3 Writing is ThinkingAnd when we think deeply, we learn
4 Everyone has the capacity to write, writing can be taught, and teachers can help studentsbecome better writers.People learn to writeby writing.And when we think deeply, we learn- NCTE Beliefs about the teaching of writingNovember, 2004
5 ACTFL Integrated Performance Assessment Interpretive CommunicationStudents listen to, view and / or read an authentictext and answer information as well asinterpretive questions to assess comprehension.The teacher provides students with feedback onperformance.Presentational CommunicationStudents engage in the presentational mode by sharing their research/ideas/opinions. Samples presentational formats: speeches, drama, skits, videos, radio broadcasts, posters, brochures, essays, websites, etc.Interpersonal CommunicationAfter receiving feedback students engage in communication about a particular topic which relates to the interpretive text.
7 ACTFL Performance Guidelines for K-12 Learners NoviceUse short, memorized phrases; Understood by those who are very used to interacting with language learners; Rely on visuals to enhance comprehensibilityIntermediateFormulate written presentations using a range of sentences and strings of sentences primarily in present time but also, with preparation, in past and future timePre-AdvancedReport, narrate and describe, using connected sentences, paragraph-length and longer forms of discourse, on topics of personal, school and community interest
8 Novice Learner Range ACTFL Performance Guidelines Comprehen-sibilityUse short, memorized phrases; Understood by those who are very used to interacting with language learners; Rely on visuals to enhance comprehensibilityLanguageControlDemonstrate some accuracy when using memorized language;Show interference from native language when attempting to communicate information which goes beyond memorizedVocabularyUseUse a limited number of words and phrases in familiar categories; Rely on native language when expressing personal meaning in unfamiliar categoriesCommunicationStrategiesMake corrections by rewriting when appropriate forms are modeled by the teacherCulturalAwarenessImitate the use of culturally appropriate language as modeled by the teacherFocus on language control and vocabularyPresentational
9 Intermediate Learner Range ACTFL Performance Guidelines Comprehen-sibilityExpress their own thoughts, describe and narrate, using sentences and strings of sentences on familiar topics; Sufficient accuracy that readers understand most of what is presentedLanguageControlWritten presentations on familiar topics in present time but also with preparation in past and future time; Inaccuracies and interference when attempting to present less familiar materialVocabularyUseDemonstrate control of expanding number of familiar words and phrases and limited number of idiomatic expressions; Supplement basic vocabulary with use of dictionary; May sometimes use false cognatesCommunicationStrategiesOccasional use of reference sources and efforts at self-corrections to avoid errors; Use circumlocution to avoid linguistic challengesCulturalAwarenessUse some culturally appropriate vocabulary and idiomatic expressions; Demonstrate some cultural knowledgeTell story about first composition in level 3 last yearPresentational
10 Pre-Advanced Learner Range ACTFL Performance Guidelines Comprehen-sibilityReport, narrate and describe, using connected sentences, paragraph-length and longer on topics of personal, school, community and global interest; Reader may on occasion need to make a special effort to understand the messageLanguageControlAccurately formulate presentations in present time; May show some inaccuracies when dealing with multiple time frames or other complex structures; Successfully communicate personal meaningVocabularyUseDemonstrate control of an extensive vocabulary from a variety of topics; Supplement basic vocabulary with resources; May use more precise terms when dealing with researched topicsCommunicationStrategiesDemonstrate conscious effort at correct formulation and self-correction; Sustain length and continuity using strategies such as simplification, reformulation and circumlocutionCulturalAwarenessDemonstrate increased use of culturally appropriate vocabulary and idiomatic expressions; Use language increasingly reflective of authentic cultural practices and perspectivesPresentational
11 CinderellaLevel ICinderella is a girl. She isn’t happy. She works a lot.Her mother doesn’t like Cinderella. She has two sisters.They don’t like Cinderella. There is a ball. Cinderelladoesn’t go to the ball....Level IICinderella is a poor young girl. She has two sisters who are not nice. And her mother doesn’t like her much. One day the family is going to go to the ball at the king’s castle. Cinderella can’t go because she doesn’t have a pretty dress....Level IIIOnce upon a time there was family of two sisters and their mother. They had a step-sister, Cinderella. The mother loved her two ugly and mean daughters, but she didn’t like Cinderella, who was beautiful and nice. One day, the king invited all the young girls to meet his son, the prince. But Cinderella, who didn’t have anything nice to wear, couldn’t go....
12 Level IVOnce upon a time there was a family composed of a motherand her two mean and ugly daughters. In the small house lived Cinderella, the step-sister, who had to do all the householdchores. Because of her great charm and beauty, Cinderella was hated by her step-mother and two step-sisters who were jealous. One day, there was an invitation sent by the king, who was giving a grand ball at the castle in honor of his son. All the young girls of the kingdom were invited; except Cinderella who, not having anything to wear for such a rich ball, could not attend....Level VOnce upon a time there was a girl named Cinderella whose step- mother made her work all day long. But her two vain and lazy step-sisters would only walk around in their beautiful dresses making fun of Cinderella who was always dressed for doing household chores. One day, a letter arrived from the king who was making preparations for a grand ball at which his son would choose his future bride from among all the young girls of the kingdom. Cinderella really wanted to attend but couldn’t because all she had were the old charwoman clothes she was wearing.
13 ELL Adult SamplesYou are writing a letter to introduce yourself to your new neighbors.Describe your family and where you live. Mention several activities that you and your family do.Tell where you lived before coming to St. Louis. Tell what it was like as you prepared to move. What did you do? How did you feel? What made it hard to move? Why did you want to move?Describe what you will do in future years in the United States. Where will you work? Where will you travel? What will you do to help you continue to learn English?
14 I am from Israel.My name is Amalia. I am a married woman and have 3 kids. My son live in Florida and my girls in Israel. We usely like to travel to new places, to see moves and to go to Conserts.We move to St. Louis because my husbend get ajob in Boying Company. In the beging I feel happy to start a new life and my children encorg us to do that but When the day came it was hard to leve my girls in Israel and fly to U.S.Now after two years We miss the girls but we are close to my son. We travel a lot in U.S. to West Cost and to the East, meet new people and enjoy the new life.I help to improve my English with reading books watch T.V. and study English.
15 I like to introduce myself to all of you. My name is Jennifer I like to introduce myself to all of you. My name is Jennifer. I’m so happy to study in parkway esl school. It was out of my suspect before my arriving here. I have been here for almost six monthes. There are three people in my family. My husband. I and my son. We’re new immigration in U.S.A. But America is not strange to us. We had been here for one yoar in 1990 to 1991.I came from Taiwan. I was born and grew up in south of Taiwan. I used to live Kalshining city about fourty eight years. When I decided to move here. I was so worried about, what St. Louis look like? I’m no sure if I come to here that everything will be all right? Maybe I’m afraid to drive. The most difficult thing is langurage problem. I can’t sleep very well for a long time. Because I worried so much. I called my friend who had became a u.s. citizen two years ago. I’m looking forward to getting more opinions from her. I made a list what should I do or what should I need to bring. The important thing is economic problem. I need to arrange all of my property. I need to give up my life living in Taiwan. But my husband had a strong feeling to send my son to America. He like to support my son to creat a different and challenge new life for his future. This is a motivation for us to move here.I hope that I can speak and listen better in the furture.
17 IdeasIdeas make up the content of the piece. Writers move from the general to the specific. “They describe the bits and pieces of life, the ordinary, in extraordinary ways…They have something to say in their writing that no one else does. Their ideas come alive!”Ruth Culham
18 Lists Reasons not to lie Ways to spend $100 Things to do besides watch TVThings that make you smileThings you might find at the beach
19 Expand an OutlineAsk 3 to 5 questions to get more information about the following outline.I went to Florida.I visited my relatives.We walked on the beach.We ate at a restaurant.I had a good time.
22 Une carte postale arrive 72 ans plus tard Mardi 1 septembre, 06h16 Cette carte postale est arrivée à la poste de Monaco la semaine dernière, en provenance du centre de tri de Nice.Arrivée le 25 août 2009, la carte avait été postée le… 11 août 1937!Postée à Saint-Etienne-de-Tinée, dans les Alpes-Maritimes, par M. Achierdi, cette carte postale était destinée à Fernande, sa fiancée.Une fiancée décédé en 1969…………
23 Teammates ConsultShould the United States have given a state dinner for the China’s President? Why or why not?Discuss with your group. Then, pick up a pen and write an answer in your own words.
24 Teachers do not overtly correct errors. Dialogue Journals: Interactive Writing to Develop Language and Literacy Joy Kreeft PeytonA dialogue journal is a written conversation in which a student and teacher communicate regularly.Students write about topics that are important to them in the written genre that is appropriate. They are not constrained by teacher- or curriculum-established topics.Teachers do not overtly correct errors.Dialogue journals focus on meaning rather than form and on real topics and issues of interest to the student.
25 Dialogue Journal Prompts Lead ins….Topic words……It’s awful when I can’t…When I’m bored…What I like most about myself…Something strange I saw….I couldn’t sleep…What does it mean to be (lazy)?I went to the end of the rainbow and found…I have a dream…When I see (red), I think…I am happy when…Next year I want to…HomeworkA fast food restaurantSnowHeroZooMoneyVacationCarFriendAnimalJewelry
26 30 Ideas for Teaching Writing National Writing Project http://www. nwp Use the shared events of students' lives to inspire writing.Establish an dialogue between students from different schools who are reading the same book.Use writing to improve relations among students.Help student writers draw rich chunks of writing from endless sprawl.Work with words relevant to students' lives to help them build vocabulary.Help students analyze text by asking them to imagine dialogue between authors.Spotlight language and use group brainstorming to help students create poetry.
27 SentenceFluency“Fluent writing is graceful, varied, rhythmic — almost musical. It’s easy to read aloud. Sentences are well built. They move. They are varied in structure and length. Each one seems to flow right out of the one before.”Ruth Culham
28 Write 5 sentences about summer….. It’s summer. It’s hot. I love to swim. I like the beach. I like to play volleyball.Rewrite as one sentenceWhen it’s sunny and hot in the summer I love to go to the beach so my friend and I can swim and play volleyball.Must have a minimum of 25 words.
29 Teach transitions but also and then still, always at first as, like however for exampleoften in this waylater suddenlyperhaps becauseby the way especiallyon the contrary in any caseand finallybriefly now
30 Building Blocks Rosita made tortillas________ _______ where ? with whom?__________ __________ _________.when ? at what time? why?
31 Organization“Herding cats…..The art of getting those ideas together, heading them out on the trail with a great sendoff; creating sequence, transitions, and a fine sense of pacing along the way; and, at the end of the drive, rounding them up…..”Ruth Culham
33 Summarize Student’s trace hand on paper. They write the most important topic on the palm of the hand.They write 5 facts about the topic on each finger.Students pair with a partner to share their summary.
34 An unusual meal….. Write a topic sentence with at least 10 words. Write a closing sentence with at least 10 words.
35 Word Choice“Word choice is about the use of rich, colorful, precise language that communicates….. in good descriptive writing, strong word choice clarifies and expands ideas. In persuasive writing, it moves you to a new vision of things. In narrative writing, it creates images in your mind that are so real, you feel like you are part of the story itself.”Ruth Culham
36 Cinquain Poetry Subject noun, noun adjective, adjective, adjective short sentence or phrase about the subjectrestate the subjectParismuseums, monumentsdynamic, exciting, alivea cultural tapestry thisCity of Lights.
37 Brevette Poetry subject (noun) verb (ongoing action, stretched out when typed)object (noun)studentst a k eteststeachersg r a d epaperssummersg i v erelief
38 Loop Poetry What a joy to travel Travel to see places In Loop Poetry there are no restrictions on the number of stanzas nor on the syllable count for each line. In each stanza, the last word of the first line becomes the first word of line two, last word of line 2 becomes the first word of line 3, last word of line 3 becomes the first word of line 4. This is followed for each stanza.What a joy to travelTravel to see placesPlaces that are differentDifferent people to meet.Who am I now?Now I have changedChanged by experiencesExperiences that are memories.
39 Expand a HeadlineJ'oubliaisC'est la chance des jeunes de banlieue en france, mais sans doute d'autres en Europe et ailleur.Donc ce signe n'est que la capacit� par sa nomination qu'il aura a faire venir les forts, ceux qui construirons les brevets et syst鑪es mondiaux de demain.Et la , la france et les fran軋is vont commencer a comprendre le force des banlieusards, a l'騁ranger.....“Les Etats-Unis ont surmonté les démons du passé” (Le Monde)“La Chance de l’Amérique”…(Libération)
40 Expand a Slogan Diamonds are forever (DeBeers) Just do it (Nike) The pause that refreshes (Coca-Cola)We try harder (Avis)Good to the last drop (Maxwell House)Breakfast of champions (Wheaties)Does she ... or doesn't she? (Clairol)Where's the beef? (Wendy's)Look Ma, no cavities! (Crest toothpaste)Loose lips sink ships (public service)
41 Picture ThisUse an image, show for 1 minute, cover, each student writes words, phrases and sentences to describe.Segment image into 6 quadrants, show each quadrant for 1 minute, allow students to write out of context descriptionFinally show entire image again for one minute.6 + 1 Traits of Wrting - Ruth Culham
44 R.A.F.T.S. Role Audience Format Topic German governmentcitizens of Guernicaletterapology for whatwas doneFrancopeople of Spainspeechprotestation of innocenceMuseum curatorPicassonewspaperinterviewquestions about the painting and likely answersSoldierCommandertelegramreasons for defeatMotherDiaryjournal entrywhat happened and personal thoughts about war?persuade, analyze, create, predict, compare, defend, evaluate
45 Voice“Voice…..the sense that a real person is speaking to you and cares about the message. It is the heart and soul of the writing the magic, the wit, the feeling…..”Ruth Culham
46 What Peace Means to Me Said Mohamed, 4th grade I came from Somalia. There was a war there. People were getting hurt. Bombs were dropping. I could hear guns. At night they woke me up. Two of my brothers were fighting in the war. One brother was nineteen and one brother was twenty-six. They both got killed.One night the bad guys came into our house. We ran out the back. They stole my mom’s jewelry. My uncle wanted to stay and fight, but my dad told him, “No!”We went to Ethiopia to get away. Sometimes we rode in a truck, or on camels or we walked. I closed my eyes so I wouldn’t see bad things. We never went back to our house in Somalia.After one year we came to America. I hope they never have a war in America. People need to show love. That is PEACE!Ask them to think about level of language - preproduction, early production, speech emergence, intermediate fluency, advanced fluency
47 Daily Writing Prompts September 26 — On September 26, 1774, John Chapman was born. Later in life, he became better known as Johnny Appleseed. Johnny performed a community service as he traveled west spreading apple seeds. Write about some types of community service that you could possibly perform.
48 Daily Writing PromptsMarch 30 On this day in 1858, the patent for a pencil with an attached eraser was issued. Taking your pencil’s point of view, what do you think a typical day in your classroom would be like?March 21 Today is “Children’s Poetry Day.” Using your favorite form of poetry, write a poem about what it means to be a kid. Think about the advantages and disadvantages.March 16 On this day in 1751, our 4th President, James Madison was born. Madison was the oldest of twelve (12) children. What do you think would be the advantages and/or disadvantages of having eleven (11) siblings? Would you like to have eleven younger brothers and sisters?March 8 March 8th is “Working Women’s Day.” Many people feel that being a stay-at- home-mom is full-time job. Do you agree or disagree and why?March 6 On this day in 1912, Oreo Cookies were sold for the first time. Describe to someone how you like to eat your Oreo.
49 More writing prompts….You can post your response (750 words or fewer) on the site.Write a made-up magic spell, including ingredients, chants, and actions. Now, turn it into a poem.Pretend that there is a small man/woman operating the control system of your brain. Write about your day from his/her perspective. How does he/she feel about you?One day you wake up to find your dog/cat waiting for you at the side of your bed, sitting on your briefcase. Cocking its head, it tells you, in perfect English, that you won’t be going to work today. Why won’t your pet let you go to work, and what happens?You're late for work because you overslept, but your boss hates over- sleepers. He does love entertaining stories, so create the most outlandish excuse as to why you were late.
50 Save the Last Word for Me (Dialogue Journals) Locate five statements or quotations that you findinteresting as a reader. Write the statement or quotein your journal or on one side of an index card. Then,write your comments or questions about the statementon the back side of the index card or in your journal.Share the quote in your small group inviting others to addtheir thoughts. Do not share your thinking until everyonein your group has given a reaction.This is also a great way of allowing students to pick a final topic for a paper after reading. Each student can select their favorite quote and deal with it from the concrete, relative and abstract points of view. Every paper you read will be different.
51 Conventions“Students in classes where conventions are valued over everything else get a distorted view of writing…Effective writing classrooms are places where there is a balance between creating interesting, informative, imaginative texts, and editing those texts for conventions.”Ruth Culham
52 ELL Adult SampleI live in St. Charles I came here by myself 1 year and 5 month ago. My family is in Korea. I came here to study English. Before coming to St. Louis. I used to live in Seoul, Korea. I wanted to come to US from before to learn English and enjoy my different life. Since I came here, I really enjoyed doing somethings and going new places. I’ll go back to Korea end of this month.
53 Dear neighbors.We are your new neighbors. Me. Haibo and my wife Donghua. We are from China, and have been in America for 2 years but in St. Louis, just 2 months. Before moved to St. Louis, we lived on University of Missouri – Columbia campus. My wife graduated and found a job here, so we moved here at the end of last year. As Chinese, we like Chinese food very much, but not America football and we do not have kids, so we should be quite. Because of the methods of Chinese cooking, there may be some smoke and smell in and around our apartment, if you feel uncomfortable, just let us know, we will maintain it as little as we can.Le me tell you about moving. When we prepared the lugages to America we found that it is very hard to put everything we need into two 32 lb boxes which are maximum lugages each passenger can carry. But at the to move to St. Louis we are surprised how we could get so many stuffs in two year. Fortunately, my wife got more fenifit from the new job, so we hired a moving company to help us, which made work easier.In the future years, my wife hope she can get good performance in her job, and can attain her PhD. Degree. I will be a graduate student in UMSL, and we hope we can have a baby next year.Best regards,Laura Terrill
54 Great Art of France: Virtual Visits Elle s’appelle Mona Lisa. Elle a 32 ans. Elle n’est pas jolie, mais elle n’est pas laide, non plus. Elle a les cheveux longs, pas noirs, pas blonds......
55 Yesterday – Today - Tomorrow Whathappened?What willhappen?What is happening?
56 Déçu à Paris J’ai voyagé à Paris. Tu m’as écrit une lettre avant ton arrivée.Mon amie est venue à Paris aussi.Nous avons visité la ville.Vous avez bien dîné le soir, pas moi, j’étais malade.Mes amis se sont amusés, pas moi, j’ai dormi à l’hôtel.
57 Déçu à Paris I traveled to Paris. You wrote me a letter before you arrrived.My friend also came to Paris.We visited the city.You ate well that evening, but not me, I was sick.My friends had a good time, but I slept in the hotel.
58 Structured Writings Consider the difference…… Comment on a current event:Include:a verb that uses “avoir”a verb that uses “être”a reflexive verbtwo adjectivestwo connectorsexplain what has happenedcomment on what is happeningpredict what will happen under different circumstancesend by giving your thoughts on what should happen
60 Immersion Unit Plan: Ecosystems Life Science 4th Grade Content-Compatible Language, cont.Synonyms for Paraphrasingspread (reach), produce (make), via (through), fertilize (enrich the soil), link (connect), consist of (made up of)Language Functions and StructuresIdentify a location. - This is a forest.State animal existence. – Red-tailed hawks live in forests.Sequence sentences with connecting words. – First, producers create energy. Next, herbivores eat producers. Then, carnivores and omnivores eat herbivores. Finally, decomposers feed on dead organisms and return nutrients back to the soil.Identify possible cause-effect relationships. – I think (the chicks died) because there was not enough food for them.Hypothesize in the past/present tense. – Perhaps, it was the lack of food. I think it was because they did not have enough food to eat.Identify multiple items in a series. – I think they are sunlight, water, and grass.Indicate agreement or disagreement. – Yes, I think so, too. No, I don’t think so.Explain with because clause. – It is because plants produce energy by photosynthesis.Adapted from Yamakawa, Putting the Pieces TogetherThe Bridge ACIE Newsletter, Feb. 2010
61 Immersion Unit Plan: Ecosystems Life Science 4th Grade Adapted from Yamakawa, Putting the Pieces TogetherThe Bridge ACIE Newsletter, Feb. 2010
65 Composition Correction Reference Sheet The error chart lists codes for your writing errors. You will use the codes andthe samples provided to assess and correct the mistakes that you made in yourcomposition.CodeExplanationSample1. spSpelling mistakespJ’aime bein (bien)2. s/vSubject and verb need to agrees/vOù est-ce que tu habite? (habites)3. nNoun / adjective agreementnJ’adore le petite chien noir. (petit)4. mMood – use indicative or subjunctive correctlymIl faut que tu fais tes devoirs. (fasses)
66 Composition Correction Chart Use this chart to keep track of the number and type of errors that you made ineach composition. Your goal is to continue to reduce the number of errors thatyou make in each category.Devoir12345678910Titre1. sp2. s/v3. n4. m
67 Presentation“It takes a great deal of effort to overlook a piece’s visual problems and respond to its ideas, organization, voice, word choice, sentence fluency, and conventions. How the paper looks influences our reaction to it, no matter how hard we try to keep it from creeping into our overall assessment.”Ruth Culham
68 A Sampler of Writing Process Strategies as Enhanced by Digital Tools Audience and IdentityBlogging, social network sitesWriting processesWord processing software, Google DocsPrewriting and researchingMapping and outlining tools, visualization tools like Wordle.net, Bubbl.us, RSS feeds for research, social bookmarking tools like DiigoFreewriting and collectingPrivate blogs, twitter accounts, personal journalsDraftingWord processing, wikis which automatically track changesRevisingHighlighting and commenting tools like voicethread, Google docsEditingWord processing applications – grammar and spell checkersPublishingBlogs, Web sites, wikis, profile pages, podcasts, digital storiesMultigenre and multimodal writingWeb site creation, slideshow software, digital movieElectronic portfolioWikisAdapted from Because Digital Writing Matters
69 Second-Graders Hone Writing Skills With Twitter The AP (3/12) reports, "Twitter, the online social networking service that's become popular with celebrities and politicians, is linking second-grade classes in two Maine towns." The students in "Mrs. White's class in Orono" have "been Twittering for about a month with Mr. Thompson's class in Greene, exchanging messages that can't exceed 140 characters." According to WCSH-TV Portland, ME (3/12, Matuszewski) "The classes started exchanging messages, known as Tweets, mid-February." Students write most of their own messages, but, occasionally, the class will write messages as a group. Through the exercise, students learn "lessons in grammar, spelling, math...online security, and digital citizenship."
77 Assessment vs. Evaluation Assessment should serve as a window into how students work and think as well as a ruler for measuring their progress. Assessment allows us to gain insights into students’ interests, concerns, preoccupations, and styles of thinking.Formative vs. Summative
78 We destroy the love of learning in children, which is so strong when they are small, by encouraging and compelling them to work for petty rewards--gold stars, or papers marked 100 and tacked to the wall, or A's on report cards, or honor rolls, or dean's lists or Phi Beta Kappa keys--in short, for the ignoble satisfaction of feeling that they are better than someone else.~John Holt
79 Required for an “A”Will use as a introduction to why rubrics are necessary, but will wait to actually show rubrics.
80 FeedbackThe most powerful single modification that enhances achievement is feedback. The simplest prescription for improving education must be ‘dollops of feedback’.The manner in which feedback is communicated to students greatly affects whether it has a positive or negative effect on student achievement.John Hattie, Measuring the effects of schooling.Australian Journal of Education 1992
81 A Brief Review of the Research on Classroom Assessment Feedback from classroom assessments should give students a clear picture of their progress on learning goals and how they might approve.Feedback on classroom assessments should encourage students to improve.Classroom assessment should be formative in nature.Formative classroom assessments should be frequent.Focus today on formative assessment and feedback - helping regular classroom teachers understand the dynamics of improving student performanceAdapted from Robert J. MarzanoClassroom Assessment & Grading that Work
82 Peer Editing Edit #1: Content and Organization Editor’s name: _______________________ Author’s name:__________________1. Number each paragraph. Use the numbers to make reference to your comments.2. Read the draft carefully.3. Place a check next to each statement you find to be true of this paper:_____ 1. The author followed the directions for the assignment._____ 2. The author utilized the past tenses._____ 3. The draft is well organized; it has a presentación, a complicación, and aresolución. Please identify these by writing P, C, and R where they occur._____ 4. There is a logical ending; the draft does not simply stop.If one of the above is not checked, please give the reason(s):1. Should the author add anything, such as details?2. Does any part need to be moved to improve organization?3. What is this composition about?4. What is the best part of this composition?Please give at least two suggestions you feel would improve this paper.Dr. Deborah Baldini, University of Missouri-St. Louis
83 Peer Editing Edit #2 Editor’s name: ___________________________ _____ 1. Appropriate word choice (no English or “Spanglish”)._____ 2. Verbs and subjects agree._____ 3. Correct use of preterite._____ 4. Nouns and adjectives agree.Please add any constructive comments or final recommendations for revision:Dr. Deborah Baldini, University of Missouri-St. Louis
84 Fluency, Accuracy, and Complexity in Graded and Ungraded Writing Kimberly M. Armstrong — Franklin & Marshall College Foreign Language Annals - vol. 43, No. 4, Winter 2010Findings suggested that grades had little effect on student writing, and therefore more frequent and more varied ungraded writing assignments may be a productive pedagogical tool for improving the form and content of student writing.
85 Reducing Composition Errors: An Experiment John F Reducing Composition Errors: An Experiment John F. Lalande, II University of Missouri Foreign Language Annals - vol. 17, No. 2, Winter 2008 reprinted from The Modern Language Journal, 66 (1982)Several implications for the classroom teacher of German and perhaps of other modern foreign languages emerge from this study. These implications are: 1) the development of writing skills of students at the intermediate level of foreign language study can be favorably affected through the use of appropriate techniques; 2) systematic scoring of compositions should be the rule rather than the exception at the intermediate level; 3) since the affective disposition of students is not adversely affected by total correction of written errors, and since students can be made aware of deficiencies in linguistic competence, teachers should consider seriously the adoption of a policy of total correction of written errors; 4) students should receive instructional feedback on their essays…..