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15-1 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 15 Cultural Influences on Consumer Behavior CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 9e Michael.

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Presentation on theme: "15-1 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 15 Cultural Influences on Consumer Behavior CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 9e Michael."— Presentation transcript:

1 15-1 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 15 Cultural Influences on Consumer Behavior CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 9e Michael R. Solomon

2 15-2 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Objectives When you finish this chapter, you should understand why: A culture is a society’s personality; it shapes our identities as individuals. Myths are stories that express a culture’s values, and in modern times marketing messages convey these values.

3 15-3 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Objectives (continued) Many of our consumption activities including holiday observances, grooming, and gift giving are rituals. We describe products as either sacred or profane, and it’s not unusual for some products to move back and forth between the two categories.

4 15-4 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall What is Culture? Culture is the accumulation of shared meanings, rituals, norms, and traditions Culture is a society’s personality

5 15-5 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Discussion If your culture were a person, how would you describe its personality traits? Now, select another culture you’re familiar with. How would those personality traits differ from your own?

6 15-6 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Understanding Culture Products can reflect underlying cultural processes of a particular period: The TV dinner for the United States Cosmetics made of natural materials without animal testing Pastel carrying cases for condoms

7 15-7 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Functional Areas in a Cultural System Ecology Social structure Ideology

8 15-8 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Cultural Dimensions Power Distance Uncertainty Avoidance Masculine versus Feminine Individualism versus Collectivism Way members perceive differences in power when they form interpersonal relationships Degree to which people feel threatened by ambiguous situations Degree to which sex roles are clearly delineated Extent to which culture values the welfare of the individual versus that of the group

9 15-9 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Norms in Culture Enacted norms are specifically chosen Crescive norms are discovered as we interact Customs: norms handed down from the past that control basic behavior Mores: custom with a strong moral overtone Conventions: norms regarding the conduct of everyday life

10 15-10 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Discussion When you go out on a first date, identify the set of crescive norms that are operating. Describe specific behaviors each person performs that make it clear he or she is on a first date. What products and services are affected by these norms?

11 15-11 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Cultural Stories Every culture develops stories and ceremonies that help members make sense of the world Lucky rabbit’s foot Lucky numbers (e.g., 7) Magic remedies

12 15-12 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Myths Myths are stories with symbolic elements that represent the shared emotions/ideals of a culture Story characteristics Conflict between opposing forces Outcome is moral guide for people Myth reduces anxiety by providing guidelines

13 15-13 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Functions of Myths Metaphysical Cosmological Sociological Psychological Help explain origins of existence Emphasize that all components of the universe are part of a single picture Maintain social order by authorizing a social code to be followed by members of a culture Provide models for personal conduct

14 15-14 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Myths Abound in Modern Popular Culture Myths are often found in comic books, movies, holidays, and commercials Monomyths: a myth that is common to many cultures (e.g., Spiderman and Superman) Many movies/commercials present characters and plot structures that follow mythic patterns Gone With the Wind E.T.: The Extraterrestrial Star Trek

15 15-15 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Rituals Rituals are sets of multiple, symbolic behaviors that occur in a fixed sequence and that tend to be repeated periodically Many consumer activities are ritualistic Trips to Starbucks Sunday brunch

16 15-16 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Rituals and Brands Fortress brands are those that have become embedded in our ceremonies Consider these rituals: Getting ready for bed Checking Shaving Putting on makeup Do you use the same brands every time you perform the ritual?

17 15-17 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Table 15.1 Types of Ritual Experience Primary Behavior Source Ritual TypeExamples CosmologyReligiousBaptism, meditation Cultural ValuesRites of passage Cultural Graduation, holidays, Super Bowl Group LearningCivicParades, elections GroupFraternity initiation, office luncheons FamilyMealtimes, bedtimes, Christmas Individual Aims and Emotions PersonalGrooming, household rituals

18 15-18 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Ritual Artifacts Weddings Birthdays Graduations Ball games Awards ceremonies Holidays

19 15-19 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Specific Ritual Types Grooming rituals Gift-giving rituals Holiday rituals Rites of passage

20 15-20 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Grooming Rituals Transition from private to public self Transition from work self to leisure self Natural state to social world

21 15-21 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Gift-Giving Rituals Consumers procure the perfect object, meticulously remove the price tag, carefully wrap it, then deliver it to recipient Gift giving is a form of: Economic exchange Symbolic exchange Social expression Every culture prescribes certain occasions and ceremonies for giving gifts

22 15-22 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Stages of the Gift-Giving Ritual Gestation: giver is motivated by an event to procure a gift Structural event: prescribed by culture (e.g., Christmas) Emergent event: more personal Presentation: process of gift exchange when recipient responds to gift and donor evaluates response Reformulation: giver and receiver adjust the bond between them

23 15-23 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Holiday Rituals Holidays are based on a myth with a character at center of story Christmas St. Patrick’s Day Marketers find ways to encourage gift giving Secretaries’ Day and Grandparents’ Day Retailers elevate minor holidays to major ones to provide merchandising opportunities Cinco de Mayo

24 15-24 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Rites of Passage Rites of passage: special times marked by a change in social status Separation Liminality Aggregation

25 15-25 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Discussion Describe the three stages of the rite of passage associated with graduating from college. “Fraternity hazing is just a natural rite of passage that should not be prohibited by universities.” Do you agree?

26 15-26 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Sacred and Profane Consumption Sacred consumption: involves objects and events that are set apart from normal activities that are treated with respect or awe Profane consumption: involves consumer objects and events that are ordinary and not special

27 15-27 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Sacralization Sacralization occurs when ordinary objects, events, and even people take on sacred meaning Objectification occurs when we attribute sacred qualities to mundane items, through processes like contamination Collecting is the systematic acquisition of a particular object or set of objects

28 15-28 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Domains of Sacred Consumption Sacred places: religious/mystical and country heritage, such as Stonehenge, Mecca, Ground Zero in New York City Sacred people: celebrities, royalty Sacred events: athletic events, religious ceremonies

29 15-29 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Sacred Souvenir Icons Local products (e.g., regional wine) Pictorial images (e.g., postcards, photos) ‘Piece of the rock’ (e.g., seashells) Literal representations (e.g., mini icons) Markers (e.g., logo-oriented t-shirts)

30 15-30 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Desacralization Desacralization: when a sacred item/symbol is removed from its special place or is duplicated in mass quantities (becomes profane) Souvenir reproductions (Statue of Liberty) Religion has somewhat become desacralized Fashion jewelry Christmas and Ramadan as secular, materialistic occasions

31 15-31 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Summary A culture is a society’s personality. Myths are stories that express a culture’s values. Many of our consumption activities include rituals associated with holidays, grooming, rites of passage, and other events. Products may be sacred or profane and some may shift between the two categories.


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