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1Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Chapter 19 Shock
2Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Learning Objectives List the types of shock. Describe the pathophysiology of each type of shock. List the signs and symptoms of each stage of shock. Explain the first aid emergency treatment of shock outside the medical facility. Identify general medical and nursing interventions for shock. Explain the rationale for the medical/surgical treatment of shock. Assist in developing care plans for patients in each type of shock.
3Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Definition of Shock Inadequate tissue perfusion resulting in impaired cellular metabolism Deprives cells of essential oxygen and nutrients, forcing cells to rely on anaerobic (without oxygen) metabolism Less energy is produced and lactic acid, a by- product of anaerobic metabolism, causes tissue acidosis and subsequent organ dysfunction
4Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Hypovolemic Shock Inadequate blood volume to maintain the supply of oxygen and nutrients to body tissues Intravascular or circulating volume deficits can occur from external or internal losses Blood volume falls with excessive blood or fluid loss, inadequate fluid intake, or a shift of plasma from the blood vessels into body tissues/organs Causes of blood/fluid loss: hemorrhage, severe diarrhea or vomiting, excessive perspiration Excessive shift of plasma with pathologic states (burns, peritonitis, and intestinal obstruction)
5Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Cardiogenic Shock Occurs when heart fails as a pump Decreased myocardial contractility causes decreased cardiac output and impaired tissue perfusion Difficult to treat and usually results when diseased coronary arteries cannot meet the demand of the working myocardial cells Causes include conditions that result in ineffective myocardial cell function, such as dysrhythmias, cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, valvular disease, and structural disorders
6Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Obstructive Shock Physical impairment of adequate circulating blood flow Obstruction of the heart or great vessels either blocks venous return to the right side of the heart or prevents effective pumping action Causes: tension pneumothorax, pericardial tamponade, pulmonary embolus, abdominal distention, and aortic dissection
7Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Distributive Shock The problem is not loss of blood, but excessive dilation of blood vessels or decreased vascular resistance causing the blood to be improperly distributed Fluid pools in dependent areas of body and is not returned to the arterial circulation to supply critical cellular metabolic needs Complicated by increased capillary permeability; plasma leaks into interstitial compartment, decreasing intravascular blood volume
8Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Distributive Shock Anaphylactic shock A severe allergic reaction that results in the release of chemicals that dilate blood vessels and increase capillary permeability Fluid leaks out of capillaries into the tissues Pooling of blood in peripheral tissues and the shift of fluid out of the capillaries cause venous return and cardiac output to fall Allergic reaction also causes constriction of the bronchi and airway obstruction
9Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Distributive Shock Septic shock Hypotension unresponsive to fluid resuscitation along with metabolic acidosis, acute encephalopathy, oliguria, and/or coagulation disorders Pathogenic organisms (bacteria, fungi, viruses, rickettsiae) release toxic substances that cause blood vessels to dilate and decrease vascular resistance and increase capillary permeability Increased permeability: leakage of plasma proteins and reduced intravascular volume, preload, and cardiac output that contributes to inadequate tissue perfusion and oxygenation
10Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Distributive Shock Neurogenic shock Disruption in the nervous system affects the vasomotor center in the medulla Disrupted sympathetic nerve impulses result in vasodilation or loss of vascular resistance Signs and symptoms: pooling of blood in peripheral tissues with subsequent decreased venous return and cardiac output; bradycardia with hypotension Causes: injury or disease of the upper spinal cord, spinal anesthesia, depression of the vasomotor center from certain drugs
11Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Effects of Shock on Body Systems and Functions Respiratory system Tissue hypoxia and anoxia, respiratory failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) Acid-base balance Metabolic acidosis Cardiovascular system Myocardial depression, disseminated intravascular coagulation (widespread clotting caused by sluggish flow of acidic blood combined with bacterial endotoxins or clotting factors released by destruction of red blood cells)
12Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Effects of Shock on Body Systems and Functions Neuroendocrine system Release of catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine), mineralocorticoids (aldosterone and desoxycorticosterone), glucocorticoids (hydrocortisone), and antidiuretic hormone; decreased level of consciousness when cerebral blood flow falls Immune system Depressed immune response
13Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Effects of Shock on Body Systems and Functions Gastrointestinal system Decreased peristalsis, ischemia of intestinal submucosa, impaired liver function Renal system Reduced glomerular filtration, inadequate renal perfusion, tubular necrosis, renal ischemia
14Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Stages of Shock
15Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Early, Reversible, and Compensatory Stages Continued reduction in cardiac output triggers set of neural, endocrine, and chemical compensatory mechanisms in an effort to overcome the consequences of anaerobic metabolism and maintain blood flow to vital organs During this stage the following may occur: Activation of baroreceptors in the carotid arteries and the aorta stimulate the sympathetic nervous system Sympathetic stimulation: increased heart rate, constriction of peripheral blood vessels, and reduced blood flow to the kidneys, lungs, muscles, skin, and gastrointestinal (GI) tract
16Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Early, Reversible, and Compensatory Stages Events Decreased renal blood flow triggers the release of renin and a sequence of events that produces angiotensin II Adrenal cortex secretes aldosterone, which promotes sodium retention by the kidneys Antidiuretic hormone released by posterior pituitary, resulting in additional retention of water by the kidneys Falling blood pH and increasing arterial carbon dioxide detected by chemoreceptors in the carotid arteries, which stimulate the respiratory center Increased respiratory rate and depth help to eliminate excess carbon dioxide and normalize the blood pH
17Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Early, Reversible, and Compensatory Stages Symptoms Mental status Irritability, restlessness Blood pressure Normal or slightly decreased, decreasing pulse pressure, orthostatic hypotension Pulse Increased rate; may be thready (as a result of vasoconstriction) or bounding (caused by vasodilation) decreased rate (bradycardia) may be present in neurogenic shock due to loss of sympathetic stimulation Respirations Increased rate and depth
18Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Early, Reversible, and Compensatory Stages Urine output Decreased Skin Cool and pale Exception: warm and dry with septic shock Abdomen Decreased bowel sounds Blood glucose Increased Other Thirst
19Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Intermediate (Progressive) Stage Cause of shock is not corrected or if compensatory mechanisms continue without reversing the shock Neural, endocrine, chemical compensatory mechanisms begin to function independently and in opposition Systemic circulation continues to vasoconstrict in the attempt to maintain blood flow to vital organs Decrease in peripheral blood flow leads to weak or absent pulses and ischemia of the extremities Blood becomes more viscous or thick, causing clumping of red blood cells, platelets, and proteins Deprived of oxygen, cells resort to anaerobic metabolism and produce lactic acid, resulting in metabolic acidosis Depressant effect on myocardial cells
20Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Intermediate (Progressive) Stage Symptoms Mental status Listlessness, confusion Blood pressure Decreased; narrow pulse pressure Pulse Weak and thready, tachycardia, dysrhythmias Respirations Increased, deep, crackles present on auscultation
21Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Intermediate (Progressive) Stage Temperature Subnormal, except with septic shock Urine output Decreased; possible renal failure Skin Cold, pale, clammy, slow capillary refill, cyanosis Other Dry mouth, thirst, sluggish pupillary response, peripheral edema, and muscle weakness
22Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Irreversible (Refractory) Stage Irreversible changes in vital organs as compensatory mechanisms fail Tissue perfusion deteriorates, as blood remains pooled in the capillary bed where sluggish flow is further compromised by clumping and the formation of clots Coronary artery perfusion is reduced causing ischemia and dysrhythmias Cerebral ischemia occurs as a result of the decrease in cerebral blood flow Death is imminent Even patients who are resuscitated during this stage often die within a week or two
23Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Irreversible (Refractory) Stage Symptoms Mental status Loss of consciousness Blood pressure Systolic continues to fall; diastolic approaches zero Pulse Progressive slowing, irregular Respirations Slow, shallow, irregular Urine output Minimal Skin Cold, clammy, cyanosis
24Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Diagnosis Based on history and physical examination Tests and procedures that help establish type of shock, stage, and the cause Blood and urine studies, measurement of hemodynamic pressures, chest radiograph, ECG and continuous cardiac monitoring, pulse oximetry and arterial blood gases, and urine output
25Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. First Aid for Shock Outside the Medical Facility Treatment provided before medical care is available can have a significant effect on the chances of survival Healthy People 2010 objectives (2000): the necessity for increasing public awareness of how and whom to call for emergency assistance in addition to providing education concerning initial lifesaving procedures to be followed until arrival of emergency responders
26Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Oxygenation Brain cells begin to die after 4 minutes without oxygen, and oxygen consumption increases as delivery decreases in shock: poor prognosis Oxygen delivery such as increasing arterial oxygen saturation, hemoglobin, and cardiac output Supplemental oxygen may be used or mechanical ventilation may be necessary Paralytics, sedatives, and analgesics may be ordered to decrease oxygen requirements
27Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Fluid Replacement Normal saline is usually administered initially Subsequent fluids may include various crystalloids and colloids depending on situation Crystalloids provide replacement water and electrolytes for all fluid compartments Colloids remain in the vascular system and draw fluid into the bloodstream Especially important when large amounts of plasma proteins have been lost
28Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Pharmacologic Therapy Based on manipulation of the cardiac dynamics: contractility, preload, afterload, and heart rate No one drug will provide nutrients and oxygen to the cells; several agents assist in manipulation of the four circulatory components See the Drug Therapy table on pp
29Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Mechanical Management Management of shock may include the use of mechanical devices that assist in the restoration of cellular perfusion
30Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Figure 19-1
31Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Figure 19-2
32Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Nursing Care of the Patient in Shock
33Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Assessment Continuous monitoring of cardiac rate and rhythm; blood pressure; body temperature; hemodynamic values; respiratory rate, rhythm, and depth; and arterial blood gases Observe skin color; palpate for warmth and moisture Note pupil size, equality, and response to light Describe patients level of consciousness and response to commands, and assess reflexes Auscultate heart, lung, and bowel sounds
34Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Assessment Observe movement of the chest wall with respirations; inspect and palpate abdomen for distention Palpate for bladder distention, and note the appearance of urine and the hourly output Inspect the extremities for color, and palpate for peripheral pulses and edema Inspect IV infusion sites for pallor, swelling, or coolness that suggests extravasation
35Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Interventions
36Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Nursing Diagnosis The primary nursing diagnosis for all patients in shock is Altered Tissue Perfusion May be related to alteration(s) in circulating blood volume, myocardial contractility, blood flow, or vascular resistance
37Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Ineffective Tissue Perfusion Assessment must include all body systems If not corrected, shock eventually results in failure of all major organs
38Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Decreased Cardiac Output Administer intravenous fluids as ordered Assess for fluid volume deficit and excess Administer inotropic and antidysrhythmic agents as ordered; continuous cardiac monitoring Maintain adequate body heat Fever may be treated with acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
39Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Disturbed Thought Processes and Anxiety May be anxious, then confused and disoriented, and finally unconscious Remain calm; give simple explanations of what is being done Protect patient from constant, excessive noise and light Repeat orientation, instructions, and reassurance often In the presence of unconscious patients, remember that they may hear even when they cannot respond Continue to speak to the patient and beware of negative comments
40Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Deficient Fluid Volume Monitor for hypovolemia Tachycardia, hypotension, tachypnea, decreased urine output, and decreased central venous pressure and pulmonary artery pressure Administer intravenous fluids cautiously while assessing output of urine Assess for fluid overload Full, bounding pulse; dilute urine, increased respiratory rate; abnormal lung sounds; dyspnea; and edema
41Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Risk for Injury Related to changes in consciousness Related to therapeutic measures Antidysrhythmics can depress cardiac activity Anticoagulants can permit excessive bleeding Extravasation of vasopressors (drugs that raise blood pressure by vasoconstriction) can cause local tissue necrosis High risk for complications of immobility Personal hygiene may be limited by the patients tolerance of such activity
42Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Risk for Infection IV lines, indwelling urinary catheters, chest tubes, airways, ventricular assist devices, and other equipment provide avenues for infection in patient in shock Wash your hands thoroughly between patients Follow agency guidelines for care of IV and urinary catheters Use aseptic technique when inserting these devices, caring for insertion sites, and providing wound care Monitor for signs of infection When antibiotics are ordered, administer them on schedule to maintain a therapeutic blood level
43Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Ineffective Family Coping Be sensitive to the needs of the family for information and support Explain the nursing care and encourage them to ask questions Offer the services of a counselor or patient representative
44Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) Generalized inflammation that threatens vital organs Conditions that can lead to SIRS are shock, multiple transfusions, massive tissue injury, burns, and pancreatitis Effects are damage to the endothelium of blood vessels and a hypermetabolic state Increases capillary permeability; allows fluid to leak into body tissues Hypotension, microemboli, and shunting of blood flow compromise organ perfusion The hypermetabolic state is characterized by increased serum glucose, which eventually depletes carbohydrate, fat, and protein stores
45Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Diagnosis Diagnosis of SIRS is made when a patient manifests two or more of the following: Temperature less than 97° F (36° C) or more than 100.4° F (38° C) Heart rate more than 90 bpm Respiratory rate more than 20/min, or Pa co 2 less than 32 mm Hg WBC count less than 4000 cells/mm 3 or more than 12,000 cells/mm 3, or more than 10% immature (band) neutrophils
46Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. SIRS Manifestations Range from mild to severe Sepsis A patient has SIRS with a confirmed infection Advanced SIRS and failure of more than one organ Deterioration of cardiac, pulmonary, renal, and central nervous systems, liver, pancreas, and GI tract Thrombocytopenia may develop and progress to disseminated intravascular coagulation If three or more organs fail, the prognosis is very poor Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) More than one organ begins to fail
47Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Medical Treatment and Nursing Interventions Prevent and treat infection Monitor potential sites; assess for signs and symptoms Maintain strict asepsis with invasive procedures and equipment Exercise scrupulous hand washing Administer antimicrobials as ordered Administer enteral feedings as ordered to enhance perfusion of the GI tract
48Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Medical Treatment and Nursing Interventions Maintain tissue oxygenation Administer sedatives and analgesics as ordered to reduce oxygen requirements Monitor the patient on mechanical ventilation Administer drugs to improve cardiac output and tissue perfusion as ordered Plan care to minimize physical demands on patient Provide nutritional and metabolic support Provide enteral or parenteral nutrition as ordered Monitor blood glucose and weight
49Elsevier items and derived items © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. Medical Treatment and Nursing Interventions Support failing organs Mechanical ventilation for respiratory distress syndrome Replacement therapy for renal failure
Shock It is a sudden drop in BP leading to decrease cardiac output and decrease tissue perfusion. Symptoms and signs: Patient may or may not be conscious.
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