Presentation on theme: "Tutor Skills Training What is Critical Thinking?."— Presentation transcript:
Tutor Skills Training What is Critical Thinking?
Critical Thinking is… a Lifelong Endeavor Never universal in any individual All are subject to undisciplined/irrational thought Quality of thinking usually a matter of degree dependent upon depth of experience in a given domain –No one is a critical thinker through-and through, but only to such-and-such a degree, with such-and-such insights and blind spots, subject to such-and such tendencies towards self-delusion. Michael Scriven and Richard Paul
Critical Thinking Can Have Bias Varies according to motivation –Selfish Skillful manipulation of ideas in service to ones own, or ones groups, vested interest. Intellectually flawed, though pragmatic –Fairminded Of an intellectual higher order/integrity Subject to charge of idealism
Okay, So What Is It? Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action. Michael Scriven and Richard Paul
Ineffective Critical Thinkers Impulsive, jump to conclusions Unable to recognize personal bias Unable to recognize self-deception Inflexible in approaching thinking tasks Give up easily Content with conclusions based on little data
How Does Critical Thinking Affect Us? As individuals? As students? As tutors? What Is the Main Strategy for Developing Critical Thinking?
Questioning Socratic –Clarification –Probing assumptions –Probing reasons and evidence –Understanding viewpoints/perspectives –Probing implications and consequences –Questions about the question
Example of Socratic Questioning How do we determine a sites organizational affiliation? How does this sites affiliation relate to the sites credibility? Who created this Web site? Someone mentioned copyright concerns. How does this relate to our discussion of evaluation of web sites? Are you assuming all sites are reliable, accurate, and correct? Many assume sites with the.edu or.org domains are credible. Is this always the case? What would be an example of a credible web site? Why? How would you respond to a person saying that material found on the web is out there and in the public domain? How would others, such as publishers or authors of copyrighted materials, view your using materials because they are out there? Student must evaluate a WWW site
Critical Thinking Skills Blooms Taxonomy Cognitive Domain –The cognitive domain involves knowledge and the development of intellectual skills. This includes the recall or recognition of specific facts, procedural patterns, and concepts that serve in the development of intellectual abilities and skills. Affective Domain –This domain includes the manner in which we deal with things emotionally, such as feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations, and attitudes. Psychomotor Domain –The psychomotor domain includes physical movement, coordination, and use of the motor-skill areas. Development of these skills requires practice and is measured in terms of speed, precision, distance, procedures, or techniques in execution.
Example of Using Questions Based on Blooms Taxonomy List the stages in Blooms Taxonomy of the Cognitive Domain: Explain the 3 rd stage (Apply) of Blooms Taxonomy Demonstrate how you would use the 4 th stage of Blooms Taxonomy in your particular subject area Differentiate between Blooms hierarchy of questioning levels, and Socratic questioning Combine Socratic questioning with Blooms Taxonomy and develop a questioning strategy that is best suited for developing critical thinking in your subject Assess the effectiveness of these questioning techniques
Sum Up Does one ever reach a point of operating at maximum critical thinking ability at all times? What is meant by biased critical thinking? Can you give a definition of critical thinking? What are some attributes of ineffective critical thinkers? What are some attributes of effective critical thinkers? What does Socratic questioning attempt to do? Give me a stage in Blooms taxonomy and give an example of a question you might pose within your subject area for that stage
Why Are You Being Encouraged to Develop Your Own and Your Students Critical Thinking Skills? What Are the Implications For the Tutoring Center?