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Chapter 15 Road to Civil War 1820-1861. I. Slavery and the West A. The Missouri Compromise, 1820 Missouri: slave Maine: free No slavery north of the 36°30’

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15 Road to Civil War 1820-1861. I. Slavery and the West A. The Missouri Compromise, 1820 Missouri: slave Maine: free No slavery north of the 36°30’"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 15 Road to Civil War

2 I. Slavery and the West A. The Missouri Compromise, 1820 Missouri: slave Maine: free No slavery north of the 36°30’ line B. New Western Lands Texas, California, New Mexico brought the slavery issue back 1. Conflicting Views Wilmot Proviso Calhoun said no one could ban slavery

3 B. New Western Lands 2. The Free-Soil Party 1848 Election, slavery an issue Whigs: Zachary Taylor Dem.: Lewis Cass Free-Soil: Martin Van Buren 3. California Applied for statehood in 1849 Banned slavery Doesn’t fit the Missouri Compromise Would upset the balance of power in Congress

4 C. A New Compromise 1. Compromise of 1850 Henry Clay and Stephen Douglas got it passed in five bills a. California a free state b. Slavery ok in N.M. c. Border dispute of Texas and N.M. settled d. Slave trade banned in D.C. e. Stronger fugitive slave act Millard Fillmore (Taylor died in 1850) called it a “final settlement”

5 II. A Nation Dividing A. The Fugitive Slave Act All citizens had to help catch runaway slaves Stepped up efforts to catch slaves Often free blacks were caught Built resentment in the north 1. Resistance to the Law Underground RR Helped buy freedom Juries refused to convict those who broke the law 1852: Uncle Tom’s Cabin published by Harriet Beecher Stowe Sold 300,000 copies the 1 st year Showed the evils of slavery to the north

6 B. The Kansas-Nebraska Act Franklin Pierce elected in 1852 Supported F.S.A. Stephen Douglas of IL, wanted the transcontinental RR through his state Proposed the bill for popular sovereignty to organize KS & NE People chose if they wanted slavery Abandoned the MO compromise Passed in 1854

7 C. Conflict in Kansas Proslavery and antislavery groups rushed to Kansas to vote Only 1,500 voters, but 6,000 votes cast Proslavery won Antislavery accused them of fraud Border ruffians from Missouri were armed By 1856, two governments in Kansas, both armed

8 C. Conflict in Kansas cont. 1. Bleeding Kansas May 1856, proslavery attacked Lawrence Kansas John Brown believed god chose him to end slavery He and his sons hacked five men to death with swords at Pottawatomie Creek More violence broke out: “bleeding Kansas” 2. Violence in Congress Charles Sumner attacked Andrew Butler in a speech Preston Brooks beat him down with a cane

9 III. Challenges to Slavery A. A New Political Party 1854 antislavery Whigs and Democrats formed the Republican Party Stop the expansion of slavery 1. Election of 1856 Rep.: John C. Fremont Dem.: James Buchanan Know-Nothings: Fillmore Buchanan won

10 B. The Dred Scott Decision Two days after Buchanan was inaugurated Dred Scott a slave, moved around the country with his owner Lived in free states His master died, he sued for freedom 1. The Court’s Decision Chief Justice Roger Taney stated he’s still a slave, can’t even sue 5 th Amendment: can’t deprive property No laws can take property away

11 2. Lincoln and Douglas Senate election in Illinois in 1858 Douglas a probable presidential candidate in 1860 Lincoln was unknown Douglas: short, stocky, and powerful Popular sovereignty Lincoln tall, lanky, ugly, and had a high voice Wanted to stop the spread of slavery

12 3. The Lincoln-Douglas Debates Seven debates in 1858 Main topic: slavery The whole country followed these in the papers Douglas: Freeport Doctrine Exclude slavery by not passing laws to protect it Lincoln: "'A house divided against itself cannot stand.'(Mark 3:25) I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free.”Mark Douglas won the election, but Lincoln became a national figure

13 4. The Raid on Harper’s Ferry Oct. 1859, John Brown and 18 men seized an arsenal in VA Hoped for a slave revolt Captured, tried, convicted, and hanged North: a hero and a martyr South: truly believed there was a northern conspiracy to destroy their way of life Cannot believe the north praised him

14 IV. Secession and War A. Election of 1860 Democrats split Northern Dem.: Douglas Southern Dem.: John C. Breckinridge Constitutional Union Party: John Bell Rep.: Lincoln Lincoln won a clear majority even though he wasn’t on many southern ballots More populous north outvoted the south The South thought Lincoln would destroy their way of life

15 B. The South Secedes Lincoln promised to leave slavery alone in the south South Carolina secedes on Dec. 20, Attempts at compromise John Crittenden tried, too late 2. The Confederacy By Feb. 1861, seven states seceded Formed the Confederate States of America Jefferson Davis elected president Left for state’s rights Constitution was a contract Govt. violated it so they left

16 B. The South Secedes cont. 3. Reactions to Secession Lee, “ I see only that a fearful calamity is upon us.” 4. Presidential Responses James Buchanan did little Lincoln didn’t take over until March 1861 “We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies. Though passion may have strained, it must not break our bonds of affection.:

17 C. Fort Sumter Confederates seized some U.S. forts Surrounded Ft. Sumter in S.C. Low on supplies Lincoln didn’t want to provoke an attack 1. The War Begins Lincoln announced he would give supplies April 12, 1861: The South attacks for 33 hours until they surrendered No casualties Lincoln called for 75,000 troops VA, NC, TN, and AR immediately join the CSA

18 Chapter 15: Road to Civil War Questions 1. What were the five points of the Compromise of 1850? Why did they have to create it and how did it differ from the Missouri Compromise? Was it the “final solution”? Why or why not? 2. How did the Fugitive Slave Act and Uncle Tom’s Cabin change public opinion in the North? Why were they so significant in the North’s views on Slavery? 3. What was the Kansas-Nebraska Act? How did it lead to violence and further split the nation? 4. Why was John Brown so important in dividing the country? What did he do and what was the reaction of the North? How did the Republican Party fit in to increase southern fears? 5. What did the Dred Scott decision say? What were the ramifications for the issue of slavery in the entire country? 6. Why did the Election of 1860 force southern states to secede? What did the South do in response and how did the Civil War formally begin? In your group’s opinion, did Lincoln do the right thing when dealing with Fort Sumter? Why or why not?


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