Presentation on theme: "Notes on Spinoza, TTP, chapters 14-15. Spinoza’s Project In the TTP Spinoza is trying to establish the “the limits of individual freedom of opinion in."— Presentation transcript:
Notes on Spinoza, TTP, chapters 14-15
Spinoza’s Project In the TTP Spinoza is trying to establish the “the limits of individual freedom of opinion in regard to faith, and who should be seen as belonging to the faithful in spite of their diverse opinions” (p. 158). In chapters 14 and 15 he defines faith, its basic principles, distinguishes it from philosophy, and argues that neither is theology subordinate to philosophy, nor is philosophy subordinate to theology.
Spinoza’s Definition of Faith Faith is “the holding of certain beliefs about God such that, without these beliefs, there cannot be obedience to God, and if this obedience is posited, these beliefs are necessarily posited” (p. 160).
Consequences of this Definition of Faith Faith does not bring salvation through itself, but only by reason of obedience. One who is truly obedient necessarily possesses a true and saving faith. Faith requires not so much true dogmas as pious dogmas, that is, such as move the heart to obedience.
Tenets of the Universal Faith God exists. God is one alone. God is omnipresent. God has supreme right and dominion over all things. Worship of God and obedience to him consists solely in justice and charity, or love towards one’s neighbor. All who obey God by following this way of life, and only those, are saved; others, who live at pleasure’s behest, are lost. God forgives repentant sinners.
Faith vs. Philosophy “The aim of philosophy is... truth, while the aim of faith... is nothing other than obedience and piety” (p. 164).
A Practical Implication “[F]aith allows to every man the utmost freedom to philosophise, and he may hold whatever opinions he pleases on any subjects whatsoever without imputation of evil. It condemns as heretics and schismatics only those who teach such beliefs as promote obstinacy, hatred, strife and anger, while it regards as the faithful only those who promote justice and charity to the best of their intellectual powers and capacity” (p. 164).