2New TechnologyNew rifles and cannons were more accurate and had greater range than previous weapons.Ironclads were a great improvement over older wooden warships.
3Event Forts Henry and Donelson February 1862 Military Leader: Union: GrantOutcome: The Union takes control of two water routes into the western Confederacy
4EventUse of IroncladsOutcome: ironclads are used by the South against the Union blockadeused by the North to hold the Mississippi R.
5Event Battle of Shiloh April 1862 Military leaders: Union: Grant Confederacy:A.S. JohnstonOutcome:Union takes control of major railroad center and part of the Mississippi River
6Event New Orleans April 1862 Military Leader: - Farragut Outcome: The North controls almost all of the Mississippi River.
7Event Outside Richmond, Virginia May and June 1862 Military Leader: Union – McClellanOutcome – Richmond is not taken
8Event Battle of Antietam Sept. 1862 Military Leader: Union: McClellan Confederacy: LeeOutcome:Lee is forced to stop his invasion of the NorthOne day of the battle was the bloodiest day of the warNeither side really won the war, but the North claimed victoryLincoln used the victory to announce the Emancipation Proclamation
10Emancipating the Enslaved Lincoln’s main war goal was to restore (or preserve) the Union. He did not free slaves at the beginning of the war in order to avoid causing border states to secede.Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on Jan. 1, 1863.However, it only freed slaves in states fighting the Union, so very few enslaved people were immediately freed. Most Union soldiers supported the proclamation because it weakened the South.
11Emancipating the Enslaved The Emancipation Proclamation caused the Civil War to become a war abolish slavery.It also kept Britain from recognizing the South’s independence.
12African Americans Help the Union More than half of African American volunteers serving in the Union army were former slaves.Confederates did not treat captured African Americans as prisoners of war; they faced slavery or death.
13African Americans Help the Union Noncombat positions held by free African Americans in the Union Army:cookswagon drivershospital aidesWays enslaved African Americans hurt the Confederate war effort:provided information to the Unionrefused to work
14The Civil War’s Effect on American Life Chapter 15, Section 4The Civil War’s Effect on American Life
15Divisions In the North, some people: opposed the Emancipation Proclamationbelieved the South had the right to secedeNorthern Democrats opposed to the war were called copperheads
16Divisions Areas of South less supportive of war: poor backcountry regions with few enslaved peopleOpposition to the war was strongest in- Georgia and North Carolina.Divisions were created by strong support for states’ rights.
17Disruptions Way people disrupted the war effort: Encouraged soldiers to desertHelped prisoners of war to escapeTried to prevent men from volunteeringHeld peace protests
18DisruptionsBoth sides dealt with disruptions in some areas by suspending habeas corpus. – constitutional protection against unlawful imprisonment.
19Draft LawsDesertion was a problem for both sides. Many soldiers left their units to plant or harvest crops.Each side established a draft, a system of required military service.Anger at exceptions to this requirement caused riots in many places
20Women in the Civil WarWomen’s contributions to the war effort on both sides:Disguised themselves as men to join the armyBecame spiesTook over businesses and farmsWorked in factoriesBarriers for women fell, especially in the field of nursing.Clara Barton – cared for the wounded on the battlefield. Founded the American Red Cross.
21Economic StrainsCongress levied the first income tax to pay for the war.The Union printed large amounts of paper money, causing the cost of goods to increase.Union blockades of the South caused shortages that made goods expensive
22Inflation during the Civil War NORTH SOUTH Wholesale prices in 1861 SOUTHWholesale prices in 18611.00Wholesale prices Jan- April 186118621.17Dec 18611.7218631.48Dec 18626.8618641.89Dec 18632.46418652.16Dec 18644.285April 18659.211- taken from Gallman 1994, p. 97.