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Chapter 15 State Building and the Search for Order in the Seventeenth Century.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15 State Building and the Search for Order in the Seventeenth Century."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 15 State Building and the Search for Order in the Seventeenth Century

2 Timeline

3 Social Crises, War, and Rebellions Economic Contraction Population Changes The Witchcraft Craze Witchcraft before the sixteenth and seventeenth century Increased prosecutions and executions Accusations against witches Reasons for witchcraft prosecutions Religious uncertainty Social conditions Women as primary victims Begins to subside by mid-seventeenth century

4 The Thirty Years War (1618 – 1648) Background Religious conflict Dynastic-nationalist considerations Tensions in the Holy Roman Empire The Bohemian Phase (1618 – 1625) The Danish Phase (1625 – 1629) The Swedish Phase (1630 – 1635) The Franco-Swedish Phase (1635 – 1648) Outcomes Peace of Westphalia (1648) Social and economic effects

5 Map 15.1: The Thirty Years’ War

6 A Military Revolution? War and Politics in Seventeenth-Century Europe New Tactics New Technologies The Cost of a Modern Military

7 Rebellions Peasant Revolts (1590 – 1640) France, Austria, Hungary, Portugal and Catalonia Russia (1641, 1645 and 1648) Switzerland (1656) Noble Revolts in France (1648 – 1652)

8 Absolute Monarchy in France Foundations of French Absolutism Cardinal Richelieu (1624 – 1642) Policies and goals Administrative reforms Cardinal Mazarin (1642 – 1661) The Fronde – Noble Revolt

9 The Reign of Louis XIV (1643 – 1715) Administration of the Government Domination and bribery Religious Policy Edict of Fontainebleau (1685) Financial Issues Jean Baptist Colbert (1619 – 1683) Daily Life at Versailles Purposes of Versailles Court life and etiquette The Wars of Louis XIV Professional army: 100,000 men in peacetime; 400,000 in wartime Four wars between 1667 – 1713 Invasion of Spanish Netherlands (1667) Annexation of Alsace and Lorraine, occupation of Strasbourg (1679) War of the League of Augsburg (1689 – 1697) War of the Spanish Succession (1702 – 1713)

10 Map 15.2: The Wars of Louis XIV

11 The Decline of Spain Bankruptcies in 1596 and in 1607 Philip III (1598 – 1621) Philip IV (1621 – 1665) Gaspar de Guzman and attempts at reform The Thirty Years’ War Expensive military campaigns Civil War The Netherlands lost

12 Absolutism in Central and Eastern Europe The German States The Rise of Brandenburg-Prussia The Hohenzollern Dynasty Frederick William the Great Elector (1640 – 1688)  Army  General War Commissariat to levy taxes Frederick III (1688 – 1713)  King of Prussia (1701)

13 Map 15.4: The Growth of Brandenburg-Prussia

14 The Emergence of Austria Habsburgs Leopold I (1658 – 1705) Expands eastward Conflicts with the Turks Siege of Vienna (1683) Multinational Empire

15 Italy: From Spanish to Austrian Rule Defeat of the French in Italy by Charles V (1530) Spanish Presence (1559 – 1713) Consequences of the War of the Spanish Succession

16 Russia: From Fledgling Principality to Major Power Ivan IV the Terrible (1533 – 1584) First Tsar Romanov Dynasty (1613 – 1917) Stratified Society Tsar Landed aristocrats Peasants and townspeople

17 The Reign of Peter the Great (1689 – 1725) Visits the West (1697 – 1698) Reorganizes armed forces Reorganizes central government Divides Russia into provinces Seeks control of the Russian Church Introduces Western Customs Book of Etiquettes Positive Impact of Reforms on Women “Open a window to the West” Attacks Sweden Battle of Narva (1700) Great Northern War (1701 – 1721) Battle of Poltava (1709) Peace of Nystadt (1721) Russia gains control of Estonia, Livonia and Karelia St. Petersburg

18 The Winter Palace – St. Petersburg, Russia

19 Map 15.5: Russia: From Principality to Nation-State

20 The Great Northern States Denmark Military losses Bloodless revolution of 1660 Sweden Gustavus Adolphus (1611 – 1632) Christina (1633 – 1654) Charles XI (1697 – 1718)

21 The Ottoman Empire and the Limits of Absolutism The Ottoman Empire Suleiman the Magnificent (1520 – 1566) Attacks against Europe Advances in the Mediterranean Ottomans viewed as a European Power New Offensives in the second half of the 17th century The Limits of Absolutism Power of rulers not absolute Local institutions still had power Power of the aristocracy

22 Map 15.6: The Ottoman Empire

23 The Golden Age of the Dutch Republic The United Provinces Internal Dissension The House of Orange and the Stadholders The States General opposes the House of Orange William III (1672 – 1702) Trade damaged by wars Life in Seventeenth-Century Amsterdam Reasons for prosperity

24 England and the Emergence of Constitutional Monarchy James I (1603 – 1625) and the House of Stuart Divine Right of Kings Parliament and the power of the purse Religious policies The Puritans Charles I (1625 – 1649) Petition of Right “Personal Rule” (1629 – 1640): Parliament does not meet Religious policy angers Puritans

25 Civil War (1642 – 1648) Oliver Cromwell New Model Army Charles I executed (January 30, 1649) Parliament abolishes the monarchy Cromwell dissolves Parliament (April 1653) Cromwell divides country into 11 regions Cromwell dies (1658)

26 Restoration & a Glorious Revolution Charles II (1660 – 1685) Declaration of Indulgence (1672) Test Act (1673) – Only Anglicans could hold military and civil offices James II (1685 – 1688) Devout Catholic Declaration of Indulgence (1687) Protestant daughters: Mary and Anne Catholic son born in 1688 Parliament invites Mary and her husband, William of Orange, to invade England James II, wife and son flee to France Mary and William of Orange offered throne (1689) Bill of Rights The Toleration Act of 1689

27 Responses to the Revolution Thomas Hobbes (1588 – 1679) Leviathan (1651) People form a commonwealth People have no right to rebel John Locke (1632 – 1704) Two Treatises of Government Inalienable Rights: Life, Liberty and Property People and sovereign form a government If government does not fulfill its duties, people have the right to revolt

28 The Flourishing of European Culture The Changing Faces of Art Mannerism and Baroque Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1598 – 1680)  Throne of Saint Peter Artemisia Gentileschi (1593 – 1653)  Judith Beheading Holofernes French Classicism and Dutch Realism French classicism emphasized clarity, simplicity, balance and harmony of design Dutch Realism: realistic portrayals of secular, everyday life  Rembrandt van Rijn (1606 – 1699)

29 The Baroque Trevi Fountain in Rome

30 A Wondrous Age of Theater Golden Age of Elizabethan Literature (1580 – 1640) William Shakespeare (1564 – 1614) The Globe Theater Lord Chamberlain’s Company Spanish Theater Lope de Vega (1562 – 1635) Wrote 1500 plays – about 1/3 survive French Theater (1630s to 1680s) Jean Baptiste Molière (1622 – 1673) The Misanthrope Tartuffe

31 Discussion Questions Why were so many women targeted during the witchcraft craze? How did the Thirty Years’ War affect the different participants? Was French absolutism truly absolute? Why or why not? What purposes did Versailles serve? How did Western ideas influence the reign of Peter the Great in Russia? What gains did Parliament make at the expense of the monarchy during the course of the seventeenth century? How did English political thinkers react to the the English revolutions? How did the art and plays that emerged after the Renaissance reflect the societies of their day?

32 Web Links The Museum of Witchcraft Chateau Versailles The Thirty Years War Homepage The State Hermitage Museum – St. Petersburg, Russia Thomas Hobbes Renaissance and Baroque Architecture Mr. William Shakespeare and the Internet National Drama: Spain to 1700


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