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Myology shandong university Liu Zhiyu

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Presentation on theme: "Myology shandong university Liu Zhiyu"— Presentation transcript:

1 Myology shandong university Liu Zhiyu

2 Section 1. Introduction smooth m. cardiac m. skeleton m.
skeletal musclevoluntary m.。

3 Ⅰ. Shape and structure of the muscle
1. Classification long m. short m . flat m. orbicular m.

4 Shape and structure of the muscle
muscle belly tendon : aponeurosis

5 Ⅱ. Origin and insertion fixator 1 2、 Origin)、 insertion, 3 agonist
   3    agonist synergist 、 antagonist fixator

6 Ⅲ. Name of muscles Location of the muscle. Shape of the muscle.
Size of the muscle Direction of muscle

7 Ⅳ. Accessory structure Ⅰ) fascia 1、 superficial fascia

8 2、 deep fascia : Ⅱ) synovial bursa    

9 Ⅲ)Tendinous sheath fibrous layer Synovial layer
synovial sheath of tendon Viscerasl layer Parietal layer

10 Section2 The muscles of head and neck

11 Ⅰ. The muscles of head

12 一、Muscles of head Facial muscles : includ
Epicranius (or occipitofrontalis) Frontal belly Occipital belly Galea aponeurotica Orbicularis oculi Buccinator Orbicularis oris Nasalis

13 Frontal belly of occitofrontalis
orbicularis oculi Levator labii superioris Levator anguli oris Depressor labii inferioris Orbicularis oris Depressor anguli oris

14 (二) masticatory muscles
masseter : Origin-inferior border and medial surface of zygomatic arch Insertion-lateral surface of ramus of mandible and angle of mandible temporalis : Origin-temporal fossa Insertion-coronoid process of mandible action: masseter, temporalis --- elevates mandible— close the mouth

15 (二) masticatory muscles
medial pterygoid : lateral pterygoid : action: medial pterygoid elevates mandible—close the mouth lateral pterygoid :pull the head of mandible forwards--- open the mouth

16 Ⅱ. Muscles of neck

17 Platysma Sternocleidomastoid Origins: manubrium and medial1/3 of clavicle Insertion: mastoid process of temporal bone; Actions: acting alone, the head is inclined ipsilateral and the face is rotated to opposite side; acting together, they extend the head.

18 elevate (raise) hyoid bone and depress mandible.
1、suprahyoid muscles Anterior belly Posterior belly digastric Mylohyoid Stylohyoid Geniohyoid Action: elevate (raise) hyoid bone and depress mandible.

19 2、infrahyoid muscles sternohyoid omohyoid sternothyroid Thyrohyoid Action: depress hyoid or larynx

20 scalene fissure : (三)The deep cervical m. 1、lateral goup
scalenus anterior scalenus medius scalenus posterior scalene fissure : it is bounded by the scalenus anterior and medius and first rib ,it contains the subclavian a and brachial plexus. 2、medial group: longus colli longus capitis

21 section 3 The muscles of trunk

22 Ⅰ. The muscles of back

23 1、superficial group ( 1)Trapezius
a large, triangular m. lying on the back of the neck and thorax; Origin: external occipital protuberance, superior nuchal line, ligamentum nuchae, the spinous processes of 7th cervical vertebrae and all thoracic vertebrae; Insertion: lateral 1/3 of clavicle, acromion and spine of scapula.

24 1、superficial group ( 1)Trapezius Action:
raises, descends, and rotates the scapula and extends the head.

25 1、superficial group (2)Latissimus Dorsi
It is a largest and triangular m. lying the back and lateral wall of thorax; Origins: the spinous processes of lower 6 thoracic vertebrae and all lumbar vertebrae; Insertion: inserted into the floor of the intertubercular sulcus Action: Extend, adduct, and rotate the shoulder joint medially Latissimus dorsi

26 1、superficial group (3)levator scapulae
origin:the transverse processes of the upper 4 cervical vertebrae; insertion:superior angle of scapula. Action:raise the scapula. Levator scapulae Rhomboideus (4)rhomboideus Lies deep to the trapezius,

27 2、The deep group Erector Spinae Splenius position:
It lies in the vertebral groove on each side of vertebral spines; Action:extend the spinal column and head Splenius position: Action:

28 Ⅱ. The muscles of thorax

29 1. Extrinsic muscles Pectoralis major Pectoralis minor Serratus anterior

30 Pectoralis major Origin: medial half of clavicle,sternum,1th-6th costal cartilages. Insertion: crest of greater tubercle of humerus. Action: flexes, adducts and rotates arm medially; arm fixed, elevates trunk; elevates ribs 1-6,aidding in forced inspiration.

31 Pectoralis minor Origin: 3rd-5th ribs
Deep to the pectoralis major Origin: 3rd-5th ribs Insertion: coracoid process of scapula Action: Draw the scapula forwards and downwards,when the scapula is fixed it helps the inspiration(by elevation the ribs)

32 Serratus anterior It overlies the laeral wall of thorax
Origin: external surfaces of the upper 8~9 ribs Insertion: medial border of scapula Action: holds the scapula against the chest wall;Pulls the scapula forwards in throwing and pushing.

33 Intercostales externi
2. Intrinsic muscles Intercostales externi Origin: lower border of rib Insertion: upper border of rib below origin external intercostals membrane . Action: elevate ribs adding in forced inspiration

34 Intercostales interni
Origin: upper border of rib; Insertion: lower border of rib above origin Replaced posteriorly by internal intercostals membrane. Action: depress ribs for forced expiration

35 Ⅲ. Diaphragm (1) Position and division: Sternal part: Costal part:
dome-shaped between thorax and abdomen, consists of Central tendon muscular part Sternal part: Costal part: Lumbar part: arises by left and right crus from upper 2-3 lumbar vertebrae Insertion: central tendon

36 ③ Vena caval foramen ① Aortic hiatus ② Esophageal hiatus
(2) Openings of diaphragm ① Aortic hiatus at the level of 12th thoracic vertebra, the thoracic aorta and thoracic duct pass through it inferior vena cava T8 ② Esophageal hiatus at the level of 10th thoracic vertebra, the esophagus and vagus n. pass throught it T10 esophagus thoracic aorta T12 ③ Vena caval foramen at the level of 8th thoracic vertebra, inferior vena cava through it

37 (3) Action Contraction: the dome moving downward, increases the volume of thoracic cavity which results in inspiration. Relaxation: the dome returns to the former position, reduces the volume of the thoracic cavity, resulting in expiration.

38 (2) Weak areas: triangular spaces without muscular tissue
Lumbocostal triangle between costal and lumbar parts. Sternocostal triangle between costal and sternal parts.

39 Muscles of abdomen Anterolateral group Obliquus externus abdominis
Obliquus internus abdominis Transversus abdominis Rectus abdominis

40 Obliquus externus abdominis
Origin: Arises from the lower 8 ribs, and the muscular fibers run obliquely from the superolateal to the inferomedial, the anterior part of the m. change gradually into aponeurosis, which pass over the rectus Abdominis; insertion: Linea alba .

41 Obliquus externus absominis
Structures formed by aponeurosis of this m. include: Inguinal ligament Superficial inguinal ring Superficial inguinal ring triangular-shaped hiatus above pubic tubercle Lacunar ligament Lacunar ligament

42 Obliquus internus abdominis
Origin: thoracolumbar fascia , iliac crest and the lateral half of the ingunal lig. Insertion: Linea alba The muscular fibers run upwards and forwards, and become the aponeurosis close the lateral border of the rectus abdominis. Its aponeurosis divided into two layers to inclose the rectus abdominis.

43 Transversels abdominis
is the deepest one of the three flat abdominal m. Origin: it arises from the costal cartilages of the lower 6 ribs,the thoracolumbar fascia , the iliac crest and the lateral 1/3 of the ingunal lig. , Insertion: Linea alba The muscular fibers run transversly ,and pass deep to rectus abdominis.

44 Transversels abdominis
Inguinal falx(conjoined tendon) or is a common aponeurosis joined by obliquus internus abdominis and transverse abdomini, it turns downwards to insert the pubic crest and pecten pubis. Cremaster : around the spermatic cord and testis

45 The Sheath of rectus abdominis
Anterior layer- formed by the aponeurosis of obliquus externus abdominis ; anterior leaf of aponeurosis of obliquus internus abdominis Posterior layer:formed by posterion leaf of aponeurosis of obliquus internus abdominis ; aponeurosis of transverses abdominis

46 The Sheath of rectus abdominis
arcuate line semicircular line at about 4-5cm below the umbilicus, the lower free border of the posterior layer of the sheth present arcuated. Below this line the rectus abdominis in contact with transverse fascia directly.

47 Linea alba -tendinous raphe between right and left rectus abdominis from xiphoid process to pubic symphysis.

48 The functions of the four pairs of muscles
Support and protect the abdominal viscera Maintain and increase intra-abdominal pressure, aid in vomiting, coughing, sneezing, defecation, urination and childbirth. Flex, lateral flex, and rotate vertebral column

49 Posterior group Quadratus lumborum Psoas major

50 Inguinal canal Position: oblique passage about 4cm long, and passes downwards and medially, it lies parallel to, and immediately above medial half of inguinal lig. It has two openings and four walls.

51 Four walls Anterior wall Aponeurosis of obliquus externus abdominis
Obliquus internus abdominis (lateral third of wall)

52 Roof- lower fibers of obliquus internus and transversus abdominis
Post wall — Transverse fascia ; Inguinal flax medially Roof- lower fibers of obliquus internus and transversus abdominis Floor-inguinal ligament.

53 Two openings Superficial inguinal ring
Deep inguinal ring defect in transverse fascia,lies at about 1.5cm above midpoint of inguinal ligament

54 Structures passing through the inguinal canal
Male: Spermatic cord female: Round ligament of uterus







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