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FCC Requirements for Unlicensed Devices Washington Laboratories, Ltd

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1 FCC Requirements for Unlicensed Devices Washington Laboratories, Ltd
FCC Requirements for Unlicensed Devices Washington Laboratories, Ltd. Laboratory Workshop Gaithersburg, MD

2 Regulatory Requirements for Wireless Systems
Greg Snyder Chief EMC Engineer

3 Routes to Compliance US: Federal Communications Commission
Title 47 CFR Telecommunications Certification Bodies FCC Identifier & Certification EU: R&TTE (+EMC+Safety) Self-Declaration CE Marking Notified Body/Conformity Assessment Body (CAB) Technical Construction File

4 FCC CFR Title 47 Regulations
Part 2 General Requirements Part 5 Experimental Radio Service Part 15 Subpart C, D, and E Unlicensed Low Power Transmitters Part 20 Common Carrier Part 21 Domestic Public Service Part 22 Public Mobile Service Part 24 Licensed PCS

5 FCC CFR 47 Regulations Part 25 Satellite Communication Services
Part 26 General Wireless services Part 27 Miscellaneous Wireless Services Part 68 Telecom Services Part 73 Education Services Part 74 Television Broadcast Part 80 Maritime Service

6 FCC CFR 47 Regulations Part 87 Aviation Part 90 Private Land Mobile
Part 95 Personal Radio Service Part 97 Amateur Radio Part 100 Digital Satellite Broadcast (Eliminated and now requirements are in Part 25) Part 101 Fixed Microwave

7 FCC Part 15.1: Scope This part sets out the regulations under which an intentional, unintentional, or incidental radiator may be operated without an individual license. It also contains the technical specifications, administrative requirements and other conditions relating to the marketing of part 15 devices.

8 FCC Part 15.15: General Technical Requirements
Good Design. Emanations < Limits No adjustments by user Operators of Part 15 devices must cease operation if interference is caused to authorized users

9 Measurement Standards
ANSI C63.4–2003: “Methods of Measurement of Radio-Noise Emissions from Low-Voltage Electrical and Electronic Equipment in the Range of 9 kHz to 40 GHz” MP-2: Noise Figures of UHF TV Receivers ANSI C63.17–1998: “Methods of Measurement of the Electromagnetic and Operational Compatibility of Unlicensed Personal Communications Services (UPCS) Devices”

10 Certification “Equipment Authorizations”
Requires a detailed list of “Exhibits” See for complete details Essentially, two classes Licensed (e.g. Part 90, VHF/UHF Radios) Unlicensed: (e.g. Part 15, Much of the wireless development is unlicensed (802.11, WLAN, UWB, Low Power Devices)

11 Certification Application Items
Cover Letters: Request for Confidentiality (if desired) Modifications  Test Report from Lab User’s Manual Schematics  Block Diagram  Test Setup Photographs from Lab  Internal/External Photographs by Lab  FCC ID Label Artwork:  FCC Label Position on Device   Operational Description:   Attestation Statements (for Transmitters) Cover Letters: Letters pertaining to Request for Confidentiality (must list items to be held confidential) and letter pertaining to modifications made to the device in order for it to comply with the FCC Rules and Regulations. Test Report: Test Report containing the test data along with explanations of test procedures, definitions of test standards, test equipment used and general information pertaining to the device. User’s Manual: The manual is provided by the manufacturer of the device and consists of information of operational use, description of the device, care and maintenance and any statements that are required per the FCC Rules and Regulations. Schematics: The schematics are to be supplied by the manufacturer and must be legible and precise. Block Diagram: The block diagram is supplied by the manufacturer and must be legible and precise. Test Setup Photographs: These photographs taken during the testing process and show the device in its test position with supporting equipment. They must be clear and correspond with the test report information. Internal/External Photographs (Equipment Under Test Photographs): These photographs must be detailed and show internal and external views of the unit tested. The photographs must be identified as to the side and position of the equipment corresponding or in reference to the device tested. FCC ID Label Artwork: The client is to supply artwork showing the label that will appear on the device. The label must meet the requirements of the FCC Rules and Regulations § and § Additional label requirements may be specified in the FCC Rules governing a particular class of equipment. FCC Label Position: The client must provide a drawing or photograph showing the label positioning. Operational Description: The client must provide the product and operational description of the device. It must describe how the device is used and its theory of operation. Attestation Statements: These are any attestation statements as to testing and compliance required by the rules. (e.g (a)(6), cellular ESN and compatibility, statement of compliance for scanning receiver compliance with , gmdss references to international requirements and epirb prior approvals by RTCM, USCG and COSPAS/SARSAT, also FAA coordinations.

12 FCC ID: AAAnnnnnnnnnnnnnn
AAA: is Grantee Code from FCC. Need to get the Grantee Code from FCC: nnnnnnnnnnnnnn: is from Manufacturer Get grantee code from web site “https://gullfoss.fcc.gov/prod/oet/index.html” Cost: $50 (one time only) The FCC ID number must be on all Certified Devices The FCC ID is a string of characters that may be from 4 to 17 characters long. It may contain any combination of capital letters, numbers, or the dash/hyphen character. Characters 4 through 17 are completely up to the applicant. The first three characters, however, are the "grantee code," a 3-character code assigned by the FCC to a particular applicant (grantee). Any application filed with the FCC must have an FCC ID that commences with an assigned grantee code.

13 Obtaining an FCC Grantee Code
Procedures regarding online grantee code assignments and payment information: Go to: https://gullfoss2.fcc.gov/prod/oet/cf/eas/index.cfm For first-time filers, go to Miscellaneous on the left side of the page. Click on GET FRN. Follow Directions. WRITE DOWN FRN! Go back to: https://gullfoss2.fcc.gov/prod/oet/cf/eas/index.cfm Go to Filing Options > Grantee Registration. Follow Directions. WRITE DOWN GRANTEE CODE The client should retain the grantee code assignment page. This page provides the date that the grantee code was assigned. Payment (one-time $50.00 fee) via online credit card is recommended as the quickest payment procedure. The payer should retain a copy of the acknowlegment of the payment. If for some reason the online payment fails, the payment (via check; money order; wire transfer; or credit card) and Form 159 should be submitted to Mellon Bank AS SOON AS POSSIBLE - within a day or two of the date the code was assigned, and certainly NO LONGER THAN 15 days after the code assignment. It is important to allow enough time for the payment to clear through Mellon Bank before the 30-day time limit.

14 FCC Part 2 Requirements

15 Test Report Requirements
Designed to show transmitter is “well-behaved” – Output Power – Modulation Requirements – Occupied Bandwidth – Antenna Conducted Spurs – Transmitter Radiated Spurs – Frequency Stability

16 FCC Part 15C Low Power Transmitters “Unlicensed Operation”

17 15 C Intentional Radiators
General Requirements: FCC FCC Class B Limits Only

18 15.33 Frequency range of radiated measurements
Intentional Emitters: f < 10 GHz: to the tenth harmonic of the highest fundamental frequency or to 40 GHz, whichever is lower. 10 GHz < f < 30 GHz: fifth harmonic of the highest fundamental frequency or to 100 GHz, whichever is lower. f >: fifth harmonic of the highest fundamental frequency or to 200 GHz, whichever is lower, unless specified otherwise elsewhere in the rules.

19 15.33 Frequency range of radiated measurements
Unintentional Emitters Highest frequency generated or used in the device or on which the device operates or Upper frequency of tunes (MHz) measurement range (MHz) Below Above th harmonic or 40 GHz, whichever is lower 15.33(b)(2) See exceptions for CB radios

20 Antenna Requirements Antenna requirement. - An intentional radiator shall be designed to ensure that no antenna other than that furnished by the responsible party shall be used with the device. Unique connector Permanently affixed Professional Installation

21 Restricted Bands Bands are generally US Government, military bands, Biomedical Telemetry The field strength of emissions appearing within these frequency bands shall not exceed the limits shown in § Basis for all radiated “band edge” requirements (i.e MHz). Caution: Restricted Bands change over time

22 AC Conducted Limits Unless specified elsewhere, all Intentional Radiators must meet limits anywhere outside of their allotted frequency band CISPR 22 Limits (150 kHz – 30MHz, peak and average) (July 10, 2004) Limit = 250uV 450kHz to 30 MHz (peak only) Required if it connects directly or indirectly to AC mains Conducted emissions not required for battery powered devices

23 Radiated Emission Limits 15.209 General Emissions Limits
Unless specified elsewhere, all Intentional Radiators must meet limits anywhere outside of their allotted frequency band Test set-up per ANSI C Limits identical to FCC Class B. Tighter limits apply at all band edges Specific rules may apply for the device. Intentional radiators must generally be measured to the 10th Harmonic

24 Measurement Standards
ANSI C per Part (a) (3) CISPR 22 (Must use ANSI setup) FCC Part 15 Other Resources: Public Notices, FCC Dockets, Interpretations

25 15.225: 13.110 – 14.010MHz RFID devices (new rules in 2003)
Allow the tag to be certified with the interrogator device Increased frequency range Limits increased

26 15.231 Periodic Operation 40.66MHz – 40.70MHz Above 70MHz
Now allows data transmission to be sent with control signal (Late 2003) Limited to 5 second Tx duration Periodic transmissions not allowed Polling/supervision transmissions allowed for security and safety applications (e.g. alarm system) Limited in duration (2 sec./hour)

27 15.231 Periodic Operation Field strength limits:
QP below 1GHz Average above 1GHz Duty cycle correction for pulsed operations Peak limit above 1GHz also applies 20dB Bandwidth limited to 0.25% of operating frequency

28 15.231 Periodic Operation Common devices:
Garage door remotes Car entry systems/keyfobs Alarm systems Voice, video and radio controlled toys only permitted under (e) Tighter limits Limited transmission duration

29 Duty Cycle Correction Used with pulsed operation to obtain average value of emission Based on pulse train or worst case 100ms. 20dB Max duty cycle correction allowed

30 Duty Cycle Correction Example: Worst case 100ms

31 Duty Cycle Correction Pulse Width:

32 Duty Cycle Correction Calculation: On Time Per 100ms (worst case):
8.5 x 4.2ms = 35.7ms Duty cycle calculation: 35.7ms/100ms = 35.77% on time 20 * LOG(0.3577) = -8.9dB duty cycle correction.

33 15.247 Spread Spectrum ISM Band 902 – 928 MHz 2400 – 2483.5MHz
Direct Sequence and Digital Transmission Systems Frequency Hopping Systems a/b/g systems

34 Spread Spectrum Definitions
BER = Bit Error Rate dBc = decibels below carrier dBd = decibels above dipole dBi= decibels above an Isotropic dBm = decibels above 1 millwatt EIRP = Effective Isotropic Radiated Power ERP = Effective Radiated Power

35 Spread Spectrum Requirements
Direct Sequence Systems (DSSS) Frequency Hopping Systems (FHSS) Hybrid Systems - Combination of DSS and DTS Digital Transmission Systems (DTS)

36 Spread Spectrum Direct Sequence and DTS use a sequential modulation to spread a narrow signal over a relative broad band. Frequency hopping - uses an encoded narrow band signal that shifts in a pseudo-randomly-generated frequency shifts.

37 Spread Spectrum Hybrid: Combination of both Frequency Hopping and Direct Sequence systems Bluetooth, e.g.

38 Spread Spectrum Operate in the Industrial, Scientific, and Medical bands on a secondary basis. ISM are global and not restricted by ITU regions

39 Spread Spectrum MHz MHz MHz

40 IEEE 802.11b Specifications Use Direct Sequence Radio rules
U.S.Frequency of Operation – 2462 MHz ETSI Frequency of Operation MHz Channel Spacing Every 5 MHz Protocol Header Transmitted on Start of Every Initial Transmission

41 IEEE 802.11 Frequency Hoppers U.S. Frequency of Operation 2402 - 2480
ETSI Frequency of Operation Hop Patterns Header

42 Canadian Standards RSP-100 RSS-139-1 RSS-210 RSS-102

43 US Standards CFR 47 FCC Part 15 Subpart B Unintentional Radiators
CFR 47 FCC Part 15 Subpart C Intentional Radiators CFR 47 FCC Part Spread Spectrum

44 FCC Requirements for Spread Spectrum Devices
Four types of transmitter modulation allowed Frequency Hopper Direct Sequence Digital Transmission Systems Hybrid

45 FCC Requirements for Spread Spectrum transmitters
Transmitter Power Output 1 Watt Max Effective Isotropic Radiated Power 4 Watts Max Antenna Gain - limited to +6dBi without power reduction from transmitter of 1dB Power for Every 1dB Antenna Exceeds 6dBi Unique Antenna Jack Required

46 Additional FCC Requirements
For systems Operating Strictly as a Point to Point system, the Power Reduction Requirement is 1dB for every 3dB the antenna exceeds 6dBi Device Must Meet OET-65 RF Safety Requirements (1mW/cm2 for 2.4 GHz Devices)

47 Additional FCC Requirements
Operate on Non-Interference Basis Out of Band Requirements including being 20dB down in any 100kHz Outside the Band of Operation and meet general emissions limits (15.209) in the Restricted Bands.

48 Modification Filings Class II Changes Addition of second antenna
Addition of second power level Limited test suites can be used

49 Spurious Emission Requirements
Conducted Emissions Limits 450 kHz to 30 MHz 48dBuV Radiated Emissions Limits 30 to 88 MHz 40 dBuV/m 88 to 216 MHz dBuV/m 216 to 960 MHz 46 dBuV/m 960 MHz+ 54 dBuV/m

50 Frequency Hopping Requirements
If maximum 20dB Bandwidth is 1 MHz (500kHz for 900 MHz) Minimum of 75 Hopping Frequencies for 2.4 GHz 50 hopping Frequencies for 900 MHz Average Occupancy less then 0.4 seconds in a 30 second period If maximum 20dB Bandwidth is > 1MHz Minimum of 13 channels over 75 MHz Average Occupancy less then 0.4 seconds in time to hop all channels Random Non-Sequential Hop Pattern

51 Direct Sequence / DTS Requirements
Transmitter Power Density Averaged Over 1 Second Shall Not Exceed 8dBm In Any 3kHz Bandwidth Minimum Bandwidth is 500 kHz Processing gain no longer required

52 Hybrid Requirements Hop Time 0.4 Seconds in 30 Seconds
Transmitter Power Density Averaged Over 1 Second Shall Not Exceed 8dBm In Any 3kHz Bandwidth

53 Conducted Power Diode detector substitution method
The output from the transmitter connected to a diode detector and oscilloscope The peak deflection measured on the oscilloscope and recorded A signal generator was then substituted in place of EUT and set to the same frequency as the transmitter The CW output of the signal generator increased until the same deflection was noted on the oscilloscope A power meter connected to the output of the signal generator to determine the output power of the signal generator This level is then recorded as the output power of the EUT at the specified frequency The EUT carrier was modulated during this test.

54 Testing Radio testing done in several parts
Lab bench testing for all conducted tests Open field test site or Anechoic Chamber for all radiated tests.

55 Family Antenna Approvals
Allows the use similar antennas without re testing or filing a Class II Change. Example 12 dBi Omni approved for use. You can substitute a 10dBi Omni different manufacturer without re-testing as long as conducted TX Output Power Remains the Same

56 15.203 The use of a permanently attached antenna or of an antenna that uses a unique coupling to the intentional radiator shall be considered sufficient to comply with the provisions of this section. The manufacturer may design the unit so that a broken antenna can be replaced by the user, but the use of a standard antenna jack or electrical connector is prohibited..

57 15.203 Standard Connectors now include:
Reverse SMA, TNC, BNC acceptable until action on pending petition for reconsideration MMCX, MCX are possible candidates

58 15.204 Power Amp Restrictions
Amplifiers designed for use with Spread Spectrum Systems must be approved as part of the system and marketed as part of a complete package.

59 Spread Spectrum Requirements
Modular Approval – This is being treated on a case-by-case basis by FCC. TCB has some limitations on approving modular cards depending on RF Exposure requirements. Antenna Family Approvals accepted

60 Spread Spectrum RF Exposure Requirements
Fixed or mast mounted equipment (usually outdoor) Mobile equipment – usage greater than 20cm Portable equipment – usage less than 20cm.

61 Test Equipment Spectrum Analyzer to 10X Transmit Frequency (max GHz) Power meter with peak head adapter Extremely low loss cables Pre-amp High Pass & Notch Filters Horn antenna Signal Generator Oscilloscope Diode Detector Attenuators Adapters, miscellaneous

62 Test Data Required All spurious emission data above 1 GHz taken with average detector, but peak must be provided to show compliance with 15.35(b) Data and plots (peak & average) for band edge emissions Harmonics (peak & average) to 10th harmonic TX power (radiated & conducted)

63 Receiver Measurements
Receiver and Spurious Emissions must meet the requirements of emission levels

64 Spurious Emissions In-Band Measurements Out-of-Band Measurements
Conducted emissions at antenna terminals or Radiated emissions (if no antenna terminal)

65 Test Setup General Setup Radio BP/HP Filter

66 In-Band Conducted Measurements
Transmit Power Occupied Bandwidth Power Spectral Density

67 In-Band Conducted Emissions
Peak Transmit Power RBW>=6 dB BW Use power meter with peak head detector or Diode detector/signal generator substitution method with an oscilloscope.

68 In-Band Conducted Emissions
Power Spectral Density RBW=3kHz; VBW>=RBW Sweep = Span/3kHz Typical, Span = 300 kHz, Sweep = 100s Limit = +8dBm

69 In-Band Conducted Emissions
Power Spectral Density

70 Measurement Settings Occupied Bandwidth RBW = 100 kHz; VBW => RBW
Span >> RBW

71 In-Band Measurements 6 dB OBW > 500 kHz

72 In-Band Radiated Measurements
If no antenna connector: Radiated Transmit Power Peak Measurement (substitution method) EUT at Max Power With highest gain of each Spectrum Analyzer settings (Peak Readings) RBW > 6dB BW of emission VBW => RBW Spectrum Analyzer settings (Average Readings)

73 Spurious Emissions Harmonics (Radiated)
Frequencies : Low, Middle, Highest Spectrum Analyzer settings Peak Measurements: RBW=1 MHz VBW= or >RBW Average Measurements: RBW=1 MHz, VBW = 10 Hz

74 Out-of-band Emissions
Band Edge Low and Highest Frequency of operation Peak Readings RBW = 100 kHz; VBW = or > RBW Limit = 20dBc in any 100 kHz BW outside of allocated frequency band

75 Out-of-Band Conducted Emissions
Band Edge

76 Band Edge Testing Low End
For Frequencies between signals must be -20dBc down from fundamental For 2390 MHz to signals must comply with levels (Restricted Bands)

77 Band Edge Testing High End
Restricted band starts at band edge - all signals must be compliant to

78 Out of Band Emission Requirements
In any 100 kHz bandwidth outside the frequency band in which the spread spectrum intentional radiator is operating, the radio frequency power that is produced by the intentional radiator shall be at least 20 dB below that in the 100 kHz bandwidth within the band that contains the highest level of the desired power, based on either an RF conducted or radiated measurement.

79 Spurious Emission Plots (30MHz-10X Fo)

80 Harmonics \ Restricted Bands Testing
Required for Each transmitter and Antenna Combination. Low, Mid , and High Frequency checked Up to 10th Harmonic of Fundamental Requires Pre Amp and High Pass Filter Test Distance 3 meters

81 Receiver Local Oscillator
Requires receiver to be tuned to low, mid, and high channels Each antenna and TX combination required to be checked Checked up to 10th harmonic

82 Bandwidth Measurements
Conducted Test Requires Use of Spectrum Analyzer

83 FCC Submittal Information
Test Data Quasi Peak below 1GHz Both average and Peak above Plots of Band Edge Measurements

84 FHSS FCC Requirements Max Power Out Max EIRP Bandwidth Data.

85 Required Test Software
Must be able to turn off transmitter and go to receive only mode Must be able to select low , mid, and high channels Must be able to run in continuous transmit mode Modulation must be turned on For FH Radios - Must be able to hop on all useable channels

86 15.247 Spread Spectrum FCC Requirements
Tx Output Power 1 Watt Effective Isotropic Radiated Power 4 Watts (36dBm) Antenna Gain: Limited to 6dBi (Output power must be reduced 1dB for every dB gain over 6dBi) Fixed Pt. to Pt. Systems in 2.4GHz band: Reduce power 1dB for every 3dB exceeding 6dBi. Fixed Pt. to Pt. Systems in 5.8GHz band: No reduction in output power required. Antenna requirements

87 15.247 Spread Spectrum FCC Requirements DSSS
Out of band emissions: 20dBc in any 100kHz band Band edge requirements Bandwidth: DSSS (6dB minimum 500kHz) Spectral Power Density averaged over 1 second not to exceed +8dBm in any 3kHz bandwidth Processing Gain: No longer a requirement

88 15.247 Spread Spectrum FCC Requirements FHSS
Minimum number of hopping frequencies 50 hopping frequencies for MHz 15 hopping frequencies for MHz 75 hopping frequencies for MHz Average occupancy less then 0.4 seconds in a 30 second period. [ 0.4 seconds in 0.4 second period x number of channels 2.4GHz band ] 20dB bandwidth: 1 MHz 5.8 GHz/ 500kHz MHz. Not specified at 2.4GHz Random non-sequential hop pattern

89 15.249 General Unlicensed/ISM Band
MHz MHz MHz GHz Any type of data Continuous transmission E-Field emission limits

90 Unlicensed Transmitters Millimeter Wave Devices
FCC Part Frequencies of operation GHz, GHz Limited to vehicle mounted field-disturbance systems

91 Unlicensed Transmitters Millimeter Wave Devices
FCC Part Frequencies of operation GHz Can not be used on aircraft or satellites

92 Part 15 Subpart D - Unlicensed PCS Bands
MHz MHz Unique Antenna Connector Required 3dBi Max (1 to 1 Power Reductions vs. antenna gain)

93 Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure UNII - Part 15.401
GHz GHz GHz Specific power and usage limitations for each band Indoor use only with integral antennas in the GHz band. Unique antenna connectors DO NOT qualify

94 UNII Devices Continued
New Rules: Docket No , Feb. 19, 2004 New 255 MHz of spectrum 5.47 – 5.725GHz Dynamic Frequency Range Selection (DFS) for devices in the 5.25 – 5.35GHz and 5.47 – 5.725GHz bands DFS Interim Test Procedures in rules. Transmit Power Control (TPC) 5.47 – 5.725GHz band. No testing, statement will suffice. Requires submission of application to FCC

95 Part 15 Subpart F: UWB Technology referred to as Ultra-Wide Band.
This is a new rule part adopted in April of 2002 Does not yet qualify for TCB Approval No standardized test procedures yet adopted Devices range from see-through-wall devices, ground radar for construction and safety, to low power communication. Coordination with NTIA is required. Operates over wide area of band (1 to 6 GHz wide signals)

96 Comparison of Spectrum
30 kHz Analog Cellular Voice Channel 6 MHz TV Channel MHz Unlicensed Spread Spectrum Devices MHz Ultra-Wideband Devices

97 RF Exposure B F . A B N +20 vertical center line +30 wt/2 RE (ERP)
wb/2 vertical center line horizontal line bottom of handset acoustic output wt/2 A B B -30 N F +30 +20 -60 RE (ERP) 10 mm square

98 RF Safety Issues OET 65 (FCC)
MPE: Maximum Permissible Exposure (calculation to determine separation distances) SAR: Specific Absorption Rate (test for body-worn devices) MPE or SAR Test Required? This can be determined by referencing OET Bulletin 65 Supplement C.

99 RF Safety Issues Human Exposure Rules and Regulations
ANSI C95.1 OET 65 OET 65-C FCC Part FCC Part Mobile Devices FCC Part Portable Devices FCC Part (b) (4)

100 Part 15 and RF Exposure Though categorically excluded from Routine Examination under the FCC Rules, the FCC frequently requires a SAR test or SAR modeling done for portable devices if the power exceeds 100mW EIRP

101 Part 15 and RF Exposure The FCC will require a MPE study for both Mobile and Fixed devices that use high gain antennas. For evaluation purposes for SAR and MPE, the default limits are for Uncontrolled Environments which use the tighter limits.

102 Controlled Environment
People are aware of potential hazards (posted warnings/training) Radio Facilities Test Environments Manufacturing Environments Limits: 5mW/cm2 over a 5 minute period

103 Uncontrolled Environment
People are unaware of potential hazards General Public Limits 1mW/cm2 over a 30 minute period

104 Categories of Devices Fixed Mobile Portable

105 Fixed Device Permanent mounted device
Antenna 2 meters away from all users and bystanders Antenna usually roof mounted or pole mounted

106 Mobile devices Designed to operate at 20cm or more from any bystander
Subject to MPE study MPE Example Calculation: Desktop devices

107 Portable devices Operate less then 20cm from any user or bystander
Usually involves body worn devices SAR Testing may be required

108 European Requirements Overview

109 European R&TTE Market Before R&TTE Directive: highly fragmented
> 1000 national regulations, around 30 harmonised EU regulations fragmentation of spectrum After R&TTE Directive: less fragmented

110 R&TTE Covers the following aspects:
Efficient use of spectrum (Article 3.2) EMC (Article 3.1b) Safety (Article 3.1a)

111 R&TTE Approval Process
CE Marking by manufacturer Self-Declaration for many products Reduced approval procedures and processes Harmonized standards developed (Official Journal)

112 Annexes Annex I: Things NOT covered
Cables, Receive-only broadcast, Kits, Aviation and Air Traffic, marine Annex II: Internal Production Control Basis for all Annexes (good documentation!) Annex III: Annex II + Testing Type testing Annex IV: TCF Notified Body (for new technologies) Annex V: Full QA Accredited Quality Assurance System

113 R&TTE Testing No longer requires involvement of accredited test house
Test to harmonized standards DoC CE Marking Ship Non-harmonized frequencies: Notification to Spectrum Authority Alert Signal (Equipment Class Identifier) Restricted Geographical Area

114 Harmonized Frequencies (Short Range Devices)
Document CEPT 70-03 Lists frequencies and usage in different European countries Latest: Feb 2004 Published by: European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrators Available at

115 Examples from CEPT 70-03

116 Example from CEPT 70-03

117 Notification Applies to radio equipment using a non-harmonized frequency If non-harmonized frequency band, the manufacturer must determine if the frequency is available for use in a particular member state Notify each member state where the equipment is to be sold

118 Notification Notify the Spectrum Authorities in each member state
Available on-line Must be made 4 weeks prior to the equipment being offered for sale.

119 ETSI/EN Standards Available from www.etsi.org (free!)
EMC & Radio Matters ETS : Radio Equipment and Systems (RES); Wideband transmission systems; Technical characteristics and test conditions for data transmission equipment operating in the 2,4 GHz ISM band and using spread spectrum modulation techniques EN : Satellite Earth Stations and Systems (SES); Harmonized EN for Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT); Transmit-only, transmit/receive or receive-only satellite earth stations operating in the 11/12/14 GHz frequency bands covering essential requirements under article 3.2 of the R&TTE directive

120 Example: Short Range Device
Equipment Parameters: 433.92MHz Low power <2.5mW Modulation: FSK Duty Cycle: <1% Integral Antenna Battery Powered

121 Example: Short Range Device
Markets of interest: UK France Italy Refer to CEPT for restrictions

122 Example: Short Range Device at 433MHz CEPT 70-03 Restrictions

123 Example: Short Range Device
Compliance test requirements LVD: EN 60065 EMC EN (SRD) Emissions Immunity Radio: EN Spurious emissions Power (ERP) Bandwidth Frequency Stability

124 Example: Short Range Device
Documentation Equipment complies: Test report/TCF Generates and signs DOC Labels equipment Notifies countries before marketing (Only of frequencies are not harmonized)

125 R&TTE Labeling Example
NAME OF A COMPANY MODEL NUMBER SERIAL NUMBER FREQUENCY BAND nnnn The Notified Body Number: used when either annex III, IV or V have been used

126 WLL Contact Information Phone: ; Fax: 7560 Lindbergh Dr., Gaithersburg, MD 20879 Greg Snyder: Chief EMC Engineer Steve Koster: EMC Operations Manager Berri Remenick: Manager, Product Safety, Frederick Lab Phone: ; Fax:


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