4Section 1-Polling Question Rate your agreement with the following statement: It is better to compromise to get something accomplished than to stand 100% firm on what you believe.A. Strongly agreeB. Somewhat agreeC. Somewhat disagreeD. Strongly disagreeABCD
5Essential QuestionDid the compromises that Congress made effectively address slavery and sectionalism?
6Missouri 1819- Missouri applied for statehood Slavery was legal in MissouriThis sparked an angry debate in CongressThere were 22 states in the Union11 slave states/ 11 free statesEach state got two votes (Senate)Adding another state would tip the balance between slave states and free states
7North and SouthThe North and South had different economies and were competing for new land in the WestAt the same time, many Northerners wanted to restrict or ban slaverySoutherners opposed these antislavery efforts (even those that disliked slavery)Southerners resented the interference by outsiders in Southerners’ affairsThis grew into sectionalism between the North and South
8What to do with Missouri Senate suggested allowing Missouri join as a slave state and Maine join as a free stateThe Senate wanted to settle the issue of slavery in the territories for goodSenate proposed banning slavery in the rest of the Louisiana Purchase north of 36°30' N latitudeSpeaker of the House Henry Clay guided the bill through the House of Representatives (passed by a close vote)Maine was the 23rd state and Missouri was 24thThe Missouri Compromise preserved the balance between slave and free statesThis was a temporary solution in the debate over slavery
9A B C D Who drafted the Missouri Compromise? A. Henry Clay Section 1Who drafted the Missouri Compromise?A. Henry ClayB. James MonroeC. James PolkD. Thomas JeffersonABCD
10Slavery The debate over slavery erupted again in the 1840s Texas was added and slavery was already legal thereTexas Annexation was the main issue in the presidential election of 1844Texas became a state in 1845Shortly after the Mexican War began, Representative David Wilmost from Pennsylvania introduced a proposalThe Wilmot Proviso would ban slavery in any lands the US would get from Mexico
11Section 1Which of the following was a proposal to ban slavery in any lands acquired from Mexico?A. The Compromise of 1850B. The Wilmot ProvisoC. The Missouri CompromiseD. The Freeport DoctrineABCD
12Southerners’ Response Southerners’ protested the Wilmot ProvisoSoutherners’ felt this endangered slavery everywhereThey wanted New Mexico and California open to slaveryJohn C. Calhoun (SC) countered with another proposalIt said that neither Congress nor any territory had the authority to ban slavery from a territory or regulate itNeither proposal passed, but caused bitter debateBy the next election, the US gained New Mexico and California, but took no action on slavery
13Election of 18481848- The Whigs selected Zachary Taylor as their candidateTaylor was a Southerner and a hero of the Mexican WarThe Democrats chose Senator Lewis Cass of MichiganBoth candidates ignored the issue of slaveryThe failure to take a stand angered voters
14Election of 1848 ContinuedMany opponents of slavery left their parties and formed the Free-Soil Party“Free Soil, Free Speech, Free Labor, and Free Men”The Free-Soil Party chose former president Van Buren as their candidateTaylor won, but the Free-Soil Party gained several seats in Congress
15Issues in the USCalifornia applied for statehood in 1849 (After the Gold Rush)Meanwhile, antislavery forces wanted to ban slavery in Washington, D.C.Southerners also wanted a national law that required states to return fugitive enslaved peopleThe key issue was the balance of power in the Senate (30 states 15/15)Southerners talked about seceding from the Union
16Compromising1850- Senator Henry Clay proposed that California enter as a free stateThe rest of the new territories would have no limits on slaveryThe slave trade (Not slavery itself) would be banned in Washington D.C.Clay also pushed for a stronger fugitive slave lawSenator John C. Calhoun opposed the planCalhoun felt that the Union could be saved only by protecting slaverySenator Webster supported the planWebster said that slavery had little chance in the new territories because the land was not suited for plantations
17The Compromise of 1850 President Taylor was an opponent of Clay’s plan But Taylor died unexpectedly and Millard Fillmore took over as presidentFillmore favored the compromiseTo end the crisis, Illinois Senator Stephen A. Douglas divided Clay’s plan into 4 parts Each part would be voted on separatelyFillmore had several Whigs abstain on parts they opposedThe 5 parts passed and became known as the Compromise of 1850
18The Parts of the Compromise of 1850 California would be admitted as a free state.The new Mexico territory would have no restrictions on slavery.The new Mexico-Texas border dispute would be settled in favor of new Mexico.The slave trade but not slavery it self would be abolished in the district of Colombia.Stronger fugitive state law.
19-Compromises dealt primarily with immediate issues Essential QuestionDid the compromises that Congress made effectively address slavery and sectionalism?-Compromises dealt primarily with immediate issuesAdmittance of new statesMaintaining balance in CongressThe compromises did not address slavery at the national level