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SECESSION AND THE CIVIL WAR America: Past and Present Chapter 15.

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Presentation on theme: "SECESSION AND THE CIVIL WAR America: Past and Present Chapter 15."— Presentation transcript:

1 SECESSION AND THE CIVIL WAR America: Past and Present Chapter 15

2 The Storm Gathers Secession does not necessarily mean warSecession does not necessarily mean war One last attempt to reconcile North & SouthOne last attempt to reconcile North & South Federal response to secession debatedFederal response to secession debated

3 The Deep South Secedes December 20,1860--South Carolina secedesDecember 20,1860--South Carolina secedes February Confederate States of America formedFebruary Confederate States of America formed – included South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas

4 Secession

5 The Deep South Secedes (2) Government headed by moderatesGovernment headed by moderates Confederate constitution resembles U.S.Confederate constitution resembles U.S. Aim to restore pre-Republican Party UnionAim to restore pre-Republican Party Union Southerners hope to attract Northern states into ConfederacySoutherners hope to attract Northern states into Confederacy

6 The Failure of Compromise Crittenden Plan: extend the Missouri Compromise line to the PacificCrittenden Plan: extend the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific Lincoln rejectsLincoln rejects – does not think it will end secession – viewed as repudiation of Republican principles Buchanan takes no action to stop secessionBuchanan takes no action to stop secession Some wish to “let the South depart in peace”Some wish to “let the South depart in peace”

7 And the War Came North seeks action to preserve UnionNorth seeks action to preserve Union April 13, Fort Sumter, S.C, fallsApril 13, Fort Sumter, S.C, falls April 15--Lincoln calls out Northern state militias to suppress Southern insurrectionApril 15--Lincoln calls out Northern state militias to suppress Southern insurrection April-May--Upper South secedesApril-May--Upper South secedes Border states--slave states remain in UnionBorder states--slave states remain in Union War defined as effort to preserve UnionWar defined as effort to preserve Union

8 Adjusting to Total War North must win by destroying will to resistNorth must win by destroying will to resist Total War--a test of societies, economies, political systems as well as armiesTotal War--a test of societies, economies, political systems as well as armies

9 Resources of the Union and the Confederacy, 1861

10 Prospects, Plans, and Expectations South adopts defensive strategy--North must fight in unfamiliar, hostile terrainSouth adopts defensive strategy--North must fight in unfamiliar, hostile terrain Lincoln adopts two-front strategyLincoln adopts two-front strategy – capture Confederate capital, Richmond, Va. – seize control of the Mississippi River – deploy navy to blockade Southern ports

11 Overview of Civil War Strategy

12 Mobilizing the Home Fronts North & South begin conscription1862--North & South begin conscription Northern mobilizationNorthern mobilization – finance war through taxes, bonds, paper money – private industry supplies Union armies well Confederate mobilizationConfederate mobilization – government arsenals supply Confederate armies – efforts to finance lead to runaway inflation – transportation system inadequate

13 Political Leadership: Northern Success and Southern Failure Lincoln expands wartime powersLincoln expands wartime powers – declares martial law – imprisons 10,000 "subversives" without trial – briefly closed down a few newspapers Jefferson DavisJefferson Davis – concerned mainly with military duties – neglects civilian morale, economy – lacks influence with state governments

14 Early Campaigns and Battles Northern achievements by 1862Northern achievements by 1862 – total naval supremacy – Confederate troops cleared from West Virginia, Kentucky, much of Tennessee – New Orleans captured Confederate achievements by 1862Confederate achievements by 1862 – stall campaign for the Mississippi at Shiloh – defend Richmond from capture

15 Civil War,

16 The Diplomatic Struggle EnglandEngland – belligerent rights extended to Confederacy – conditions recognition of independence on proof that South can win independence France--Confederacy not recognized unless England does so firstFrance--Confederacy not recognized unless England does so first "King Cotton" has little influence on foreign policy of other nations"King Cotton" has little influence on foreign policy of other nations

17 Fight to the Finish North adopts radical measures to winNorth adopts radical measures to win war turns against South1863--war turns against South Southern resistance continuesSouthern resistance continues

18 The Coming of Emancipation September 22, Antietam prompts preliminary Emancipation ProclamationSeptember 22, Antietam prompts preliminary Emancipation Proclamation – surrender in 100 days or lose slaves January 1, Proclamation put into effect for areas still in rebellionJanuary 1, Proclamation put into effect for areas still in rebellion African Americans flee to Union linesAfrican Americans flee to Union lines Confederacy loses thousands of laborersConfederacy loses thousands of laborers

19 African Americans and the War 200,000 African American Union troops200,000 African American Union troops Many others labor in Northern war effortMany others labor in Northern war effort Lincoln pushes further for black rightsLincoln pushes further for black rights – organizes governments in conquered Southern states that abolish slavery – Maryland, Missouri abolish slavery – January 31, th Amendment passed

20 The Tide Turns May, war-wearinessMay, war-weariness – New York riots against conscription – Grant seems bogged down at Vicksburg – Union defeated at Chancellorsville – Democrats attack Lincoln July, 1863July, 1863 – Lee loses Battle of Gettysburg – Vicksburg falls, North holds the Mississippi

21 Last Stages of the Conflict March 9, Grant made supreme commander of Union armiesMarch 9, Grant made supreme commander of Union armies Union invades the South on all frontsUnion invades the South on all fronts – William Sherman marches through Georgia – Grant lays siege to Richmond, Petersburg September 2--Sherman takes AtlantaSeptember 2--Sherman takes Atlanta November 8--Lincoln reelectedNovember 8--Lincoln reelected

22 Civil War,

23 Last Stages of the Conflict April 9, Lee surrendersApril 9, Lee surrenders April 14--Lincoln assassinatedApril 14--Lincoln assassinated May 26--Final capitulation of ConfederacyMay 26--Final capitulation of Confederacy

24 Effects of the War 618,000 troops dead618,000 troops dead Bereft women seek non-domestic rolesBereft women seek non-domestic roles Four million African Americans free, not equalFour million African Americans free, not equal Industrial workers face wartime inflationIndustrial workers face wartime inflation

25 Casualties of War

26 Effects of the War (2) Federal government predominant over statesFederal government predominant over states Federal government takes activist role in the economyFederal government takes activist role in the economy –higher tariffs, free land, national banking system

27 An Organizational Revolution Modern bureaucratic state emergesModern bureaucratic state emerges Individualism gives way to organized, cooperative activityIndividualism gives way to organized, cooperative activity Catalyst for transformation of American society in the late nineteenth centuryCatalyst for transformation of American society in the late nineteenth century


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