Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15, Section 2 Early Years of the War. New Technology ► New rifles and cannons were more accurate and had greater range than previous weapons."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 15, Section 2 Early Years of the War
New Technology ► New rifles and cannons were more accurate and had greater range than previous weapons. ► Ironclads were a great improvement over older wooden warships.
Event ► Forts Henry and Donelson ► February 1862 Military Leader: Union: Grant Union: Grant Outcome: The Union takes control of two water routes into the western Confederacy
Event ► Use of Ironclads ► Outcome: ironclads are used by the South against the Union blockade ► used by the North to hold the Mississippi R.
Event ► Battle of Shiloh ► April 1862 ► Military leaders: Union: Grant ► Confederacy: A.S. Johnston Outcome: Union takes control of major railroad center and part of the Mississippi River
Event ► New Orleans ► April 1862 Military Leader: - Farragut ► Outcome: The North controls almost all of the Mississippi River.
Event ► Outside Richmond, Virginia ► May and June 1862 ► Military Leader: Union – McClellan ► Outcome – Richmond is not taken
Event ► Battle of Antietam ► Sept Military Leader: ► Union: McClellan ► Confederacy: Lee ► Outcome: Lee is forced to stop his invasion of the North One day of the battle was the bloodiest day of the war Neither side really won the war, but the North claimed victory Lincoln used the victory to announce the Emancipation Proclamation
Chapter 15, Section 3
Emancipating the Enslaved ► Lincoln’s main war goal was to restore (or preserve) the Union. He did not free slaves at the beginning of the war in order to avoid causing border states to secede. ► Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on Jan. 1, ► However, it only freed slaves in states fighting the Union, so very few enslaved people were immediately freed. Most Union soldiers supported the proclamation because it weakened the South.
Emancipating the Enslaved ► The Emancipation Proclamation caused the Civil War to become a war abolish slavery. ► It also kept Britain from recognizing the South’s independence.
African Americans Help the Union ► More than half of African American volunteers serving in the Union army were former slaves. ► Confederates did not treat captured African Americans as prisoners of war; they faced slavery or death.
African Americans Help the Union Noncombat positions held by free African Americans in the Union Army: ► cooks ► wagon drivers ► hospital aides Ways enslaved African Americans hurt the Confederate war effort: ► provided information to the Union ► refused to work
Chapter 15, Section 4
Divisions In the North, some people: ► opposed the Emancipation Proclamation ► believed the South had the right to secede ► Northern Democrats opposed to the war were called copperheads
Divisions Areas of South less supportive of war: ► poor backcountry regions with few enslaved people Opposition to the war was strongest in - Georgia and North Carolina. - Georgia and North Carolina. ► Divisions were created by strong support for states’ rights.
Disruptions ► Way people disrupted the war effort: ► Encouraged soldiers to desert ► Helped prisoners of war to escape ► Tried to prevent men from volunteering ► Held peace protests
Disruptions ► Both sides dealt with disruptions in some areas by suspending habeas corpus. – constitutional protection against unlawful imprisonment.
Draft Laws ► Desertion was a problem for both sides. Many soldiers left their units to plant or harvest crops. ► Each side established a draft, a system of required military service. ► Anger at exceptions to this requirement caused riots in many places
Women in the Civil War ► Women’s contributions to the war effort on both sides: ► Disguised themselves as men to join the army ► Became spies ► Took over businesses and farms ► Worked in factories ► Barriers for women fell, especially in the field of nursing. ► Clara Barton – cared for the wounded on the battlefield. Founded the American Red Cross.
Economic Strains ► Congress levied the first income tax to pay for the war. ► The Union printed large amounts of paper money, causing the cost of goods to increase. ► Union blockades of the South caused shortages that made goods expensive
Inflation during the Civil War NORTH SOUTH Wholesale prices in Wholesale prices Jan- April Dec Dec Dec Dec April taken from Gallman 1994, p. 97.