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Chapter 15 Toward the Civil War (1840-1861) Section 1 Slavery and the West.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15 Toward the Civil War (1840-1861) Section 1 Slavery and the West."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 15 Toward the Civil War ( ) Section 1 Slavery and the West

2 Chapter Time Line


4 A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1-Polling QuestionSection 1-Polling Question Rate your agreement with the following statement: It is better to compromise to get something accomplished than to stand 100% firm on what you believe. A.Strongly agree B.Somewhat agree C.Somewhat disagree D.Strongly disagree

5 Essential QuestionEssential Question Did the compromises that Congress made effectively address slavery and sectionalism?

6 Missouri Missouri applied for statehood Slavery was legal in Missouri This sparked an angry debate in Congress There were 22 states in the Union 11 slave states/ 11 free states Each state got two votes (Senate) Adding another state would tip the balance between slave states and free states

7 North and South The North and South had different economies and were competing for new land in the West At the same time, many Northerners wanted to restrict or ban slavery Southerners opposed these antislavery efforts (even those that disliked slavery) Southerners resented the interference by outsiders in Southerners’ affairs sectionalismThis grew into sectionalism between the North and South

8 What to do with Missouri Senate suggested allowing Missouri join as a slave state and Maine join as a free state The Senate wanted to settle the issue of slavery in the territories for good Senate proposed banning slavery in the rest of the Louisiana Purchase north of 36°30' N latitude Speaker of the House Henry Clay guided the bill through the House of Representatives (passed by a close vote) Maine was the 23 rd state and Missouri was 24 th Missouri CompromiseThe Missouri Compromise preserved the balance between slave and free states temporaryThis was a temporary solution in the debate over slavery

9 A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1Section 1 Who drafted the Missouri Compromise? A.Henry Clay B.James Monroe C.James Polk D.Thomas Jefferson

10 Slavery The debate over slavery erupted again in the 1840s Texas was added and slavery was already legal there Texas Annexation was the main issue in the presidential election of 1844 Texas became a state in 1845 Shortly after the Mexican War began, Representative David Wilmost from Pennsylvania introduced a proposal The Wilmot Proviso would ban slavery in any lands the US would get from Mexico

11 A.A B.B C.C D.D Section 1Section 1 Which of the following was a proposal to ban slavery in any lands acquired from Mexico? A.The Compromise of 1850 B.The Wilmot Proviso C.The Missouri Compromise D.The Freeport Doctrine

12 Southerners’ Response Southerners’ protested the Wilmot Proviso Southerners’ felt this endangered slavery everywhere They wanted New Mexico and California open to slavery John C. Calhoun (SC) countered with another proposal regulateIt said that neither Congress nor any territory had the authority to ban slavery from a territory or regulate it Neither proposal passed, but caused bitter debate By the next election, the US gained New Mexico and California, but took no action on slavery

13 Election of The Whigs selected Zachary Taylor as their candidate Taylor was a Southerner and a hero of the Mexican War The Democrats chose Senator Lewis Cass of Michigan Both candidates ignored the issue of slavery The failure to take a stand angered voters

14 Election of 1848 Continued Many opponents of slavery left their parties and formed the Free-Soil Party “Free Soil, Free Speech, Free Labor, and Free Men” The Free-Soil Party chose former president Van Buren as their candidate Taylor won, but the Free- Soil Party gained several seats in Congress

15 Issues in the US California applied for statehood in 1849 (After the Gold Rush) Meanwhile, antislavery forces wanted to ban slavery in Washington, D.C. fugitiveSoutherners also wanted a national law that required states to return fugitive enslaved people The key issue was the balance of power in the Senate (30 states 15/15) secedingSoutherners talked about seceding from the Union

16 Compromising Senator Henry Clay proposed that California enter as a free state The rest of the new territories would have no limits on slavery The slave trade (Not slavery itself) would be banned in Washington D.C. Clay also pushed for a stronger fugitive slave law Senator John C. Calhoun opposed the plan Calhoun felt that the Union could be saved only by protecting slavery Senator Webster supported the plan Webster said that slavery had little chance in the new territories because the land was not suited for plantations

17 The Compromise of 1850 President Taylor was an opponent of Clay’s plan But Taylor died unexpectedly and Millard Fillmore took over as president Fillmore favored the compromise To end the crisis, Illinois Senator Stephen A. Douglas divided Clay’s plan into 4 parts Each part would be voted on separately Fillmore had several Whigs abstain on parts they opposed The 5 parts passed and became known as the Compromise of 1850

18 The Parts of the Compromise of California would be admitted as a free state. 2.The new Mexico territory would have no restrictions on slavery. 3.The new Mexico- Texas border dispute would be settled in favor of new Mexico. 4.The slave trade but not slavery it self would be abolished in the district of Colombia. 5.Stronger fugitive state law.

19 Essential QuestionEssential Question Did the compromises that Congress made effectively address slavery and sectionalism? -Compromises dealt primarily with immediate issues -Admittance of new states -Maintaining balance in Congress -The compromises did not address slavery at the national level

20 Chapter 15 Section 1 Quiz

21 By admitting a free state and Missouri, a slaveholding state, to the Union at the same time, the Senate could remain balanced. A.True B.False

22 The Wilmot Proviso allowed California to enter the Union as a free state. A.True B.False

23 John C. Calhoun countered David Wilmot's proposal. A.True B.False

24 Zachary Taylor adopted a proslavery platform for the 1848 presidential election. A.True B.False

25 President Fillmore was in favor of the Compromise of A.True B.False

26 An exaggerated loyalty to a particular region of the country is called A.abolitionism. B.fugitive slave law. C.Free-Soil Party. D.sectionalism.

27 The plan that preserved the balance between slave and free states in the Senate was the A.North-South Compromise. B.Missouri Compromise. C.Maine Compromise. D.Slavery Compromise.

28 The main issue in the presidential election of 1844 was the A.annexation of Texas. B.annexation of Maine. C.annexation of New Mexico. D.annexation of Missouri.

29 Who proposed that neither Congress nor local governments had the authority to ban slavery from a territory? A.Daniel Webster B.John C. Calhoun C.Henry Clay D.Zachary Taylor

30 President Millard Fillmore persuaded several Whig representatives to not cast votes, or to A.secede. B.become a fugitive. C.abstain. D.increase sectionalism.

31 Participant Scores 0Participant 1 0Participant 2 0Participant 3 0Participant 4 0Participant 5

32 Team Scores 0Team 1 0Team 2 0Team 3 0Team 4 0Team 5

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