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Theme: The Council at Jerusalem

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1 Theme: The Council at Jerusalem
Book of Acts Chapter 15 Council held in Jerusalem about 52 A.D., 20 years after the Ascension. There are many who believe that Gentiles are not saved until they are converted to Judaism. The news of this contention reaches the church in Jerusalem. The apostles must now face up to the question. What course is the church to take? So in Jerusalem the first church council convenes to resolve the matter. Theme: The Council at Jerusalem

2 Acts 15:1 And certain men which came down from Judaea taught the brethren, and said, Except ye be circumcised after the manner of Moses, ye cannot be saved. The opening verses of Acts 15 give us a clear picture of the core issue around which the Jerusalem Council convened: The "issue" at hand was whether or not someone who was not a Jew could be saved. To put it another way, how could a Gentile become a covenant member with Israel and share in the blessings of the covenant? The prevailing belief of the Judaisms in Paul's day was that only Jews had a place in the world to come since God had made the covenant of blessing with Israel and no other nation.

3 Acts 15:2 When therefore Paul and Barnabas had no small dissension and disputation with them, they determined that Paul and Barnabas, and certain other of them, should go up to Jerusalem unto the apostles and elders about this question. The church at Antioch felt it was wise to discuss the matter with the apostles and elders in Jerusalem. So they commissioned Paul and Barnabas for the task and wisely sent some other believers along as witnesses. These witnesses would protect Paul and Barnabas against being accused of distorting the facts. It is helpful to see how the churches in Antioch and Jerusalem resolved their conflict: (1) the church in Antioch sent a delegation to help seek a solution; (2) the delegates met with the church leaders to give their reports and set another date to continue the discussion; (3) Paul and Barnabas gave their report; (4) James summarized the reports and drew up the decision; (5) everyone agreed to abide by the decision; (6) the council sent a letter with delegates back to Antioch to report the decision. This is a wise way to handle conflicts within the church. Problems must be confronted, and all sides of the argument must be given a fair hearing. The discussion should be held in the presence of leaders who are spiritually mature and trustworthy to make wise decisions. Everyone should then abide by the decisions.

4 Acts 15:3 And being brought on their way by the church, they passed through Phenice and Samaria, declaring the conversion of the Gentiles: and they caused great joy unto all the brethren. The members of the Church provided them with all necessaries for their journey; Declaring the conversion of the Gentiles—There is a lot of stress is laid on this: it was a miracle of God’s mercy that the Gentiles should be received into the Church of God; and they had now the fullest proof that the thing was likely to become common, by the conversion of Cornelius, the conversion of the people of Antioch, of Cyprus, Pisidia, Pamphylia, Lycaonia, etc.,

5 Acts 15:4 And when they were come to Jerusalem, they were received of the church, and of the apostles and elders, and they declared all things that God had done with them. [with them] God being with one guarantees success. To this council they gave a succinct account of the great work which God had wrought by them among the Gentiles. This was Paul’s third journey to Jerusalem after his conversion.

6 Acts 15:5 But there rose up certain of the sect of the Pharisees which believed, saying, That it was needful to circumcise them, and to command them to keep the law of Moses. Nowhere in God's word is there a ceremony outlined for a Gentile to become a proselyte. In fact, the Torah is quite specific that the resident non-Jew was to be received as just that a non Jewish person who had attached himself to Israel and to her God. If God expected the believing Gentile to become a Jew through some ritual of conversion, there would be no reason for a verse like Numbers 15:16 There is to be one Torah and one ordinance for you and for the alien who sojourns with you. The fact that God does not prescribes a method for becoming a proselyte in the sacred text of the Scriptures shows us that the rabbinic matter of proselytization was entirely man-made.

7 Acts 15:6-7 6And the apostles and elders came together for to consider of this matter. 7And when there had been much disputing, Peter rose up, and said unto them, Men and brethren, ye know how that a good while ago God made choice among us, that the Gentiles by my mouth should hear the word of the gospel, and believe. This was the first general conference of the church and the third time Paul visited Jerusalem since his conversion. For to consider this matter. Not to decide it arbitrarily, or even by authority, without deliberation; but to compare their views, and to express the result of the whole to the church at Antioch. This important theological issue in the early history of the church was not decided by a sudden decree spoken by a prophet but by careful reasoning and thoughtful argumentation based on Scripture. Peter's reference to the Gentiles hearing the gospel . . . by my mouth . . . in the early days refers to his witness at the house of Cornelius “A good while ago”: about 13 years before.

8 Acts 15:8-9 8And God, which knoweth the hearts, bare them witness, giving them the Holy Ghost, even as he did unto us; 9And put no difference between us and them, purifying their hearts by faith. In this case, God gave the Gentiles the same Spirit baptism that He gave at Pentecost and made no difference between Jews and Gentiles in Christ (1 Cor. 12:13; Galatians 3:28; Col. 3:11). He did this without the Gentiles being circumcised or without keeping the law or sabbath. This purifying the heart was immediate and took place "while Peter yet spake these words" This is always the only way of salvation. It is by faith. You don’t have to do anything to merit your salvation. Jesus Christ did it all for you nineteen hundred years ago. All God asks you to do is to accept His Son who died for you.

9 Acts 15:10 Now therefore why tempt ye God, to put a yoke upon the neck of the disciples, which neither our fathers nor we were able to bear? Why, since he has shown his determination to accept them without such rites, do you provoke him by attempting to impose on his own people rites without his authority, and against his manifest will? The argument is, that God had already accepted them. To attempt to impose these rites would be to provoke him to anger; to introduce observances which he had shown it was his purpose should now be abolished. Much Christian teaching contrasts the supposedly onerous and oppressive “yoke of the Law” with the words of Yeshua, “My yoke is easy, and my burden is light” (Mt 11:30&N). This is a mistake, on two counts. First, observant and knowledgable Jews do not consider the Torah a burden but a joy. If a person regards something as pleasant, you will not be able to convince him that it is unpleasant! (An entirely different question: how many observant and knowledgeable non-Messianic Jews actually experience and exhibit God’s joy?) Second, and much more importantly here, such teaching misidentifies the yoke which Peter says has proved so unbearable. So then, if the “yoke of the commandments” is not burdensome, what is Peter talking about? He is speaking here of the detailed mechanical rule-keeping, regardless of heart attitude, that some call the oral Troah.

10 Acts 15:11 But we believe that through the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ we shall be saved, even as they. This seems to be an answer to an objection, “Has not God designed to save us, the Jews, by an observance of the law; and them, the Gentiles, by the faith of the Gospel?” No: for we Jews can be saved no other way than through the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ; and this is the way in which the Gentiles in question have been saved. There is but one way of salvation for Jews and Gentiles, the grace, mercy, or favor coming by and through the Lord Jesus, the Christ; this is now fully opened to the Gentiles; and we believe we shall be saved in the same way.

11 Acts 15:12-13 12Then all the multitude kept silence, and gave audience to Barnabas and Paul, declaring what miracles and wonders God had wrought among the Gentiles by them. 13And after they had held their peace, James answered, saying, Men and brethren, hearken unto me: Notice that it is here stated: “Barnabas and Paul,” why, when Paul is usually noted first? Barnabas is better known to this group. Peter's arguments were unanswerable because they were so simple, clear, and God-confirmed. Gave audience to Barnabas and Paul—These apostles came forward next, to corroborate what Peter had said, by showing the miracles and wonders which God had by them wrought among the Gentiles. Peter stated facts: Paul and Barnabas confirmed the statement. The next speaker was James—the Lord's brother, chairman of the conference—who gave the final sentence (Acts 15:19). (There are four different Jameses.)

12 Acts 15:14-15 14Simeon hath declared how God at the first did visit the Gentiles, to take out of them a people for his name. 15And to this agree the words of the prophets; as it is written, James did not address Peter by the name the Lord gave him but addressed him as Simeon. [And to this agree the words of the prophets] The prophets predicted the salvation of the Gentiles (Isaiah 11:10; Isaiah 42:1,6; Isaiah 49:6,22; Isaiah 60:3; Isaiah 66:19; Romans 9:25-33; Malachi 1:11; Amos 9:10-11). Quite properly the council desired more than the testimony of experience. They wanted to know how it corresponded with the witness of the Scriptures. This was the ultimate test.

13 Acts 15:16-17 16After this I will return, and will build again the tabernacle of David, which is fallen down; and I will build again the ruins thereof, and I will set it up: 17That the residue of men might seek after the Lord, and all the Gentiles, upon whom my name is called, saith the Lord, who doeth all these things. The main point of the quotation, as made by James, was to show that, according to the prophets, it was contemplated that the Gentiles should be introduced to the privileges of the children of God; at a point in time when the tabernacle of David would be rebuilt, “Tabernacle of David” (Amos 9:11) could mean the “house [line] of David,”

14 Acts 15:18-19 18Known unto God are all his works from the beginning of the world. 19Wherefore my sentence is, that we trouble not them, which from among the Gentiles are turned to God: God has a plan and it is known to Him from the beginning of the ages. The Bible is the revelation of that plan. Joseph Shulam expounds the second alternative thusly: Do not put obstacles in the way of the Gentiles while they are going through the process of turning from idolatry to God. Instead, let them use their spiritual energy in repentance. There will be plenty of opportunities later for them to absorb what Moses has to say.

15 Acts 15:20-21 20But that we write unto them, that they abstain from pollutions of idols, and from fornication, and from things strangled, and from blood. 21For Moses of old time hath in every city them that preach him, being read in the synagogues every sabbath day. James’ judgment was that Gentile believers did not have to be circumcised, but they should stay away from food polluted by idols, from sexual immorality (a common part of idol worship), and from eating meat of strangled animals and from consuming blood. Preach his law every Sabbath., they will continue to learn just as we do in study or church.

16 Acts 15:22 Then pleased it the apostles and elders, with the whole church, to send chosen men of their own company to Antioch with Paul and Barnabas; namely, Judas surnamed Barsabas, and Silas, chief men among the brethren: It is interesting to note the process the council followed in resolving this conflict. First, the problem was clearly stated: Each side was presented in a debate. Second, the facts were presented by those who were acquainted with them. Third, the counsel was given by a person who was trusted for his objectivity and wisdom. Fourth, unanimity was sought in the decision. Fifth, the attitude of preserving the unity of the Spirit remained utmost on the council’s mind. This same formula would be helpful in resolving conflicts found within the church today.

17 Acts 15:23 And they wrote letters by them after this manner; The apostles and elders and brethren send greeting unto the brethren which are of the Gentiles in Antioch and Syria and Cilicia: This is the first mention in the New Testament history of writing as an element in its development. And the combination here of written and oral transmission of an important decision reminds us of the first occasion of writing mentioned in the Old Testament, where a similar combination occurs (Ex 17:14). 14And the LORD said unto Moses, Write this for a memorial in a book, and rehearse it in the ears of Joshua: for I will utterly put out the remembrance of Amalek from under heaven. 15And Moses built an altar, and called the name of it Jehovahnissi: 16For he said, Because the LORD hath sworn that the LORD will have war with Amalek from generation to generation.

18 Acts 15:24 Forasmuch as we have heard, that certain which went out from us have troubled you with words, subverting your souls, saying, Ye must be circumcised, and keep the law: to whom we gave no such commandment: Note: Sincerity not enough: they were sincere. There are many today who say the Bible says you have to do this, or the Bible says you can’t to this, or this part has passed away, and what they are saying is not in the Bible, there is no such commandment. We must study the Bible for ourselves to learn the Bible.

19 Acts 15:25-26 25It seemed good unto us, being assembled with one accord, to send chosen men unto you with our beloved Barnabas and Paul, 26Men that have hazarded their lives for the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. This was a high character of Paul and Barnabas: they had already suffered much in the cause of Christ, and exposed their lives to the most imminent danger, and were intent on the same work, notwithstanding the increasing dangers in the way.

20 Acts 15:27-28 27We have sent therefore Judas and Silas, who shall also tell you the same things by mouth. 28For it seemed good to the Holy Ghost, and to us, to lay upon you no greater burden than these necessary things; These were proofs that the testimony of Paul and Barnabas was true; and that the letter was not forged, as they could witness the same things which the letter contained. This is a strong and undoubted claim to inspiration. It was with special reference to the organization of the church that the Holy Spirit had been promised to them by the Lord Jesus, Matthew 18:18-20, John 14:26.

21 Acts 15:29 That ye abstain from meats offered to idols, and from blood, and from things strangled, and from fornication: from which if ye keep yourselves, ye shall do well. Fare ye well. One thing is clear: the four requirements given to the Gentile believers were viewed by the Apostles as essentia1. But grouped as they are they comprise a specific message to the Gentiles about a specific issue. Obviously the Apostles were not suggesting to the Gentile believers that all morality and ethical guidelines were summed up in these four! From a Jewish perspective, nothing characterized the Gentiles more than idolatry. The four things prohibited find a commonality in idol worship in the pagan temples. Here is where the Jerusalem Council saw the need for Gentiles to submit to some of the manmade laws. The Jewish community needed to be satisfied that the Gentiles were no longer idolators, and that they had forever turned their backs on this capital crime.

22 Acts 15:29 Acts 15:20 Acts 15:29 1. from things from things sacrificed contaminated by to idols idols 2. from fornication from blood 3. from what is from things strangled strangled 4. from blood from fornication There are some apparent differences: fornication and blood are switched in the order of the list, and the matter of idolatry is identified first as things contaminated but secondly as food sacrificed to idols. Slight difference in language in that the first list each had a definite singular article “the”. In the second list in original language it consists of only four words connected by the word “and”. The first list seems to be a kind of preliminary rough draft and the second that is the final edition and committed to writing for distribution to the congregations. However the second list seems to be written so that it would be easily committed to memory. These items seem to be a unified whole identifying idol worship in pagan temples and as such reveal the Apostle’s demand that believing Gentiles separate themselves from any contact with the temples that could be construed by the Jewish community as participation in idolatry. In asking the Gentiles to divorce themselves from even the cultural aspects of the pagan temples the Apostles were requiring the Gentiles to see idolatry from the Jewish perspective. Again this was the starting point – Gentiles would learn more as they studied.

23 Acts 15:30-31 30So when they were dismissed, they came to Antioch: and when they had gathered the multitude together, they delivered the epistle: 31Which when they had read, they rejoiced for the consolation. Rejoicing as a division of the church was avoided! It was not a matter of small moment to have a question on which such stress was laid decided by an apostolic council, over which the Spirit of God presided.

24 Acts 15:32-33 32And Judas and Silas, being prophets also themselves, exhorted the brethren with many words, and confirmed them. 33And after they had tarried there a space, they were let go in peace from the brethren unto the apostles. This evidently implies that they had been preachers before they went to Antioch. What was the precise nature of the office of a prophet in the Christian church, we are not sure. Possibly it may imply that they were teachers of unusual or remarkable ability.

25 Acts 15:34-35 34Notwithstanding it pleased Silas to abide there still. 35Paul also and Barnabas continued in Antioch, teaching and preaching the word of the Lord, with many others also. Time is summarized. A substantial amount of time goes by before v. 36.

26 Acts 15:36-37 36And some days after Paul said unto Barnabas, Let us go again and visit our brethren in every city where we have preached the word of the Lord, and see how they do. 37And Barnabas determined to take with them John, whose surname was Mark. Paul “mothers” the churches, he prays for them, writes them, keeps in touch with them, counsels them... [where we have preached] Referring to the churches they had founded on the first missionary journey Neither Mark nor Barnabas are seen again in the Book of Acts; the same is true of Peter following the Jerusalem Council (Acts 15). John Mark, Barnabas was his uncle and he had left earlier.

27 Acts 15:38-39 38But Paul thought not good to take him with them, who departed from them from Pamphylia, and went not with them to the work. 39And the contention was so sharp between them, that they departed asunder one from the other: and so Barnabas took Mark, and sailed unto Cyprus; Mark had left them on the first missionary journey and gone home, so Paul did not think it best to take him on the second trip (Acts 12:12). Paul won’t give Mark a second chance. “A brother offended is harder to be won than a strong city” ( Prov 18:19). Barnabas disappears from the record... He disappears from history here. He took the original route (Acts 13:4) and Paul went by land to Asia Minor.

28 Acts 15:40-41 40And Paul chose Silas, and departed, being recommended by the brethren unto the grace of God. 41And he went through Syria and Cilicia, confirming the churches. Confirming the Churches—This was the object of his journey: they were young converts, and had need of establishment; and there is no doubt that, by showing them the decision made at the late council of Jerusalem, their faith was greatly strengthened, their hope confirmed, and their love increased.


30 While the written Torah surely prohibited any worship of idols, the Sages had put a good number of "fences" in place to distance the people from any contact with idolatry. These "fences" were extra-biblical, yet the Apostles considered them essential in showing the clear break the Gentile believers had made with idolatry. But since they were man-made and not directly from Scripture, they were part of the "yoke" of Oral Torah, the "burden" that the Sages had laid upon the written Scriptures. While the Apostles were not willing to put the Gentiles under the full weight of the traditions (something not even the Jewish people had been able to bear), they did see the need to require the Gentiles to keep this rabbinic halakah. Only such a requirement could have fully satisfied the Jewish community that the Gentile believers had made a radical break from their former idol worship. There appears to still be much confusion and much disagreement on Acts 15. The resolution to some of the arguments may never be understood in our lifetime; however it will be explained someday. Meanwhile let us live in Shalom!

31 End Acts Chapter 15

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