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Chapter 15 The Union Severed The American People, 6 th ed.

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1 Chapter 15 The Union Severed The American People, 6 th ed.

2 I. Organizing for War

3 The Balance of Resources  In the early days of the war, the armies of the North and South were comparable.  Many northern assets would not become effective until months later.  Although the North had a superior logistical base, the South believed the quality and experience of its people alone could win the war.

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6 Border States  The states of the upper South provided a natural border between the two belligerents.  The loyalty of each of these states represented a important milestone to both Confederacy and Union.

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8 II.Clashing on the Battlefield

9 War in the East  General Winfield Scott, commander of the Union forces pressed for a long, cautious strategy that became known as the Anaconda Plan.  Sea and land blockades would strangle the South.  Lincoln and the voters preferred action and a quick victory.

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11 War in the West  In the western theatre of war, the Union had two major objectives:  The domination of Kentucky and eastern Tennessee which were natural avenues of travel from east to west  The control of the Mississippi River to split the Confederacy and prevent its ability to trade  Ulysses S. Grant proved his leadership abilities in the Vicksburg campaign, causing Lincoln (after many other choices) to settle on Grant as supreme commander.

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13 Cotton Diplomacy  Although recognition by even one of the European powers would give the South credibility as a sovereign nation, the Europeans were quick to declare neutrality.  Southerners mistakenly assumed that dwindling European supplies of cotton as the war progressed would eventually force government recognition.  European industrialists found new sources of cotton in India and Egypt.

14 Common Problems  Both treasuries had started the war empty and the cost of fighting was enormous  Both sides initiated taxation on a small scale  Both sides tried borrowing in the form of government bonds  Both sides resorted to printing inflated amounts of money  Both sides confronted severe manpower needs and had to enact some form of draft

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16 III. The Tide Turns

17 The Emancipation Proclamation  Lincoln envisioned the freeing of the slaves primarily as a tool for crippling the South  In 1862, Lincoln tried to entice border states into reducing their slave holdings gradually  Lincoln argued that freeing the slaves would ultimately save white lives and preserve the Union  Lincoln issued the proclamation on New Year’s Day, 1863

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19 Changing Military Strategies  In 1863, Lee decided that a defensive posture would never win the war for the South.  Hoping for a victory that would eventually lead to the capture of a great northern city, Lee marched against the Union army at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania with disastrous results.  Replacing Meade, Grant adapted the Anaconda Plan to a plan of drastic annihilation.

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21 IV.Changes Wrought by War

22 A New South  Central government continued to expand in the South, bringing with it increased taxation and interference with private property, the ideals that most Southerners were fighting against  More land was converted to raising food crops  Many Southerners were forced to accept factory work for the war effort

23 The North  Like Davis, Lincoln was accused of running a dictatorship  The staggering costs of war helped revolutionize the financial system of the region  Agriculture increased, producing surpluses of food  Manufacturing increased

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