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United States Fire Administration Chief Officer Training Curriculum Operations Module 15: High-Rise Simulation Exercise.

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Presentation on theme: "United States Fire Administration Chief Officer Training Curriculum Operations Module 15: High-Rise Simulation Exercise."— Presentation transcript:

1 United States Fire Administration Chief Officer Training Curriculum Operations Module 15: High-Rise Simulation Exercise

2 United States Fire Administration Ops 15-2 Objectives  Identify critical cues at a high-rise incidents  Establish incident objectives  Select tactics  Identify and request resources  Select alternate solutions  Establish an appropriate ICS organization to manage the incident

3 United States Fire Administration Ops 15-3 Overview  High-rise: building 75 feet or greater in height  Buildings less than 75-feet height high may present similar difficulties  If fire on top floors of four- or five-story building, treat as high-rise

4 United States Fire Administration Ops 15-4 Knowledge of Building  “Old” or “new” style construction?  Built-in life safety and fire protection— where and how do they operate?  Current occupancy?  Floors compartmented?  Open space?

5 Old Style

6 United States Fire Administration Ops 15-6 Old-Style Characteristics  Bearing wall—masonry  Most reinforced concrete—some not  Large mass (weight)  Less likely to collapse  Floors/walls—reinforced concrete  Many have unreinforced masonry

7 New Style

8 United States Fire Administration Ops 15-8 New-Style Characteristics  Core construction—but not all  Steel skeleton—column, beam, and girder  Elevators, stairs, utilities in core  Center core construction  Less mass (weight)—more vulnerable to heat

9 United States Fire Administration Ops 15-9 New-Style Characteristics (continued)  Floors have been known to sag 2 feet  Sprayed-on coating on steel  Some new high-rises constructed without core –Stairs, elevators, and utilities at various places buildings—mainly on exterior walls

10 Core

11 United States Fire Administration Ops Structural Framing Systems  Skeleton of the building  Both styles use interior and exterior columns

12 United States Fire Administration Ops Exterior Walls—Both Styles  Poured in-place concrete—old style  Prefabricated—new style –Walls lighter weight than old style

13 United States Fire Administration Ops Exterior Walls—New Style  Bolts to structural frame or floor slab  Leaves space between wall and floor  Unless sealed, can lead to fire and smoke extension to floors above and water damage to floors below

14 Roof

15 United States Fire Administration Ops Roofs—Both Styles  2-hour fire-restrictive rating  Know the: –Stair shaft exits –Obstructions on the roof

16 United States Fire Administration Ops Interior Partition Construction and Compartmentation—Old Style  Interior walls—poured concrete  High level of compartmentation  Walls usually go from floor to to floor

17 United States Fire Administration Ops Interior Partition Construction and Compartmentation—New Style  Interior partitions and walls usually drywall on a metal stud  May or may not be high-level of compartmentation

18 United States Fire Administration Ops Electrical Systems  Systems extremely complex and hazardous  Chases one cause of vertical fire spread  Main electrical usually located in basement  Utility company or building engineer should shut down system

19 Elevator Lobby

20 United States Fire Administration Ops Elevators  Normal conditions—elevators only practical method of moving people  Fire conditions—elevators become erratic and dangerous  Many control features affected by smoke, moisture, and heat

21 United States Fire Administration Ops Elevators—Safe Use  Knowledge of how they work  Maximum amount of people—5 to 6  Possible malfunctions What malfunctions can occur?

22 United States Fire Administration Ops Elevators—Hoistways  Can be multiple elevators in hoistway  Split-bank elevators—low, medium, high-rise

23 United States Fire Administration Ops Elevators—Emergency Service Feature  Moves cars to designated location  May be activated by fire alarm system  Manual recall may be done by switches in lobby, fire control room, or elevator

24 United States Fire Administration Ops Elevators—Good Judgment  Can speed up initial investigation and fire control  Can malfunction and take you to the fire floor  Using stairs is safest method  Do not take elevator closer than five floors to the fire floor  Be prepared to take defensive action

25 United States Fire Administration Ops Smoke Control Systems  Active systems prone to fail under fire conditions  Dirt and dust damage systems  If used for smoke removal, closely monitor the area  Shut down system if notice any adverse affects

26 United States Fire Administration Ops HVAC Systems  Under fire conditions, can pump heat, smoke and toxins to other areas  Best approach—Shut down system

27 United States Fire Administration Ops HVAC Systems (continued)  Older buildings: –Close switches that control intake fans –Switches may be in Mechanical Equipment Room (MER)  Newer buildings: –System may automatically shut down –Systems may provide exhaust on fire floor and pressurization of floors above and below –Best bet—Shut down HVAC and use for smoke removal after fire controlled

28 United States Fire Administration Ops Water Supply  Variety of water supply systems: –1 1/2-inch wet standpipe –2 1/2-inch dry standpipe –2 1/2-inch wet standpipe –Sprinkler systems

29 United States Fire Administration Ops Water Supply-WARNING  Know outlet pressure—type of hose and nozzle depends on this information: –Typical pressure about 65 psi –This pressure requires smoothbore tip or low pressure fog nozzle –Fog nozzles requiring 100 psi at nozzle produce ineffective streams

30 United States Fire Administration Ops Water Supply Pressure Control Devices  Minimum pressure must be available at top floor  Pressure Relief Valves (PRV) often placed on lower floors to control head pressure  NFPA Standards #14 and #25 changed since Meridian fire

31 United States Fire Administration Ops Sprinkler Systems  Required by codes in most states for new construction  Many older buildings do not have sprinklers  Preplanning—know zones the systems protect  Most high-rises do not have sprinklers unless retrofit law

32 United States Fire Administration Ops Portable Communications Equipment  Can be ineffective at high-rise  Places in building that prevent signal reception and transmission  Radio frequency affects communications capability

33 United States Fire Administration Ops Built-In Communications Systems  Not found in old style  Hard-wired system—sound- powered phones  May exist in elevators  Local codes should require hard- wired  Headsets should be kept at high- rise  Can reduce load on radio system

34 United States Fire Administration Ops Smoke/Heat Detectors  Floors may have them  May or may not be connected to enunciator panel  Smoke detectors may be part of HVAC  Preplanning knowledge necessary for effective decision-making

35 United States Fire Administration Ops Enunciator Panel  Know the location  Know how to read the panel

36 United States Fire Administration Ops Fire Control Station/Room  Should provide –Specific information on alarms –Fire protection systems status  Often have building communications system to: –Warn occupants –Provide two-way communications with elevators, fire pump rooms, and MER  May be located in the basement

37 United States Fire Administration Ops Fire Behavior and Fire Spread  Elements that affect fire extension: –Stack effect –Negative stack effect –Vertical extension –Core construction –Fire loading –Heat build-up

38 United States Fire Administration Ops ICS for High-Rise Incidents  Staging area manager—located two to three floors below fire floor  Base manager—located where apparatus parked, usually 200+ feet from building  Lobby control unit leader—organizes lobby for incoming resources, determines attack and evacuation stairs, and provides personnel to operate elevators

39 United States Fire Administration Ops ICS for High-rise Incidents (continued)  System unit leader—responsible for all building systems and their effective operation  Ground support unit leader—provides for movement of supplies to staging by way of stair shaft

40 United States Fire Administration Ops ICS - 8th Floor Fire

41 United States Fire Administration Ops Activity 15.1: High-Rise Simulation Exercise

42 Sides A & B

43 Sides B & C

44 Side C

45 Lobby Elevators

46 Typical Floor

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48 Ba BR LR K Ba BR LR K Ba BR LR K Ba BR LR K Ba BR LR K K BR Ba LR K BR Ba LR K BR Ba LR K BR Ba LR K BR Ba BR LR Ba BR LR E EKK Stair #1 Stair #2 LL Street N Typical Floor Tonnalee Apartments 22nd S t r e t

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52 United States Fire Administration Ops Module Summary  Pre-incident planning –Construction characteristics –Structural features—building systems and fire control rooms  ICS functions for high-rise incidents –Staging area manager –Base manager –Lobby control unit leader –Systems unit leader –Ground support unit leader


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