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Chapter 15, Section 2 Early Years of the War.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15, Section 2 Early Years of the War."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 15, Section 2 Early Years of the War

2 New Technology New rifles and cannons were more accurate and had greater range than previous weapons. Ironclads were a great improvement over older wooden warships.

3 Event Forts Henry and Donelson February 1862 Military Leader:
Union: Grant Outcome: The Union takes control of two water routes into the western Confederacy

4 Event Use of Ironclads Outcome: ironclads are used by the South against the Union blockade used by the North to hold the Mississippi R.

5 Event Battle of Shiloh April 1862 Military leaders: Union: Grant
Confederacy: A.S. Johnston Outcome: Union takes control of major railroad center and part of the Mississippi River

6 Event New Orleans April 1862 Military Leader: - Farragut
Outcome: The North controls almost all of the Mississippi River.

7 Event Outside Richmond, Virginia May and June 1862
Military Leader: Union – McClellan Outcome – Richmond is not taken

8 Event Battle of Antietam Sept. 1862 Military Leader: Union: McClellan
Confederacy: Lee Outcome: Lee is forced to stop his invasion of the North One day of the battle was the bloodiest day of the war Neither side really won the war, but the North claimed victory Lincoln used the victory to announce the Emancipation Proclamation

9 The Emancipation Proclamation
Chapter 15, Section 3 The Emancipation Proclamation

10 Emancipating the Enslaved
Lincoln’s main war goal was to restore (or preserve) the Union. He did not free slaves at the beginning of the war in order to avoid causing border states to secede. Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on Jan. 1, 1863. However, it only freed slaves in states fighting the Union, so very few enslaved people were immediately freed. Most Union soldiers supported the proclamation because it weakened the South.

11 Emancipating the Enslaved
The Emancipation Proclamation caused the Civil War to become a war abolish slavery. It also kept Britain from recognizing the South’s independence.

12 African Americans Help the Union
More than half of African American volunteers serving in the Union army were former slaves. Confederates did not treat captured African Americans as prisoners of war; they faced slavery or death.

13 African Americans Help the Union
Noncombat positions held by free African Americans in the Union Army: cooks wagon drivers hospital aides Ways enslaved African Americans hurt the Confederate war effort: provided information to the Union refused to work

14 The Civil War’s Effect on American Life
Chapter 15, Section 4 The Civil War’s Effect on American Life

15 Divisions In the North, some people:
opposed the Emancipation Proclamation believed the South had the right to secede Northern Democrats opposed to the war were called copperheads

16 Divisions Areas of South less supportive of war:
poor backcountry regions with few enslaved people Opposition to the war was strongest in - Georgia and North Carolina. Divisions were created by strong support for states’ rights.

17 Disruptions Way people disrupted the war effort:
Encouraged soldiers to desert Helped prisoners of war to escape Tried to prevent men from volunteering Held peace protests

18 Disruptions Both sides dealt with disruptions in some areas by suspending habeas corpus. – constitutional protection against unlawful imprisonment.

19 Draft Laws Desertion was a problem for both sides. Many soldiers left their units to plant or harvest crops. Each side established a draft, a system of required military service. Anger at exceptions to this requirement caused riots in many places

20 Women in the Civil War Women’s contributions to the war effort on both sides: Disguised themselves as men to join the army Became spies Took over businesses and farms Worked in factories Barriers for women fell, especially in the field of nursing. Clara Barton – cared for the wounded on the battlefield. Founded the American Red Cross.

21 Economic Strains Congress levied the first income tax to pay for the war. The Union printed large amounts of paper money, causing the cost of goods to increase. Union blockades of the South caused shortages that made goods expensive

22 Inflation during the Civil War NORTH SOUTH Wholesale prices in 1861
SOUTH Wholesale prices in 1861 1.00 Wholesale prices Jan- April 1861 1862 1.17 Dec 1861 1.72 1863 1.48 Dec 1862 6.86 1864 1.89 Dec 1863 2.464 1865 2.16 Dec 1864 4.285 April 1865 9.211 - taken from Gallman 1994, p. 97.

23 IA


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