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Chapter 15 VALUE, LEVERAGE, AND CAPITAL STRUCTURE

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Chapter 15 Learning Objectives Understand the value of an equity investment in real estate Understand the value of an equity investment in real estate Understand how the use of debt can alter cash flows Understand how the use of debt can alter cash flows Understand the concept of an optimal balance of debt and equity financing Understand the concept of an optimal balance of debt and equity financing 15-1

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VALUATION OF REAL ESTATE INVESTMENTS The value of an income-producing asset is a function of the income accruing to the asset The value of an income-producing asset is a function of the income accruing to the asset Income is generally measured as some form of cash flow Income is generally measured as some form of cash flow Cash flows and discount rate can be hard to determine because of the nature of the asset Cash flows and discount rate can be hard to determine because of the nature of the asset

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FINANCIAL LEVERAGE Investor has two basic sources of financing: debt and equity Investor has two basic sources of financing: debt and equity Financial leverage is the use of debt in financing Financial leverage is the use of debt in financing Positive leverage is the use of debt at a cost less than the return on the asset Positive leverage is the use of debt at a cost less than the return on the asset Positive leverage increases the return on equity Positive leverage increases the return on equity

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FINANCIAL LEVERAGE Negative leverage is the use of debt at a cost greater than the return on the asset Negative leverage is the use of debt at a cost greater than the return on the asset Negative leverage reduces the return on equity Negative leverage reduces the return on equity Neutral leverage is when the debt cost is equal to asset return and return on equity is not affected Neutral leverage is when the debt cost is equal to asset return and return on equity is not affected

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FINANCIAL LEVERAGE The risk to the equity is increased by the used of financial leverage The risk to the equity is increased by the used of financial leverage Leverage allows the cash flows to be divided into two components: less risky and more risky Leverage allows the cash flows to be divided into two components: less risky and more risky Value can be created if debt holder and equity holder have different risk-return preferences Value can be created if debt holder and equity holder have different risk-return preferences

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FINANCIAL LEVERAGE More risk-averse investor can invest in the lower-risk debt and less risk-averse investor can invest in riskier equity More risk-averse investor can invest in the lower-risk debt and less risk-averse investor can invest in riskier equity Tax-deductibility of interest payments on debt make it advantageous Tax-deductibility of interest payments on debt make it advantageous Federal government subsidizes the use of debt by providing tax relief Federal government subsidizes the use of debt by providing tax relief

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REAL ESTATE CASH FLOWS Can be a difference between cash flow and taxable income calculations Can be a difference between cash flow and taxable income calculations Cash flow contains items that are actual inflows and outflows regardless of whether or not they are tax-deductible Cash flow contains items that are actual inflows and outflows regardless of whether or not they are tax-deductible Taxable income contains items that are tax-deductible whether or not they are actual cash flows Taxable income contains items that are tax-deductible whether or not they are actual cash flows

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REAL ESTATE CASH FLOW STRUCTURE Cash Flow Structure is Cash Flow Structure is Gross Rent (GR) Gross Rent (GR) minus Vacancy (VAC) minus Vacancy (VAC) plus Other Income (OI) plus Other Income (OI) equals Effective Gross Income (EGI) equals Effective Gross Income (EGI) minus Operating Expenses (OE) minus Operating Expenses (OE) equals Net Operating Income (NOI) equals Net Operating Income (NOI)

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REAL ESTATE CASH FLOW STRUCTURE Cash Flow Structure continued is Cash Flow Structure continued is Net Operating Income (NOI) Net Operating Income (NOI) minus Mortgage Payment (MP) minus Mortgage Payment (MP) equals Before-Tax Cash Flow (BTCF) equals Before-Tax Cash Flow (BTCF) minus Tax Liability (Savings) (TXS) minus Tax Liability (Savings) (TXS) equals After-Tax Cash Flow (ATCF) equals After-Tax Cash Flow (ATCF)

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INCOME TAXES FROM OPERATIONS Taxes From Operations are Taxes From Operations are Effective Gross Income (EGI) Effective Gross Income (EGI) minus Operating Expenses (OE) minus Operating Expenses (OE) equals Net Operating Income (NOI) equals Net Operating Income (NOI) minus Interest Expense (INT) minus Interest Expense (INT) minus Depreciation (DEP) minus Depreciation (DEP) equals Taxable Income (TI) equals Taxable Income (TI) times Investor’s Marginal Tax Rate (t) times Investor’s Marginal Tax Rate (t) equals Taxes (Savings) TXS equals Taxes (Savings) TXS

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REAL ESTATE CASH FLOW STRUCTURE After-Tax Equity Reversion is After-Tax Equity Reversion is Estimated Selling Price (ESP) Estimated Selling Price (ESP) minus Selling Expenses (SE) minus Selling Expenses (SE) equals Net Sales Price (NSP) equals Net Sales Price (NSP) minus Unpaid Mortgage Balance (UMB) minus Unpaid Mortgage Balance (UMB) equals Before-Tax Equity Reversion (BTER) equals Before-Tax Equity Reversion (BTER) minus Taxes on Resale (TXR) minus Taxes on Resale (TXR) After-Tax Equity Reversion (ATER) After-Tax Equity Reversion (ATER)

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REAL ESTATE CASH FLOW STRUCTURE Taxable Income from Resale is Taxable Income from Resale is Estimated Selling Price (ESP) Estimated Selling Price (ESP) minus Selling Expenses (SE) minus Selling Expenses (SE) equals Amount Realized on Sale (AR) equals Amount Realized on Sale (AR) minus Adjusted Basis (AB) minus Adjusted Basis (AB) equals Total Gain from Sale (TG) equals Total Gain from Sale (TG) minus Depreciation Recovery (DR) minus Depreciation Recovery (DR) equals Capital Gain from Resale (CG) equals Capital Gain from Resale (CG)

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REAL ESTATE CASH FLOW STRUCTURE Income Taxes on Resale are Income Taxes on Resale are Depreciation Recovery (DR) Depreciation Recovery (DR) times Depreciation Recovery Tax Rate (t d ) times Depreciation Recovery Tax Rate (t d ) equals Depreciation Recovery Tax (DRT) equals Depreciation Recovery Tax (DRT) Capital Gain Capital Gain times Capital Gains Tax Rate (t g ) times Capital Gains Tax Rate (t g ) equals Capital Gains Tax (CGT) equals Capital Gains Tax (CGT)

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REAL ESTATE CASH FLOW STRUCTURE Total Tax on Resale is Total Tax on Resale is Depreciation Recovery Tax (DRT) Depreciation Recovery Tax (DRT) plus Capital Gains Tax (CGT) plus Capital Gains Tax (CGT) equals Total Tax on Resale (TXR) equals Total Tax on Resale (TXR)

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R.E. CASH FLOW EXAMPLE A real estate investor has the following information on a warehouse: A real estate investor has the following information on a warehouse: Purchase Price is $1,125,000 with acquisition costs of $36,000 Purchase Price is $1,125,000 with acquisition costs of $36,000 33,600 leasable square feet 33,600 leasable square feet Initial rent of $12/sq. ft. per year and will increase 5 percent per year Initial rent of $12/sq. ft. per year and will increase 5 percent per year Vacancy rate of 5% of gross rent per year Vacancy rate of 5% of gross rent per year

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R.E. CASH FLOW EXAMPLE Operating Expenses are 40% of EGI Operating Expenses are 40% of EGI Mortgage is 75% LTV ratio, 20 years, monthly payments, 9% contract rate, 3% financing costs, 5% prepayment penalty for the first six years of mortgage life Mortgage is 75% LTV ratio, 20 years, monthly payments, 9% contract rate, 3% financing costs, 5% prepayment penalty for the first six years of mortgage life Expected increase in value is 3.50% per year, 8% selling expenses Expected increase in value is 3.50% per year, 8% selling expenses Holding period is 5 years Holding period is 5 years

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R.E. CASH FLOW EXAMPLE 80% depreciable 80% depreciable Investor is an active participant, is in a 28% marginal tax bracket, and requires an after-tax equity yield of 15% Investor is an active participant, is in a 28% marginal tax bracket, and requires an after-tax equity yield of 15% Compute the ATCFs and the ATER for the holding period Compute the ATCFs and the ATER for the holding period Calculate the NPV and the IRR Calculate the NPV and the IRR

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R.E. CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATIONS Year 1 2 3 Year 1 2 3 GR403200423360444528 GR403200423360444528 - VAC 20160 21168 22226 - VAC 20160 21168 22226 +OI 000 +OI 000 =EGI383040402192422302 =EGI383040402192422302 - OE153216160877168921 - OE153216160877168921 =NOI229824241315253381 =NOI229824241315253381

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R.E. CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATIONS Year 4 5 Year 4 5 GR466754490092 GR466754490092 - VAC 23338 24505 - VAC 23338 24505 +OI 0 0 +OI 0 0 =EGI443416465587 =EGI443416465587 - OE177366186235 - OE177366186235 =NOI266050279352 =NOI266050279352

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R.E. CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATIONS Year 1 2 3 Year 1 2 3 NOI229824241315253381 NOI229824241315253381 - MP 91097 91097 91097 - MP 91097 91097 91097 =BTCF138727150218162284 =BTCF138727150218162284 - TXS 36523 39878 43710 - TXS 36523 39878 43710 =ATCF102204110340118574 =ATCF102204110340118574

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R.E. CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATIONS Year 4 5 Year 4 5 NOI266050279352 NOI266050279352 - MP 91097128520 - MP 91097128520 =BTCF174953150832 =BTCF174953150832 - TXS 47754 36506 - TXS 47754 36506 =ATCF127199114326 =ATCF127199114326

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INCOME TAXES FROM OPERATIONS Year 1 2 3 Year 1 2 3 NOI229824241315253381 NOI229824241315253381 - INT 75296 73814 72193 - INT 75296 73814 72193 - AFC 1266 1266 1266 - AFC 1266 1266 1266 - DEP 22823 23815 23815 - DEP 22823 23815 23815 =TI130439142420156107 =TI130439142420156107 x t 0.28 0.28 0.28 x t 0.28 0.28 0.28 =TXS 36523 39878 43710 =TXS 36523 39878 43710

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INCOME TAXES FROM OPERATIONS Year 4 5 Year 4 5 NOI266050279352 NOI266050279352 - INT 70419105902 - INT 70419105902 - AFC 1266 20249 - AFC 1266 20249 - DEP 23815 22823 - DEP 23815 22823 =TI170550130378 =TI170550130378 x t 0.28 0.28 x t 0.28 0.28 =TXS 47754 36506 =TXS 47754 36506

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CASH FLOW FROM RESALE ESP1336147 ESP1336147 - SE 106891 - SE 106891 =NSP1229256 =NSP1229256 - UMB 748466 - UMB 748466 =BTER 480790 =BTER 480790 - TXR 39511 - TXR 39511 =ATER 441279 =ATER 441279

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INCOME TAXES FROM RESALE ESP1336147 ESP1336147 - SE 106891 - SE 106891 =AR1229256 =AR1229256 - AB1043909 - AB1043909 =TG 185347 =TG 185347

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INCOME TAXES FROM RESALE DR117091 CG 68256 DR117091 CG 68256 x t d 0.25x t g 0.15 x t d 0.25x t g 0.15 =DRT 29273=CGT 10238 =DRT 29273=CGT 10238 DRT 29273 DRT 29273 +CGT10238 +CGT10238 =TXR39511 =TXR39511

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CASH FLOW SUMMARY Year ATCF ATER Year ATCF ATER 0-342563 0-342563 1 102204 1 102204 2 110340 2 110340 3 118574 3 118574 4 127199 4 127199 5 114326441279 5 114326441279

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CASH FLOW ANALYSIS NPV @ 15%:$256,668 NPV @ 15%:$256,668 IRR:35.50% IRR:35.50%

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CASH FLOW ANALYSIS Net Present Value (NPV) Net Present Value (NPV) The present value of the cash flows minus the present value of the cash outflows The present value of the cash flows minus the present value of the cash outflows Appropriate discount rate is the risk- adjusted required rate of return Appropriate discount rate is the risk- adjusted required rate of return In the previous example the after-tax cash flows are equity cash flows thus the appropriate discount rate is the required equity yield In the previous example the after-tax cash flows are equity cash flows thus the appropriate discount rate is the required equity yield

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CASH FLOW ANALYSIS n n NPV = Σ CF t / (1 + r e ) t NPV = Σ CF t / (1 + r e ) t t=0 t=0 where CF t is the cash flow in time t, r e is the discount rate for equity, and t is the number of time periods where CF t is the cash flow in time t, r e is the discount rate for equity, and t is the number of time periods

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CASH FLOW ANALYSIS The Internal Rate of Return (IRR) is the discount rate at which the NPV is zero, i.e., the discount rate at which the present value of the cash inflows is equal to the present value of the cash outflows The Internal Rate of Return (IRR) is the discount rate at which the NPV is zero, i.e., the discount rate at which the present value of the cash inflows is equal to the present value of the cash outflows

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CASH FLOW ANALYSIS The IRR equation is: The IRR equation is: n n 0 = Σ CF t / (1 + IRR e ) t 0 = Σ CF t / (1 + IRR e ) t t=0 t=0 where CF t is the cash flow in time t, r e is the discount rate for equity, and t is the number of time periods where CF t is the cash flow in time t, r e is the discount rate for equity, and t is the number of time periods

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CASH FLOW ANALYSIS Decision rule for NPV Decision rule for NPV Accept those independent projects that have positive or zero NPVs Accept those independent projects that have positive or zero NPVs Reject those independent projects that have negative NPVs Reject those independent projects that have negative NPVs

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CASH FL0W ANALYSIS Decision rule for IRR Decision rule for IRR Investor’s required return is used as the benchmark Investor’s required return is used as the benchmark Accept those independent projects with IRRs equal to or greater than the required return Accept those independent projects with IRRs equal to or greater than the required return Reject those independent projects with IRRs less than the required return Reject those independent projects with IRRs less than the required return

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CASH FLOW ANALYSIS Comparing NPV and IRR Comparing NPV and IRR In making a simple accept/reject decision, NPV and IRR cannot give conflicting recommendations In making a simple accept/reject decision, NPV and IRR cannot give conflicting recommendations Mutually exclusive projects may lead to conflicting recommendations, usually resolved in favor of NPV Mutually exclusive projects may lead to conflicting recommendations, usually resolved in favor of NPV Multiple IRRS Multiple IRRS Reinvestment rate assumption Reinvestment rate assumption

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CASH FLOW ANALYSIS Optimal Capital Structure Optimal Capital Structure The proportions of debt and equity used in financing that maximize the value of the asset The proportions of debt and equity used in financing that maximize the value of the asset NPV and IRR may be affected by the use of debt NPV and IRR may be affected by the use of debt Arguments that the use of debt cannot affect value: Modigliani and Miller Arguments that the use of debt cannot affect value: Modigliani and Miller

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CASH FLOW ANALYSIS Reconciling MM argument with the use of debt Reconciling MM argument with the use of debt With income taxes the use of debt could increase the after-tax cash flows With income taxes the use of debt could increase the after-tax cash flows Agency costs could increase the cost of debt Agency costs could increase the cost of debt

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CASH FLOW ANALYSIS Real estate investing in the real world Real estate investing in the real world Acquisition costs must be written off over the depreciable life of the property Acquisition costs must be written off over the depreciable life of the property Financing costs must be written off over the life of the mortgage Financing costs must be written off over the life of the mortgage A prepayment penalty is fully deductible in the year it is paid A prepayment penalty is fully deductible in the year it is paid A set-aside into a replacement reserve is not a tax-deductible expense A set-aside into a replacement reserve is not a tax-deductible expense

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