ethiopia to get away. Sometimes we rode in a truck, or on camels or we walked. I closed my eyes so I wouldnt see bad things. We never went back to our house in Somalia. After one year we came to America. I hope they never have a war in America. People need to show love. That is PEACE!

47 September 26 On September 26, 1774, John Chapman was born. Later in life, he became better known as Johnny Appleseed. Johnny performed a community service as he traveled west spreading apple seeds. Write about some types of community service that you could possibly perform. Daily Writing Prompts

48 Daily Writing Prompts March 30 On this day in 1858, the patent for a pencil with an attached eraser was issued. Taking your pencils point of view, what do you think a typical day in your classroom would be like? March 21 Today is Childrens Poetry Day. Using your favorite form of poetry, write a poem about what it means to be a kid. Think about the advantages and disadvantages. March 16 On this day in 1751, our 4th President, James Madison was born. Madison was the oldest of twelve (12) children. What do you think would be the advantages and/or disadvantages of having eleven (11) siblings? Would you like to have eleven younger brothers and sisters? March 8 March 8th is Working Womens Day. Many people feel that being a stay-at- home-mom is full-time job. Do you agree or disagree and why? March 6 On this day in 1912, Oreo Cookies were sold for the first time. Describe to someone how you like to eat your Oreo.

49 More writing prompts…. You can post your response (750 words or fewer) on the site. Write a made-up magic spell, including ingredients, chants, and actions. Now, turn it into a poem. Pretend that there is a small man/woman operating the control system of your brain. Write about your day from his/her perspective. How does he/she feel about you? One day you wake up to find your dog/cat waiting for you at the side of your bed, sitting on your briefcase. Cocking its head, it tells you, in perfect English, that you wont be going to work today. Why wont your pet let you go to work, and what happens? You're late for work because you overslept, but your boss hates over- sleepers. He does love entertaining stories, so create the most outlandish excuse as to why you were late.

50 Save the Last Word for Me (Dialogue Journals) Locate five statements or quotations that you find interesting as a reader. Write the statement or quote in your journal or on one side of an index card. Then, write your comments or questions about the statement on the back side of the index card or in your journal. Share the quote in your small group inviting others to add their thoughts. Do not share your thinking until everyone in your group has given a reaction.

51 Conventions Ruth Culham Students in classes where conventions are valued over everything else get a distorted view of writing…Effective writing classrooms are places where there is a balance between creating interesting, informative, imaginative texts, and editing those texts for conventions.

52 I live in St. Charles I came here by myself 1 year and 5 month ago. My family is in Korea. I came here to study English. Before coming to St. Louis. I used to live in Seoul, Korea. I wanted to come to US from before to learn English and enjoy my different life. Since I came here, I really enjoyed doing somethings and going new places. Ill go back to Korea end of this month. ELL Adult Sample

53 Dear neighbors. We are your new neighbors. Me. Haibo and my wife Donghua. We are from China, and have been in America for 2 years but in St. Louis, just 2 months. Before moved to St. Louis, we lived on University of Missouri – Columbia campus. My wife graduated and found a job here, so we moved here at the end of last year. As Chinese, we like Chinese food very much, but not America football and we do not have kids, so we should be quite. Because of the methods of Chinese cooking, there may be some smoke and smell in and around our apartment, if you feel uncomfortable, just let us know, we will maintain it as little as we can. Le me tell you about moving. When we prepared the lugages to America we found that it is very hard to put everything we need into two 32 lb boxes which are maximum lugages each passenger can carry. But at the to move to St. Louis we are surprised how we could get so many stuffs in two year. Fortunately, my wife got more fenifit from the new job, so we hired a moving company to help us, which made work easier. In the future years, my wife hope she can get good performance in her job, and can attain her PhD. Degree. I will be a graduate student in UMSL, and we hope we can have a baby next year. Best regards, Laura Terrill

54 Great Art of France: Virtual Visits Elle sappelle Mona Lisa. Elle a 32 ans. Elle nest pas jolie, mais elle nest pas laide, non plus. Elle a les cheveux longs, pas noirs, pas blonds......

55 What happened? Yesterday – Today - Tomorrow What is happening? What will happen?

56 Déçu à Paris Jai voyagé à Paris. Tu mas écrit une lettre avant ton arrivée. Mon amie est venue à Paris aussi. Nous avons visité la ville. Vous avez bien dîné le soir, pas moi, jétais malade. Mes amis se sont amusés, pas moi, jai dormi à lhôtel.

57 Déçu à Paris I traveled to Paris. You wrote me a letter before you arrrived. My friend also came to Paris. We visited the city. You ate well that evening, but not me, I was sick. My friends had a good time, but I slept in the hotel.

58 Structured Writings Consider the difference…… Comment on a current event: Include: a verb that uses avoir a verb that uses être a reflexive verb two adjectives two connectors explain what has happened comment on what is happening predict what will happen under different circumstances end by giving your thoughts on what should happen

59 SIOP - Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol content objectives + linguistic functions and structures

60 Immersion Unit Plan: Ecosystems Life Science 4 th Grade Adapted from Yamakawa, Putting the Pieces Together The Bridge ACIE Newsletter, Feb Content-Compatible Language, cont. Synonyms for Paraphrasing spread (reach), produce (make), via (through), fertilize (enrich the soil), link (connect), consist of (made up of) Language Functions and Structures Identify a location. - This is a forest. State animal existence. – Red-tailed hawks live in forests. Sequence sentences with connecting words. – First, producers create energy. Next, herbivores eat producers. Then, carnivores and omnivores eat herbivores. Finally, decomposers feed on dead organisms and return nutrients back to the soil. Identify possible cause-effect relationships. – I think (the chicks died) because there was not enough food for them. Hypothesize in the past/present tense. – Perhaps, it was the lack of food. I think it was because they did not have enough food to eat. Identify multiple items in a series. – I think they are sunlight, water, and grass. Indicate agreement or disagreement. – Yes, I think so, too. No, I dont think so. Explain with because clause. – It is because plants produce energy by photosynthesis.

61 Immersion Unit Plan: Ecosystems Life Science 4 th Grade Adapted from Yamakawa, Putting the Pieces Together The Bridge ACIE Newsletter, Feb

62 Las Ranas Fairfax County Public Schools

63 6+1 Traits of Writing Ruth Culham

64 Establish a Common Language About Conventions

65 Composition Correction Reference Sheet The error chart lists codes for your writing errors. You will use the codes and the samples provided to assess and correct the mistakes that you made in your composition. CodeExplanationSample 1. sp Spelling mistake sp Jaime bein (bien) 2. s/v Subject and verb need to agree s/v Où est-ce que tu habite? (habites) 3. n Noun / adjective agreement n Jadore le petite chien noir. (petit) 4. m Mood – use indicative or subjunctive correctly m Il faut que tu fais tes devoirs. (fasses)

66 Composition Correction Chart Use this chart to keep track of the number and type of errors that you made in each composition. Your goal is to continue to reduce the number of errors that you make in each category. Devoir Titre 1. sp 2. s/v 3. n 4. m

67 Presentation Ruth Culham It takes a great deal of effort to overlook a pieces visual problems and respond to its ideas, organization, voice, word choice, sentence fluency, and conventions. How the paper looks influences our reaction to it, no matter how hard we try to keep it from creeping into our overall assessment.

68 ProcessTools Audience and IdentityBlogging, social network sites Writing processesWord processing software, Google Docs Prewriting and researchingMapping and outlining tools, visualization tools like,, RSS feeds for research, social bookmarking tools like Diigo Freewriting and collectingPrivate blogs, twitter accounts, personal journals DraftingWord processing, wikis which automatically track changes RevisingHighlighting and commenting tools like voicethread, Google docs EditingWord processing applications – grammar and spell checkers PublishingBlogs, Web sites, wikis, profile pages, podcasts, digital stories Multigenre and multimodal writing Web site creation, slideshow software, digital movie Electronic portfolioWikis A Sampler of Writing Process Strategies as Enhanced by Digital Tools Adapted from Because Digital Writing Matters

69 Second-Graders Hone Writing Skills With Twitter The AP (3/12) reports, "Twitter, the online social networking service that's become popular with celebrities and politicians, is linking second-grade classes in two Maine towns." The students in "Mrs. White's class in Orono" have "been Twittering for about a month with Mr. Thompson's class in Greene, exchanging messages that can't exceed 140 characters." According to WCSH-TV Portland, ME (3/12, Matuszewski) "The classes started exchanging messages, known as Tweets, mid-February." Students write most of their own messages, but, occasionally, the class will write messages as a group. Through the exercise, students learn "lessons in grammar, spelling, security, and digital citizenship."APWCSH-TV





74 Downloaded books are $2.99.


76 example provided by Julie Hoyt

77 Assessment vs. Evaluation Formative vs. Summative

78 We destroy the love of learning in children, which is so strong when they are small, by encouraging and compelling them to work for petty rewards--gold stars, or papers marked 100 and tacked to the wall, or A's on report cards, or honor rolls, or dean's lists or Phi Beta Kappa keys--in short, for the ignoble satisfaction of feeling that they are better than someone else. ~John Holt

79 Required for an A

80 Feedback The most powerful single modification that enhances achievement is feedback. The simplest prescription for improving education must be dollops of feedback. The manner in which feedback is communicated to students greatly affects whether it has a positive or negative effect on student achievement. John Hattie, Measuring the effects of schooling. Australian Journal of Education 1992

81 A Brief Review of the Research on Classroom Assessment Feedback from classroom assessments should give students a clear picture of their progress on learning goals and how they might approve. Feedback on classroom assessments should encourage students to improve. Classroom assessment should be formative in nature. Formative classroom assessments should be frequent. Adapted from Robert J. Marzano Classroom Assessment & Grading that Work

82 Peer Editing Dr. Deborah Baldini, University of Missouri-St. Louis Edit #1: Content and Organization Editors name: _______________________ Authors name:__________________ 1. Number each paragraph. Use the numbers to make reference to your comments. 2. Read the draft carefully. 3. Place a check next to each statement you find to be true of this paper: _____ 1. The author followed the directions for the assignment. _____ 2. The author utilized the past tenses. _____ 3. The draft is well organized; it has a presentación, a complicación, and a resolución. Please identify these by writing P, C, and R where they occur. _____ 4. There is a logical ending; the draft does not simply stop. If one of the above is not checked, please give the reason(s): 1. Should the author add anything, such as details? 2. Does any part need to be moved to improve organization? 3. What is this composition about? 4. What is the best part of this composition? Please give at least two suggestions you feel would improve this paper.

83 Peer Editing Dr. Deborah Baldini, University of Missouri-St. Louis Edit #2 Editors name: ___________________________ _____ 1. Appropriate word choice (no English or Spanglish). _____ 2. Verbs and subjects agree. _____ 3. Correct use of preterite. _____ 4. Nouns and adjectives agree. Please add any constructive comments or final recommendations for revision:

84 Fluency, Accuracy, and Complexity in Graded and Ungraded Writing Kimberly M. Armstrong Franklin & Marshall College Foreign Language Annals - vol. 43, No. 4, Winter 2010 Findings suggested that grades had little effect on student writing, and therefore more frequent and more varied ungraded writing assignments may be a productive pedagogical tool for improving the form and content of student writing.

85 Reducing Composition Errors: An Experiment John F. Lalande, II University of Missouri Foreign Language Annals - vol. 17, No. 2, Winter 2008 reprinted from The Modern Language Journal, 66 (1982) Several implications for the classroom teacher of German and perhaps of other modern foreign languages emerge from this study. These implications are: 1) the development of writing skills of students at the intermediate level of foreign language study can be favorably affected through the use of appropriate techniques; 2) systematic scoring of compositions should be the rule rather than the exception at the intermediate level; 3) since the affective disposition of students is not adversely affected by total correction of written errors, and since students can be made aware of deficiencies in linguistic competence, teachers should consider seriously the adoption of a policy of total correction of written errors; 4) students should receive instructional feedback on their essays…..

86 Developed by Parkway School District


88 Laura Terrill World Language / ELL Consultant 8529 Stark Drive Indianapolis, IN Cell: Home:

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