2What do oranges, broccoli and Butterball turkeys have to do What do oranges, broccoli andButterball turkeys have to dowith EVOLUTION?(Answers to come in this slide show!)THINK ABOUT IT
3After Darwin returned to England in 1836 he filled notebooks with his ideasabout _____________ and the processthat he would later call _______.He did not rush to publish his ideasbecause they ________ with thefundamental scientific ______ of hisday.He asked his wife to publishhis ideas when he ___.species diversityevolutiondisagreedbeliefsdied
4_________________, wrote an essay describing his work in _______ that In 1858 another naturalist,_________________, wrote anessay describing his work in _______ thatsummarized the same ideas _____ hadbeen thinking about for 25 years!Alfred Russel WallaceMalaysiaDarwin
5Suddenly Darwin had incentive to publish the results of his work! ____________________presented _______and proposed a________ for evolutionthat he called__________________On the Origin of SpeciesevidencemechanismNATURAL SELECTION
6Isn’t evolution just a theory? A theory is a ____________, _______, explanation of phenomena that have occurred in the natural world, like the theory of __________________, ________, and _____________.well-supportedtestablegravitational attractioncell theoryatomic theory
7WHAT IS DARWIN’S THEORY? _________________ is foundnaturally in all populationsGENETIC VARIATION
8WHAT IS DARWIN’S THEORY? ______________________means that members of each speciesmust ________ for food, space, andother __________.STRUGGLE FOR EXISTANCECOMPETERESOURCES
9WHAT IS DARWIN’S THEORY? Some organisms in a ________are ________ to survive.populationless likely
10WHAT IS DARWIN’S THEORY? _____________________ organisms which are better adapted to the environment will ______ and ________, passing on their _____.SURVIVAL OF THE FITTESTsurvivereproducegenes
11VOCAB survive and reproduce fitness Ability of an individual to ______ ____________ in its specificenvironment= ______surviveand reproducefitness
12ADAPTATION VOCAB Any ___________________ that increases an organism’s ______________= _____________inherited characteristicchance of survivalADAPTATION
13Over time, natural selection results in ________ in the WHAT IS DARWIN’S THEORY?Over time, natural selectionresults in ________ in theinherited characteristics of a__________.These changes ______ aspecies’ _____ in its environment.CHANGESPOPULATIONincreasefitnessHow Does Evolution Really Work?
14____________________________ WHAT IS DARWIN’S THEORY?DESCENT WITH MODIFICATION____________________________suggests that each species has___________, with ________,from other species over time.This idea suggests that all livingspecies are ____________________,and that all species, living and extinct,share a _________________.DESCENDEDCHANGESRELATED TO EACH OTHERCOMMON ANCESTOR
16mutation sexual reproduction ARTIFICIAL SELECTION WORKSIn artificial selection, ____________provides the _________ through_________ and _________________and ______________ those traits that they find ______.NATUREvariationmutation sexual reproductionhumans selectusefulEX: We have selected for and bred cows to produce more milk, turkeys with more breast meat, etc.
19Now you know what broccoli and Butterball turkeys have to do with evolution!(Answers about oranges to come in this slide show!)THINK ABOUT IT
20How Do We Know Evolution Happens? 2. The Fossil Record –______ are the ________________________found in layers of rockin the Earth.Fossilsremainsof ancient organisms
21How Do We Know Evolution Happens? The layers of rock tell the history of the_____, while the _____ found withinthe rock tell a history of ___.The fossils are thoughtto be the ________ asthe rock theyare found in.Earthfossilslifesame age
22Movement of Earth’s Crust Section 15-2Earthquakes and volcanoescause uplifting of the layers of theEarth, taking the fossils alongSea levelFossils ofmarinefish foundon themountain-sides ofsouthwestWyoming,which atone timewascoveredby aninland seaFish die inthe oceanand arecovered insediment.Over timeand underincreasingpressure,the remainsbecomesfossilizedSedimentary rocks form in horizontal layers.When part of Earth’s crust is compressed, a bend in a rock forms, tilting the rock layers.As the surface erodes due to water, wind, waves, or glaciers, the older rock surface is exposed.
23TRANSITIONAL FOSSILS HAVE BEEN FOUND Scientific American; Dec 2005; Vol 293; p
24TIK-TAALIK Intermediate between fish and early tetrapods TIK-TAALIK Intermediate between fish and early tetrapodsFins have basic wrist bones and simple fingersEarliest fish with a neckDiscovered by Neil Shubin and Ted Daeschler in 2004TIK-TAALIK
25Fossil record shows change over time SD dinosaur fossils
26closely related different species geographic If Darwin’s theory is correct you would expect to find ____________ yet _______________ living in a_________ region as they spread into nearby habitats and evolve.closely relateddifferent speciesgeographicThat’s EXACTLY what we do see!
28The _____ of Galapagos finches have ______ to eating a _____ of _____. GALAPAGOS FINCHESThe _____ of Galapagos finches have______ to eating a _____ of _____.beaksadaptedvarietyfoods
29different species far apart more alike If Darwin’s theory is correct you would also expect to find _______________ living in ________ geographic regionsbut similar habitats becoming ________ as they adapt to ______________.different speciesfar apartmore alikesimilar ecosystemsThat’s EXACTLY what we do see!
30Whales and sharks have a _____ body design Whales and sharks have a _____ body designeven though they are very _______ organisms(one is a fish; the other, a mammal)because they have _________________ to living in a _____ environment.similardifferentindependently adaptedsimilar= CONVERGENT EVOLUTION
31Whales are closely related to wolves, but don’t look or act much like them = divergent evolutionConclusion:The pressure ofthe environmentdrives evolutionWhales are distantly relatedto sharks, but look and act morelike them =convergent evolution
32Figure 15–14 Geographic Distribution of Living Species Section 15-3Differencesbetween_____________muskratand coypushow _________evolution, whilesimilarities______________capybaraand coypu show___________evolution.BeaverNORTH AMERICAMuskratCapybaraSOUTH AMERICACoypuBeaver and MuskratCoypu and Capybaraclosely-relatedBeaver and capybaraare _____________________ living in very ________ environments,while beaver and musk-rat are ______________________ living in a______ environment.Differences betweenbeaver and capybarashow _________evolution, whilesimilaritiesbetween beaver andmuskrat show __________ evolution.closely-relatedspeciesdivergentdifferentdistantly-relateddistantly-relatedspeciessimilarconvergentdivergentconvergent
344. Homologous Body Structures – Structures, like the limbs of vertebrates, look very _______,but are made from the__________, becausethey are made fromthe same clump of_____________ cellsin the _______.differentsame bonesundifferentiatedembryoImage from:
35Figure 15–15 Homologous Body Structures Section 15-3TurtleAlligatorBirdMammalAncient lobe-finned fish
36homologous body structures Some _______________________are _______ and have no usefulfunction even though they are still present, like ________in whales and boa constrictors, or a ____ and ________________in humans.homologous body structuresvestigialhipbonestailcecum (appendix)
37Most mammals have a pouch between their small and large intestine that contains bacteria to digest plants called a _____.cecumIn humans the cecumis shrunken and unused.It is our _________appendix
38Why grow a tail and then lose it? HUMAN EMBRYO_________________has a tail at 4 weeksTail disappears atabout 8 weekstail
39Why would an organism possess organs ___ ________________? with Skinks are a type of lizard. In some species, legs have become so small they _____________ in walking.no longerfunctionWhy would an organism possess organs ___ ________________?withlittle or no functionOne explanation:The ________ is present to make the organ, but_________________ through ______________.If the organ is not vital to survival, thennatural selection would not cause its elimination.gene codefunction has been lostchange over time
40Similarities in Embryology 5. _____________________________ of many animals with back-bones are very similar.Similarities in EmbryologyEmbryosImage from:
41It is clear that the same groups of _____________ cells develop in the same order to produce the same tissues and organs of all vertebrates, suggesting that they all _______ from a _______________.undifferentiatedevolvedcommon ancestorImage from:
43Similar _________ suggest an ___________________. Human- 46 chromosomes Chimpanzee- 48 chromosomeskaryotypesSimilar _________ suggest an ___________________.evolutionary relationshipHuman:Chimpanzee: Middle School Life Science , published by Kendall/Hunt.
441. ________________________ BANDING PATTERN MATCHES1. ________________________If you take the two smaller chromosomes apes have that we don’t, and place them end to end, the ______ _______________ to the #2 human chromosome __ ________________.bandingpattern is identicalwehave that they don’t
452. ____________________ TELOMERES IN MIDDLE2. ____________________Chromosomes have special sequences called _______ at their ends to protect the strands during replication.telomeres
46→ → → 2. TELOMERES IN MIDDLE at the ends ALSO IN THE MIDDLE fusing Telomere sequences are found __________ and _____________________ of human chromosome #2 suggesting it was made by _____ two other chromosomes together.at the endsALSO IN THE MIDDLE→fusing→
47→ EXTRA CENTROMERE 3. _________________ INACTIVE CENTROMERE Chromosome #2 has a second __________ _____________ regionINACTIVECENTROMERE→
48What do oranges, broccoli and Butterball turkeys have to do What do oranges, broccoli andButterball turkeys have to dowith EVOLUTION?(Answers to come in this slide show!)THINK ABOUT IT
49Did you ever wonder why dogs and cats don’t need to eat ________, but _______?fresh fruitYOU DO
50Fish, amphibians, reptiles, and most mammals can make their own _________, but humans need to eat fresh fruit or they end up with ________.VITAMIN CSCURVY
51Human DNA contains the gene that codes for the enzyme to make vitamin C, but it is ________________. Guess what other group of organisms lack the ability to make their own Vitamin C?NONFUNCTIONALPRIMATES…which includeschimpanzees, orangutans,gorillas, and other apes.
52Humans have many other nonfunctional vestigial genes called ________________. EX: Humans have more than 99 different odor receptor genes, but more than 70% of them are ___________.PSEUDOGENESnonfunctional
53WHY DOES EVOLUTION MATTER NOW? Can see Natural selection happen7.____________________________EX: Peppered MothsThere is a natural variation in populations of peppered moths.___________________________________TypicaCarbonariaTypica form - lighterCarbonaria form - darker
54In recent years, the burning of cleaner fuels and Clean Air The ___________ form was the predominant form in England _____________________________.Around the middle of the 19th century the ______ form began to appear. It was first reported in By % of the moths in Manchester were the ____ variety.In recent years, the burning ofcleaner fuels and Clean Airregulations has reduced thepollution there and the______ colored mothshave increased in numbers.light coloredprior to the Industrial Revolutiondarkerdarklighter
557.____________________________ EX: Changes in disease-causing microbes that produce new organisms and __________.____________________________________Can see Natural selection happennew diseasesBird fluHIVAntibiotic-resistant tuberculosis
56Should the Use of Antibiotics Be Restricted? Read the Issues in Biology article onp. 403 in your text. Then watch thevideo Why Does Evolution Matter Now?and discuss the question: Should theuse of antibiotics be restricted?
57PBS EVOLUTION VIDEO CLIPS Isn’t Evolution Just a Theory?QuickTimeWho was Charles Darwin?How Do we Know Evolution Happens?How Does Evolution Really Work?QuickTime |Why Does Evolution Matter Now?Why is Evolution Controversial Anyway?